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Principles of Behavior Plus MySearchLab with Pearson eText -- Access Card Package,9780205987177
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Principles of Behavior Plus MySearchLab with Pearson eText -- Access Card Package

by ;
Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780205987177

ISBN10:
0205987176
Format:
Package
Pub. Date:
10/22/2013
Publisher(s):
Pearson

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--

Helps readers understand and appreciate behavior analysis

 

Since the first edition of Principles of Behavior, the authors have sought to address the unique needs of students. This title has been written so that students of all levels will benefit from a solid introduction to the principles of behavior. The authors have laid the ground work for behavior analysis through an exploration of experimental, applied, and theoretical concepts. Case studies and everyday examples help readers apply principles of behavior to real life.

 

MySearchLab is a part of the Malott/Trojan program. Research and writing tools, including access to academic journals, help students explore behavioral analysis in even greater depth. To provide students with flexibility, students can download the eText to a tablet using the free Pearson eText app.

 

0205987176 / 9780205987177 Principles of Behavior Plus MySearchLab with Pearson eText -- Access Card Package

Package consists of:   

0205239927 / 9780205239924 MySearchLab with Pearson eText -- Valuepack Access Card

0205959490 / 9780205959495 Principles of Behavior

 

Author Biography

IV style="mso-element: frame; mso-element-frame-hspace: 9.0pt; mso-element-wrap: around; mso-element-anchor-vertical: paragraph; mso-element-anchor-horizontal: column; mso-element-left: right; mso-element-top: .05pt; mso-height-rule: exactly">

Richard Malott, PhD, BCBA-D, has been teaching behavior analysis for 50 years, 3 at Denison University and now 47 at Western Michigan University, working with BA, MA, and PhD students. Originally, he taught an intro behavior-analysis course to 1000 students per semester, who produced 1000 lever-pressing rats per year. Now, his students only condition 230 rats per year, but they also do 130 self-management projects and provide 13,500 hours of training to autistic children each year.

 

Malott’s published research includes basic experimental work on schedules of reinforcement and stimulus control, and applied work on university instruction, organizational behavior management, self-management, and autism.

 

In 1974, Malott co-founded the Midwestern Association for Behavior Analysis, which evolved into the Association for Behavior Analysis International (ABAI). He has presented in 14 countries and has received two Fulbright Senior Scholar Awards. In 2002, he also received the Award for Public Service in Behavior Analysis from ABAI). In 2009, he was elected to become a Fellow of ABAI. And in 2011-2012, he served as president of ABAI. In 2012, he also received a Distinguished Teaching Award from Western Michigan University.

For more information, please see http://DickMalott.com. 

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

 

In this Section:

1. Brief Table of Contents

2. Full Table of Contents


 

Brief Table of Contents

 

 

Basic Behavioral Contingencies

Chapter 1:     The Reinforcer (Positive Reinforcer)   

Chapter 2:     Reinforcement (Positive Reinforcement)

Chapter 3:     Escape (Negative Reinforcement)  

Chapter 4:     Punishment (Positive Punishment)  

Chapter 5:     Penalty (Negative Punishment)  

Chapter 6:     Extinction (Following Reinforcement) and Recovery (Following Punishment)   

Chapter 7:     Differential Reinforcement and Differential Punishment   

Chapter 8:     Shaping   

 

Motivation

Chapter 9:     Unlearned  Reinforcers, Unlearned Aversive Stimuli, (Unconditioned Reinforcers, Unconditioned Punishers) and the Motivating Operation   

Chapter 10:   Special Motivating Operations   

Chapter 11:   Learned Reinforcers and Learned Aversive Stimuli (Conditioned Reinforcers and Conditioned Punishers)

 

Stimulus Control

Chapter 12:   Discrimination   

Chapter 13:   Complex Stimulus Control    

Chapter 14:   Imitation

 

Complex Behavioral Contingencies

Chapter 15:   Avoidance 

Chapter 16:   Punishment by Prevention (Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior-- DRO)

Chapter 17:   Ratio Schedules   

Chapter 18:   Interval Schedules   

Chapter 19:   Concurrent Contingencies   

Chapter 20:   Behavioral Chains and Differential Reinforcement of Low Rate   

 

Respondent Conditioning

Chapter 22:   Rule-Governed Behavior: Concepts  

Chapter 23:   Rule-Governed Behavior: Applications  

Chapter 24:   Rule-Governed Behavior: Theory

Chapter 25:   Pay for Performance   

Chapter 26A:  Sexuality (now on DickMalott.com)  

Chapter 26B:  Moral and Legal Control (now on DickMalott.com)    

 

Behavioral Stability Across Time and Space 

Chapter 27:   Maintenance

Chapter 28:  Transfer

 

Research Methods

Chapter 29:   Research Methods   

 

Jobs and Grad School

Chapter 30:   Jobs and Grad School (now on DickMalott.com)    

 


 

Full Table of Contents

 

Basic Behavioral Contingencies

Chapter 1:     The Reinforcer (Positive Reinforcer)   

Reinforcer

Behavior

Behavior Analysis

Behavior Analyst

Repertoire

Behavioral Intervention

Make Sure Your Assumed Reinforcer Really Reinforces

The Label “Autistic”

Biological Evolution and Reinforcers

 

Chapter 2:     Reinforcement (Positive Reinforcement)

Reinforcement Contingency

Behavioral Contingency

The “Noncontingent” Delivery of Reinforcers

The Delivery of Reinforcers Before the Behavior

Behavior Analysis vs. Bribery

Circular Reasoning and The Error of Reification

Medical-Model Myth

Circular Reasoning and the Medical-Model Myth

How to Talk About Behavior

Reinforce Behavior, not People

Reinforcer vs. Reinforcement

Comments on Reinforcement

 

Chapter 3:     Escape (Negative Reinforcement)

Aversive Stimulus

“Aversive” vs. “Adversive”

Escape Contingency

Reinforcement by the Presentation of a Reinforcer vs. Reinforcement by the Removal of an Aversive Stimulus

Undesirable Behavior Maintained by Reinforcement by the Removal of Aversive Conditions

Functional Assessment, Not Just a Quick Fix

Sick Social Cycle (Victim’s Escape Model)   

Learning without Awareness

Fear, Parsimony, and Elegance

Psychiatry vs. Psychology

Psychoanalysis vs. Behavior Analysis

The Toothpaste Theory of Abnormal Behavior

Positive and Negative Reinforcers and Positive and Negative Reinforcement

 

Chapter 4:     Punishment (Positive Punishment) 

Punishment Contingency

Escape vs. Punishment

Escape: Reinforcement by the Removal of an Aversive Condition

Punishment: Punishment by the Presentation of an Aversive Condition

Overcorrection

Sick Social Cycle (Victim’s Punishment Model)

Punishment and Reinforcement

Confusion between Punishment and Aggression

Dependent Variable and Independent Variable

Multiple-Baseline Designs

Informed Consent and Social Validity

Negative Reinforcement vs. Punishment

The Myth of the Ineffectiveness of Punishment

 

Chapter 5:     Penalty (Negative Punishment)  

Penalty Contingency

Response Cost

Time-out

Penalty vs. The Three Other Basic Behavioral Contingencies

The Law of Effect

Penalty and Reinforcement

Penalty, Response Cost, and Time-out

Reversal Designs

 

Chapter 6:  Extinction (Following Reinforcement) and Recovery (Following Punishment)  

Extinction Following Reinforcement

Extinction Bursts and Spontaneous Recovery

Extinction Following Reinforcement vs. Penalty Contingencies (Response Cost and Time-out)

Recovery from Punishment

Extinction vs. Satiation

Extinction and Recovery

Extinction after Reinforcement

Extinction after Escape Training

The Moral Necessity to Evaluate Interventions

Recovery From Punishment vs. Spontaneous Recovery From Extinction

Confounded Variables

Control Condition

 

Chapter 7:     Differential Reinforcement and Differential Punishment 

Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior (DRA)

Task Analysis

Response Dimensions

Response Classes

The Differential-Reinforcement Procedure

Differential Reinforcement vs. Reinforcement

Differential Punishment

Frequency Graphs

Control Group 

 

Chapter 8:     Shaping   

Shaping with Reinforcement

Differential-Reinforcement vs. Shaping with Reinforcement

Shaping with Punishment

Variable-Outcome Shaping

Fixed-Outcome Shaping vs. Variable-Outcome Shaping

Shaping vs. Getting in Shape

Shaping vs. Behavioral Chaining

 

Motivation

Chapter 9:  Unlearned  Reinforcers, Unlearned Aversive Stimuli, (Unconditioned Reinforcers, Unconditioned Punishers) and the Motivating Operation   

Unlearned Reinforcers and Aversive Stimuli

Deprivation and Satiation

The Effectiveness of Reinforcement Contingencies

The Effectiveness of Penalty Contingencies

Motivating Operations

The Reflexive Motivating Operation

The Nature of the Reinforcer or Aversive Stimulus

The Premack Principle

The Theory of Direct and Indirect Biological Relevance

 

Chapter 10:   Special Motivating Operations   

Aggression

Pain-Motivated Aggression

Extinction-Motivated Aggression

Subtle Aggression

Drug Addiction

Addictive Reinforcers

A Behavior-Analytic Theory of Aggression

 

Chapter 11:   Learned Reinforcers and Learned Aversive Stimuli (Conditioned Reinforcers and Conditioned Punishers)

How are Learned Reinforcers Learned?

Token Economy

Learned Aversive Stimuli

Extinction vs. the Unlearning of Learned Reinforcers and Learned Aversive Stimuli

Conditional Stimulus

Learned Reinforcers and Learning Language

Hedonic and Instrumental Learned Reinforcers and Aversive Stimuli

Proof of a Learned Reinforcer

Determining the Effectiveness of Tokens as Reinforcers

 

Stimulus Control

Chapter 12:   Discrimination   

Discrimination Training Based on Reinforcement (Positive Reinforcement)

Discrimination Training Based on Escape (Negative Reinforcement)

Discrimination Training Based on Punishment (Positive Punishment)

Reinforcement-Based Discriminative Stimuli vs. Punishment-Based Discriminative Stimuli

The Differential Reinforcement Procedure vs. The Stimulus-Discrimination Procedure

Differential-Punishment and Stimulus-Discrimination Procedures Using Punishment

Transfer of Training

Verbal Behavior (A.K.A. Language)

Prompts

Requirements for Effective Discrimination Training

Discriminative Stimulus vs. Before Condition

Discriminative Stimulus vs. Operandum

Discriminative Stimulus vs. Nondiscriminated Reinforcement Contingency

 

Chapter 13:   Complex Stimulus Control   

Stimulus Class, Stimulus Generalization, and Concept Training

Conceptual Control and Other Concepts

Discrimination vs. Generalization

Stimulus Dimensions and Fading

Response Shaping, Stimulus Fading, and Reinforcer Reduction

Stimulus-Generalization Gradients

Training with Intermittent Reinforcement

Testing in Extinction

Amount of Generalization vs. Amount of Discrimination

Science and Objectivity

Matching to Sample

Stimulus Equivalence

Equivalence Class vs. Stimulus Class

 

Chapter 14:   Imitation

Establishing Imitation

Generalized Imitation

Added vs. Built-in Contingencies for Imitation

The Importance of Imitation

How Do You Know if it’s Really Imitation?

Imitation as a Prerequisite to Learning Language

An Adequate Control Condition to Show Reinforcement

 

Complex Behavioral Contingencies

Chapter 15:   Avoidance  

Avoidance Contingency

Avoidance of an Aversive Condition

Avoidance-of-Loss Contingency

Escape vs. Avoidance

Cued Avoidance

Continuous-Response Avoidance

Noncued Avoidance

Avoidance of the Loss of a Reinforcer

Avoidance of an Aversive Condition vs. Punishment By the Presentation of an Aversive Condition

Differential Punishment vs. Differential Avoidance

Avoidance of Loss of a Reinforcer vs. Punishment by Removal of a Reinforcer

Warning Stimulus vs. Discriminative Stimulus

Cued Avoidance and Conditional Aversive Stimuli

Teleology

 

Chapter 16:   Punishment by Prevention (Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior-- DRO)

Punishment-by-Prevention-of-Removal Contingencies

Punishment-by Prevention-of-a-Reinforcer Contingencies

Prevention of the Presentation of a Reinforcer vs. Removal of a Reinforcer

The Four Basic Behavioral Contingencies and Their Prevention

Punishment by Prevention vs. Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO)

 

Chapter 17:   Ratio Schedules

Schedules of Reinforcement

Fixed-Ratio Schedules of Reinforcement

The Cumulative Graph

Variable-Ratio Schedules of Reinforcement

Ratio Schedules of Escape and Penalty

Ratio Schedules of Reinforcement and Punishment in Everyday life

Discrete-Trial Procedures vs. Free-Operant Procedures  

 

Chapter 18:   Interval Schedules   

Fixed-Interval Schedules of Reinforcement

Superstition in the Pigeon

Fixed-Time Schedules and Superstitious Behavior

Variable-Interval Schedules of Reinforcement

Extinction and Schedules of Reinforcement

Interval Schedules vs. Time Schedules of Reinforcement

Ratio and Interval Schedules of Reinforcement

The Relation Between Rate of Responding and Rate of Reinforcement

Intermittent Reinforcement and Resistance to Extinction

Resistance to Extinction vs. Response Strength

 

Chapter 19:   Concurrent Contingencies   

Concurrent Contingencies

Four Types of Concurrent Contingencies

Concurrent Contingencies and the Factors that Interfere with Language Learning

Biological Problems that Interfere with Language Learning

Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior

Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior vs. Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior

Symptom Substitution

Concurrent Contingencies of Reinforcement for Physically Incompatible Responses

Intervention (Treatment) Package

Concurrent Contingencies and the Matching Law

 

Chapter 20:   Behavioral Chains and Differential Reinforcement of Low Rate   

Behavioral Chains

Dual-Functioning Chained Stimuli

Forward Chaining

Total-Task Presentation

Backward Chaining

Differential Reinforcement of Low Rate (DRL)

Ways to Reduce or Eliminate Undesirable Behavior

The Motivating Operation

Nonchained Behavioral Sequences

DRL vs. FI

 

Respondent Conditioning

Chapter 22:  Rule-Governed Behavior: Concepts  

Ivan Pavlov

Respondent Conditioning

Respondent vs. Operant Conditioning

Respondent vs. Operant Pairing

Conditioning a Phobia

Higher-Order Respondent Conditioning

Respondent Extinction vs. Operant Extinction

Operant Treatment of Phobias

Systematic Desensitization

Respondent Conditioning of the Immune System

Stimulus Generalization in Respondent Conditioning

Conditioned Stimulus vs. Discriminative Stimulus

 

Chapter 23:  Rule-Governed Behavior: Applications  

Feedback vs. Praise

Information Alone Does Not Reliably Influence Behavior

Multiple Baselines

Reinforcement of Covert Behavior vs. Rule-Governed Behavior

The Shift from Rule Control to Contingency Control

The Reinforceable Response Unit

Why Analogs to Avoidance are not Direct-Acting Contingencies

 

Chapter 24:  Rule-Governed Behavior: Theory

How Do Rules Govern Our Behavior

Rule Statements as Verbal (Analog) Pairing Procedures

The Myth of the Cause of Poor Self-Management

The Small, But Cumulative, Outcomes

The Improbable Outcomes

The Truth About the Causes of Poor Self-Management

What’s Wrong With Small But Cumulatively Significant and Improbable Outcomes

Why Do We Miss Deadlines

The Secret of Performance Management

The Ineffective Natural Contingency

Effective Indirect-Acting Performance-Management Contingencies

An Analysis of Procrastination

An Interaction between the Probability and the Significance of the Outcome

Can We Build a World Free of Aversive Control

 

Chapter 25:  Pay for Performance   

Direct-Acting or Indirect-Acting Contingency

Why is this Rule-Governed Behavior

The Ever-Present Deadline

Analog to Reinforcement or Avoidance

The Rule Statement as a Verbal Analog to a Pairing Procedure

What Should You Do When Performance is Poor

The Three-Contingency Model of Performance Management

 

Chapter 26A:  Sexuality (now on DickMalott.com)  

Sexuality

I’m a Woman Trapped in a Man’s Body

A Man’s Moves

Transsexuality

Higher-Order Respondent Conditioning

Respondent Extinction and Operant Extinction

Transgenderism: A Case Study of Moral and Legal Control

Is the Behavior that Produces Sexual Reinforcers Learned or Innate?

Is Gender Behavior Learned or Innate?

Is the Reinforcing Value of Sexual Stimulation Learned or Unlearned (Innate)?

Is the Reinforcing And Punishing Value Of Different Sources Of Sexual Stimulation Learned Or Innate?

Other Data Suggesting Our Innate Sexual Flexibility

If Sexual Orientation Is Not Innate, Is It Chosen?

Evidence for Biological Determinism

Is Homophobia Learned or Innate?

Sexuality Definitions

To Intervene Or Not To Intervene

 

Chapter 26B:  Moral and Legal Control (now on DickMalott.com)    

Goal-Directed Systems Design

Contingencies for the Good Life

Five Philosophical Views Of Psychology

 

Behavioral Stability Across Time and Space 

Chapter 27:  Maintenance

The Myth of Perpetual Behavior and the Myth of Intermittent Reinforcement

Setting a Behavior Trap to Maintain Performance

Use Intermittent Contingencies to Maintain Performance

Maintain the Contingencies and You’ll Maintain Performance

Perpetual-Performance Contracting

What to Do after the Performance Manager Goes Home or after the Doctoral Student Finishes the Dissertation

 

Chapter 28:  Transfer

Transfer of Training

Reduce Stimulus Control and Increase Transfer

Stimulus Generalization is Not Enough

Could Rule-Governed Behavior Support Transfer of Training

Modification of a Child’s Multiple Behavior Problems

Rule-Governed Behavior in the Classroom

Training Jimmy to Self-Instruct

Training for Transfer of Training

Training for Covert Self-Instruction

Overall Summary of Maintenance and Transfer

Intervention Packages

 

Research Methods

Chapter 29:  Research Methods

Why Should We Do Behavior Analysis?

Save the World with Behavior Analysis

Understand the World with Behavior Analysis

How Should We Do Behavior Analysis?

How to Do a Functional Assessment

Should We Do Functional Assessment?

How Should We Evaluate Behavior Analysis? (Preliminaries)

Social Validity

Obtrusive and Unobtrusive Observation

Units of Measurement

Interobserver Agreement

Objectivity vs. Subjectivity in Technology

How Should We Evaluate Behavior Analysis? (Research Design)

Case Study

Simple Baseline Design

Reversal Design

Multiple-Baseline Design

Changing-Criterion Design

Alternating-Treatments Design

Generality of Results

Ethics  

 

Jobs and Grad School

Chapter 30:     Jobs and Grad School (now on DickMalott.com)     

Where Should I Go From Here?

Where Should I NOT Go From Here?

How Do I Find the Right Grad Programs?

What Are Some Good MA

and PhD Programs?

What Are Some Good MA Programs?

ABA Approved Programs

What Are Some Good International Programs?

What Degree Should I Get—BA, MA, EdS, MSW, or PhD?

MA Jobs

Where Can I Find a Job?

How Do I Get Into Grad School?

What Do I Do About a Low GRE?

The Timetable

 



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