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Principles of Biochemistry

by ; ; ; ;
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780130266729

ISBN10:
0130266728
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2006
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $172.40

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Summary

For one-semester introductory courses in Biochemistry. May be taught out of departments of chemistry, biology, or biochemistry. This concise, introductory text focuses on the basic principles of biochemistry, filling the gap between the encyclopedic volumes and the cursory overview texts. Widely praised in its previous edition for accuracy, currency, and clarity of exposition, the new edition has been thoroughly revised and updated to reflect recent changes in this dynamic discipline.

Table of Contents

PART ONE Introduction
Introduction to Biochemistry
3(22)
Biochemistry Is a Modern Science
4(1)
The Chemical Elements of Life
5(3)
Many Important Biomolecules Are Polymers
8(6)
Proteins
8(1)
Polysaccharides
9(1)
Nucleic Acids
10(2)
Lipids and Membranes
12(2)
The Energetics of Life
14(1)
Biochemistry and Evolution
15(1)
The Cell Is the Basic Unit of Life
15(1)
Prokaryotic Cells: Structural Features
16(1)
Eukaryotic Cells: Structural Features
17(4)
The Nucleus
17(2)
The Endoplasmic Reticulum and Golgi Apparatus
19(1)
Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
19(1)
Specialized Vesicles
20(1)
The Cytoskeleton
21(1)
A Picture of the Living Cell
21(2)
Biochemistry Is Multidisciplinary
23(2)
Appendix: The Special Terminology of Biochemistry
23(1)
Selected Readings
24(1)
Water
25(26)
The Water Molecule Is Polar
26(1)
Hydrogen Bonding in Water
27(1)
Ionic and Polar Substances Dissolve in Water
28(1)
Nonpolar Substances Are Insoluble in Water
29(2)
Noncovalent Interactions in Biomolecules
31(2)
Charge-Charge Interactions
31(1)
Hydrogen Bonds
31(1)
Van der Waals Forces
32(1)
Hydrophobic Interactions
33(1)
Water Is Nucleophilic
33(2)
Ionization of Water
35(1)
The pH Scale
36(1)
Acid Dissociation Constants of Weak Acids
37(3)
Buffered Solutions Resist Changes in pH
40(11)
Summary
43(1)
Problems
43(2)
Selected Readings
45(6)
PART TWO Structure and Function of Biomolecules
Amino Acids and the Primary Structures of Proteins
51(30)
General Structure of Amino Acids
52(3)
An Alternative Nomenclature
54(1)
Structures of the 20 Common Amino Acids
55(4)
Aliphatic R Groups
55(1)
Aromatic R Groups
56(1)
Sulfur-Containing R Groups
57(1)
Side Chains with Alcohol Groups
57(1)
Basic R Groups
58(1)
Acidic R Groups and Their Amide Derivatives
58(1)
The Hydrophobicity of Amino Acid Side Chains
58(1)
Other Amino Acids and Amino Acid Derivatives
59(1)
Ionization of Amino Acids
60(4)
Peptide Bonds Link Amino Acids in Proteins
64(2)
Protein Purification Techniques
66(3)
Amino Acid Composition of Proteins
69(1)
Determining the Sequence of Amino Acid Residues
70(3)
Protein Sequencing Strategies
73(4)
Comparisons of the Primary Structures of Proteins Reveal Evolutionary Relationships
77(4)
Summary
78(1)
Problems
79(1)
Selected Readings
80(1)
Proteins: Three-Dimensional Structure and Function
81(49)
There Are Four Levels of Protein Structure
83(1)
Methods for Determining Protein Structure
84(2)
The Conformation of the Peptide Group
86(3)
The α Helix
89(3)
β Strands and β Sheets
92(2)
Loops and Turns
94(2)
Tertiary Structure of Proteins
96(6)
Supersecondary Structures
96(1)
Domains
97(5)
Domain Structure and Function
102(1)
Quaternary Structure
102(2)
Protein Denaturation and Renaturation
104(3)
Protein Folding and Stability
107(5)
The Hydrophobic Effect
107(2)
Hydrogen Bonding
109(1)
Van der Waals Interactions and Charge-Charge Interactions
110(1)
Protein Folding Is Assisted by Chaperones
110(2)
Collagen, a Fibrous Protein
112(2)
Structures of Myoglobin and Hemoglobin
114(2)
Oxygen Binding to Myoglobin and Hemoglobin
116(5)
Oxygen Binds Reversibly to Heme
116(1)
Oxygen-Binding Curves of Myoglobin and Hemoglobin
117(2)
Hemoglobin Is an Allosteric Protein
119(2)
Antibodies Bind Specific Antigens
121(9)
Summary
124(1)
Problems
125(2)
Selected Readings
127(3)
Properties of Enzymes
130(32)
The Six Classes of Enzymes
131(2)
Kinetic Experiments Reveal Enzyme Properties
133(2)
Chemical Kinetics
133(1)
Enzyme Kinetics
134(1)
The Michaelis-Menten Equation
135(4)
Derivation of the Michaelis-Menten Equation
137(1)
The Meanings of Km
138(1)
Kinetic Constants Indicate Enzyme Activity and Specificity
139(1)
Measurement of Km and Vmax
140(1)
Kinetics of Multisubstrate Reactions
141(1)
Reversible Enzyme Inhibition
142(5)
Competitive Inhibition
143(2)
Uncompetitive Inhibition
145(1)
Noncompetitive Inhibition
146(1)
Uses of Enzyme Inhibition
146(1)
Irreversible Enzyme Inhibition
147(1)
Site-Directed Mutagenesis Modifies Enzymes
148(1)
Regulation of Enzyme Activity
148(7)
Phosphofructokinase Is an Allosteric Enzyme
149(1)
General Properties of Allosteric Enzymes
150(2)
Two Theories of Allosteric Regulation
152(2)
Regulation by Covalent Modification
154(1)
Multienzyme Complexes and Multifunctional Enzymes
155(7)
Summary
156(1)
Problems
156(3)
Selected Readings
159(3)
Mechanisms of Enzymes
162(35)
The Terminology of Mechanistic Chemistry
162(2)
Catalysts Stabilize Transition States
164(2)
Chemical Modes of Enzymatic Catalysis
166(4)
Polar Amino Acid Residues in Active Sites
166(1)
Acid-Base Catalysis
167(1)
Covalent Catalysis
168(1)
pH Affects Enzymatic Rates
169(1)
Diffusion-Controlled Reactions
170(4)
Triose Phosphate Isomerase
171(2)
Superoxide Dismutase
173(1)
Binding Modes of Enzymatic Catalysis
174(6)
The Proximity Effects
175(2)
Weak Binding of Substrates to Enzymes
177(1)
Transition-State Stabilization
178(2)
Induced Fit
180(2)
Lysozyme Binds an Ionic Intermediate Tightly
182(3)
Proposed Transition State for a Bimolecular Reaction
185(1)
Properties of Serine Proteases
185(12)
Zymogens Are Inactive Enzyme Precursors
186(1)
Substrate Specificity of Serine Proteases
187(1)
Serine Proteases Use Both the Chemical and the Binding Modes of Catalysis
188(4)
Summary
192(1)
Problems
193(2)
Selected Readings
195(2)
Coenzymes and Vitamins
197(34)
Many Enzymes Require Inorganic Cations
198(1)
Coenzyme Classification
199(4)
Metabolite Coenzymes
199(1)
Nucleosides and Nucleotides
200(2)
Vitamin-Derived Coenzymes and Nutrition
202(1)
Vitamin C: A Vitamin but Not a Coenzyme
202(1)
NADÅ and NADPÅ
203(4)
NAD Binding to Dehydrogenases
206(1)
FAD and FMN
207(4)
An FAD-Requiring Hydroxylase That Has a Unique Test for Its Proper Substrate
208(1)
Coenzyme A
209(2)
Thiamine Pyrophosphate
211(1)
Pyridoxal Phosphate
212(3)
Biotin
215(1)
Tetrahydrofolate
216(2)
Cobalamin
218(1)
Lipoamide
219(1)
Lipid Vitamins
220(2)
Vitamin A
220(1)
Vitamin D
221(1)
Vitamin E
221(1)
Vitamin K
222(1)
Ubiquinone
222(1)
Protein Coenzymes
223(1)
Cytochromes
224(7)
Summary
226(1)
Problems
227(3)
Selected Readings
230(1)
Carbohydrates
231(33)
Most Monosaccharides Are Chiral Compounds
232(4)
Cyclization of Aldoses and Ketoses
236(2)
Conformations of Monosaccharides
238(2)
Derivatives of Monosaccharides
240(3)
Sugar Phosphates
240(1)
Deoxy Sugars
240(1)
Amino Sugars
240(2)
Sugar Alcohols
242(1)
Sugar Acids
242(1)
Ascorbic Acid
243(1)
Disaccharides and Other Glycosides
243(3)
Structures of Disaccharides
243(2)
Reducing and Nonreducing Sugars
245(1)
Nucleosides and Other Glycosides
245(1)
Nodulation Factors Are Lipo-oligosaccharides
246(1)
Polysaccharides
246(5)
Starch and Glycogen
247(2)
Cellulose and Chitin
249(2)
Glycoconjugates
251(13)
Proteoglycans
251(2)
Decorin and Collagen
253(1)
Peptidoglycans
253(1)
Glycoproteins
254(4)
Summary
258(1)
Problems
259(2)
Selected Readings
261(3)
Lipids and Membranes
264(45)
Structural and Functional Diversity of Lipids
264(1)
Fatty Acids
265(4)
Trans Fatty Acids and Margarine
268(1)
Triacylglycerols
269(1)
Glycerophospholipids
270(2)
Sphingolipids
272(2)
Steroids
274(2)
Other Biologically Important Lipids
276(3)
Special Nonaqueous Techniques Must Be Used to Study Lipids
278(1)
Biological Membranes Are Composed of Lipid Bilayers and Proteins
279(3)
Lipid Bilayers
280(1)
Fluid Mosaic Model of Biological Membranes
281(1)
Lipid Bilayers and Membranes Are Dynamic Structures
282(3)
Three Classes of Membrane Proteins
285(2)
Membrane Transport
287(6)
Pores and Channels
288(1)
Passive Transport
289(1)
Active Transport
290(1)
Endocytosis and Exocytosis
291(1)
The Hot Spice of Chili Peppers
292(1)
Transduction of Extracellular Signals
293(16)
G Proteins Are Signal Transducers
294(1)
The Adenylyl Cyclase Signaling Pathway
295(2)
The Inositol-Phospholipid Signaling Pathway
297(1)
Bacterial Toxins and G Proteins
298(2)
Receptor Tyrosine Kinases
300(1)
Summary
301(1)
Problems
302(1)
Selected Readings
303(6)
PART THREE Metabolism and Bioenergetics
Introduction to Metabolism
309(31)
Metabolism Is the Sum of Cellular Reactions
309(4)
Metabolic Pathways Are Sequences of Reactions
311(1)
Metabolism Proceeds by Discrete Steps
312(1)
Metabolic Pathways Are Regulated
313(2)
Major Pathways in Cells
315(2)
Compartmentation and Interorgan Metabolism
317(1)
Thermodynamics and Metabolism
318(4)
Metabolic Pathways Are in a Steady State
319(1)
Free-Energy Change
319(1)
Equilibrium Constants and Standard Free-Energy Changes
320(1)
Actual Free-Energy Change, Not Standard Free-Energy Change, Determines the Spontaneity of Cellular Reactions
321(1)
The Free Energy of ATP
322(4)
The Metabolic Roles of ATP
326(3)
Phosphoryl-Group Transfer
327(1)
Production of ATP by Phosphoryl-Group Transfer
327(1)
Nucleotidyl-Group Transfer
328(1)
Thioesters Have High Free Energies of Hydrolysis
329(1)
Reduced Coenzymes Conserve Energy From Biological Oxidations
330(5)
Free-Energy Change Is Related to Reduction Potential
331(2)
Electron Transfer from NADH Provides Free Energy
333(1)
NADÅ and NADH Differ in Their Ultraviolet Absorption Spectra
334(1)
Experimental Methods for Studying Metabolism
335(5)
Summary
336(1)
Problems
336(1)
Selected Readings
337(3)
Glycolysis
340(32)
Glycolysis Is a Ubiquitous Pathways
341(4)
Elucidation of the Glycolytic Pathway
344(1)
Glycolysis Has 10 Enzyme-Catalyzed Steps
345(9)
Arsenate Poisoning
351(3)
The Fate of Pyruvate
354(2)
Metabolism of Pyruvate to Ethanol
355(1)
Reduction of Pyruvate to Lactate
355(1)
Free-Energy Changes in Glycolysis
356(1)
Regulation of Glycolysis
357(6)
Regulation of Hexose Transporters
357(2)
Regulation of Hexokinase
359(1)
Glucose 6-Phosphate Has a Pivotal Metabolic Role in Liver
359(1)
Regulation of Phosphofructokinase-1
360(1)
Regulation of Pyruvate Kinase
361(2)
The Pasteur Effect
363(1)
Other Sugars Can Enter Glycolysis
363(2)
Fructose Is Converted to Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate
363(1)
Galactose Is Converted to Glucose 1-Phosphate
364(1)
Mannose Is Converted to Fructose 6-Phosphate
365(1)
Formation of 2,3-Bisphosphoglycerate in Red Blood Cells
365(7)
Summary
366(1)
Problems
367(1)
Selected Readings
368(4)
The Citric Acid Cycle
372(27)
Entry of Pyruvate into the Mitochondrion
373(1)
Conversion of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA
373(4)
The Citric Acid Cycle Oxidizes Acetyl CoA
377(2)
The Citric Acid Cycle Can Be a Multistep Catalyst
379(8)
Three-Point Attachment of Prochiral Substrates to Enzymes
383(4)
Reduced Coenzymes Fuel the Production of ATP
387(1)
Regulation of the Citric Acid Cycle
388(3)
Entry and Exit of Metabolites
391(2)
The Glyoxylate Cycle
393(6)
Summary
396(1)
Problems
397(1)
Selected Readings
398(1)
Additional Pathways in Carbohydrate Metabolism
399(30)
Glycogen Degradation
400(2)
Glycogen Phosphorylase
400(2)
Metabolism of Glycose 1-Phosphate
402(1)
Glycogen Synthesis
402(2)
Glycogen Storage Diseases
403(1)
Regulation of Glycogen Metabolism
404(4)
Hormones Rgulate Glycogen Metabolism
404(1)
Reciprocal Regulation of Glycogen Phosphorylase and Glycogen Synthase
405(1)
Intracellular Regulation of Glycogen Metabolism Involves Interconvertible Enzymes
406(2)
Gluconeogenesis
408(4)
Precursors for Gluconeogenesis
412(2)
Lactate
412(1)
Amino Acids
412(1)
Glycerol
413(1)
Propionate and Lactate
413(1)
Subcellular Locations of Gluconeogenic Enzymes
414(1)
Regulation of Gluconeogenesis
415(2)
Glucose Is Sometimes Converted to Sorbitol
417(1)
The Pentose Phosphate Pathway
417(4)
Interconversions Catalyzed by Transketolase and Transaldolase
421(3)
Maintenance of Glucose Levels in Mammals
424(5)
Summary
426(1)
Problems
427(1)
Selected Readings
428(1)
Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation
429(33)
Superoxide Anions
430(1)
Cytochrome P450
431(1)
Hydrogenase and Fumarate Reductase
431(1)
Oxidative Phosphorylation in Mitochondria
432(2)
The Mitochondrion
434(1)
The Chemiosmotic Theory
435(3)
New Lipid Vesicles, or Liposomes
437(1)
The Protonmotive Force
438(2)
Overview of Electron Transport
440(3)
Complexes I Through IV
440(3)
Cofactors in Electron Transport
443(1)
Complex I
443(1)
Complex II
444(1)
Complex III
445(2)
Complex IV
447(2)
Complex V: ATP Synthase
449(3)
Active Transport of ATP, ADP, and P, Across the Mitochondrial Membrane
452(1)
The P/O Ratio
452(1)
Are Proton Leaks Functional?
453(1)
Aerobic Oxidation of Cytosolic NADH
453(3)
Regulation of Oxidative Phosphorylation
456(6)
Summary
456(1)
Problems
457(1)
Selected Readings
458(4)
Photosynthesis
462(28)
Photosynthesis Consists of Two Major Processes
463(1)
The Chloroplast
463(1)
Chlorophy II and Other Pigments Capture Light
464(3)
Light-Capturing Pigments
465(2)
Photosystems
467(1)
Electron Transport in Photosynthesis
467(6)
Electron Transport from PSII through Cytochrome bf
470(1)
PSI and Beyond
471(2)
Photoposphorylation and Cyclic Electron Flow
473(1)
The Dark Reactions
474(1)
Ribulose 1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase-Oxygenase
474(3)
The RPP Cycle
477(2)
Oxygenation of Ribulose 1,5-Bisphosphate
479(1)
Additional Carbon-Fixing Pathways
480(2)
The C4 Pathway Concentrates CO2
480(1)
Nocturnal CO2 Fixation
480(2)
Synthesis of Sucrose and Starch from RPP Metabolites
482(8)
Summary
485(1)
Problems
485(2)
Selected Readings
487(3)
Lipid Metabolism
490(40)
Absorption and Mobilization of Fatty Acids
490(6)
Absorption of Dietary Lipids
491(1)
Lipoproteins
492(1)
Our High-Fat Diets
492(3)
Storage and Mobilization of Fatty Acids
495(1)
Fatty Acid Oxidation
496(3)
Activation of Fatty Acids
496(1)
Transport of Fatty Acyl CoA into Mitochondria
496(1)
The Reactions of β-Oxidation
497(2)
ATP Generation from Fatty Acid Oxidation
499(1)
βOxidation of Odd-Chain and Unsaturated Fatty Acids
499(3)
Ketone Bodies Are Fuel Molecules
502(3)
Ketone Bodies Are Synthesized in the Liver
502(1)
Ketone Bodies Are Oxidized in Mitochondria
503(1)
Altered Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism in Diabetes
504(1)
Fatty Acid Synthesis
505(6)
Transport of Acetyl CoA to the Cytosol
506(1)
Carboxylation of Acetyl CoA
507(1)
The Reactions of Fatty Acid Synthesis
507(4)
Fatty Acid Elongation and Desaturation
511(1)
Regulation of Fatty Acid Oxidation
512(1)
Synthesis of Eicosanoids
513(1)
Synthesis of Triacylglycerols and Glycerophospholipids
514(4)
Search for a Replacement for Aspirin
515(3)
Synthesis of Ether Lipids
518(1)
Synthesis of Sphingolipids
518(4)
Lysosomal Storage Diseases
521(1)
Synthesis of Cholesterol
522(4)
Stage 1: Acetyl CoA Isopentenyl Pyrophosphate
522(1)
Isopentenly Pyrophosphate to Squalene
523(2)
Stage 3: Squalene to Cholesterol
525(1)
Other Products of Cholesterol Metabolism
525(1)
Lipids are Made at a Variety of Sites
526(4)
Acetyl CoA Is a Major Metabolite in Liver
526(1)
Summary
527(1)
Problems
528(1)
Selected Readings
529(1)
Amino Acid Metabolism
530(38)
The Nitrogen Cycle and Nitrogen Fixation
531(2)
Assimilation of Ammonia
533(4)
Ammonia Is Incorporated into Glutamate
533(1)
Glutamine Is a Nitrogen Carrier
534(1)
Regulation of Glutamine Synthetase in E. Coli
535(1)
How Some Enzymes Transfer Ammonia from Glutamine
535(2)
Transamination Reactions
537(2)
Synthesis of Nonessential Amino Acids
539(5)
Alanine, Asparagine, Aspartate, Glutamate, and Glutamine
539(1)
Serine, Glycine, and Cysteine
540(2)
Proline and Arginine
542(1)
Tyrosine
542(1)
Phenylketonuria, a Defect in Tyrosine Formation
543(1)
Synthesis of Essential Amino Acids
544(5)
Lysine, Methionine, Threonine, and the Branched-Chain Amino Acids
544(1)
Histidine
545(1)
Aromatic Amino Acids
546(3)
Protein Turnover
549(1)
Apoptosis---Programmed Cell Death
549(1)
Amino Acid Catabolism
550(1)
The Urea Cycle Converts Ammonia into Urea
550(5)
The Reactions of the Urea Cycle
552(1)
The Liver Is Organized for Removing Toxic Ammonia
553(1)
Ancillary Reactions of the Urea Cycle
554(1)
Catabolism of the Carbon of Amino Acids
555(8)
Alanine, Asparagine, Aspartate, Glutamate, and Glutamine
556(1)
Arginine, Histidine, and Proline
556(1)
Glysine and Serine
557(1)
Threonine
558(1)
The Branched-Chain Amino Acids
558(2)
Methionine
560(1)
Cysteine
561(1)
Phenylalanine, Tryptophan, and Tyrosine
561(1)
Lysine
562(1)
Diseases of Amino Acid Metabolism
562(1)
Renal Glutamine Metabolism Produces Bicarbonate
563(1)
Synthesis of Nitric Oxide from Arginnine
564(4)
Summary
565(1)
Problems
565(2)
Selected Readings
567(1)
Nucleotide Metabolism
568(31)
Synthesis of Purine Nucleotides
569(3)
Other Purine Nucleotides are Synthesized from IMP
572(2)
Synthesis of Pyrimidine Nucleotides
574(4)
The Pathway for De Novo Pyrimidine Synthesis
574(2)
Regulation of DE Novo Pyrimidine Synthesis
576(2)
CTP Is Synthesized from UMP
578(1)
Reduction of Ribonucleotides to Deoxyribonucleotides
579(1)
Methylation of DUMP Produces dTMP
580(4)
Free Radicals in the Reduction of Ribonucleotides
581(3)
Salvage of Purines and Pyrimidines
584(2)
Purine Catabolism
586(3)
Adenosine Has Hormone and Neurotransmitter Properties
587(2)
The Purine Nucleotide Cycle in Muscle
589(2)
Pyrimidine Catabolism
591(8)
Summary
591(1)
Problems
592(1)
Selected Readings
593(6)
PART FOUR Biological Information Flow
Nucleic Acids
599(33)
Nucleotides are the Building Blocks of Nucleic Acids
600(6)
Ribose and Deoxyribose
600(1)
Purines and Pyrimidines
601(1)
Nucleosides
602(2)
Nucleotides
604(2)
DNA Is Double-Stranded
606(8)
Nucleotides are Joined by 3'-5' Phosphodiester Linkages
607(2)
Two Antiparallel Strands Form a Double Helix
609(1)
Weak Forces Stabilize the Double Helix
610(3)
Conformations of Double-Stranded DNA
613(1)
DNA Can Be Supercoiled
614(1)
Cells Contain Several Kinds of RNA
615(1)
DNA Is Packaged in Chromation in Eukaryotic Cells
616(5)
Nucleosomes
617(2)
Histones Can be Acetuylated and Deacetylated
619(1)
Higher Levels of Chromatin Structure
619(1)
Bacterial DNA Packaging
620(1)
Nucleases and Hydrolysis of Nucleic Acids
621(6)
Alkaline Hydrolysis of RNA
621(2)
Ribonuclease-Catalyzed Hydrolysis of RNA
623(1)
Restriction Endonucleases
623(3)
EcoRI Binds Tightly to DNA
626(1)
Uses of Restriction Endonucleases
627(5)
Summary
629(1)
Problems
629(2)
Selected Readings
631(1)
DNA Replication, Repair, and Recombination
632(34)
Chromosomal DNA Replication Is Bidirectional
633(2)
DNA Polymerase
635(4)
Chain Elongation Is a Nucleotidyl-Group-Transfer Reaction
637(1)
DNA Polymerase III Remains Bound to the Replication Fork
637(1)
Proofreading Corrects Polymerization Errors
638(1)
DNA Polymerase Synthesizes Two Strands Simultaneously
639(5)
Lagging-Strand Synthesis Is Discontinuous
639(1)
Each Okazaki Fragment Begins with an RNA Primer
640(1)
Okazaki Fragments Are Joined by the Action of DNA Polymerase I and DNA Ligase
641(3)
Model of the Replisome
644(2)
Initiation and Termination of DNA Replication
646(1)
Sequencing DNA Using Dideoxynucleotides
647(2)
DNA Replication in Eukaryotes
649(1)
Repair of Damaged DNA
650(15)
Repair after Photodimerization: An Example of Direct Repair
651(1)
Excision Repair
652(13)
Homologous Recombination
665(1)
The Holliday Model of General Recombination
655(2)
Recombination in E. coli
657(1)
Recombination Can Be a Form of Repair
658(2)
Summary
660(1)
Problems
661(2)
Selected Readings
663(3)
Transcription and RNA Processing
666(34)
Types of RNA
667(1)
RNA Polymerase
668(2)
RNA Polymerase Is an Oligomeric Protein
668(1)
The Chain Elongation Reaction
669(1)
Transcription Initiation
670(6)
Genes Have a 5'→ 3' Orientation
671(1)
The Transcription Complex Assembles at a Promoter
671(2)
The σ Subunit Recognizes the Promoter
673(1)
RNA Polymerase Changes Conformation
674(2)
Transcription Termination
676(2)
Transcription in Eukaryotes
678(3)
Eukaryotic RNA Polymerases
678(1)
Eukaryotic RNA Factors
678(3)
Transcription of Genes Is Regulated
681(2)
The lac Operon. an Example of Negative and Positive Regulation
683(6)
lac Repressor Blocks Transcription
683(1)
The Structure of lac Repressor
684(2)
cAMP Regulatory Protein Activates Transcription
686(3)
Posttranscriptional Modification of RNA
689(2)
Transfer RNA Processing
689(1)
Ribosomal RNA Processing
689(2)
Eukaryotic mRNA Processing
691(9)
Eukaryotic mRNA Molecules Have Modified Ends
691(2)
Some Eukaryotic mRNA Precursors Are Spliced
693(5)
Summary
698(1)
Problems
698(1)
Selected Readings
699(1)
Protein Synthesis
700(35)
The Genetic Code
700(3)
Transfer RNA
703(3)
The Three-Dimensional Structure of tRNA
703(2)
tRNA Anticodons Base-Pair with mRNA Codons
705(1)
Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases
706(3)
The Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases Reaction
706(1)
Specificity of Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetase Reaction
706(3)
Proofreading Activity of Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases
709(1)
Ribosomes
709(3)
Ribosomes Are Composed of Both Ribosomal RNA and Protein
710(1)
Ribosomes Contain Two Aminoacyl-tRNA Binding Sites
711(1)
Initiation of Translation
712(3)
Initiator tRNA
712(1)
Initiation Complexes Assemble Only at Initiation Codons
712(1)
Initiation Factors Help Form the Initiation Complex
713(2)
Translation Initiation in Eukaryotes
715(1)
Chain Elongation Is a Three-Step Microcycle
715(5)
Elongation Factors Dock an Aminoacyl-tRNA in the A Site
716(2)
Peptidyl Transferase Catalyzes Peptide Bond Formation
718(2)
Translocation Moves the Ribosome by One Codon
720(1)
Termination of Translation
720(2)
Protein Synthesis Is Energetically Expensive
722(1)
Regulation of Protein Synthesis
722(6)
Ribosomal Protein Synthesis Is Coupled to Ribosome Assembly in E. coli
722(1)
Some Antibiotics Inhibit Protein Synthesis
723(1)
Globin Synthesis Depends on Heme Availability
724(1)
The E. coli trp Operon Is Regulated by Repression and Attenuation
725(3)
Posttranslational Processing
728(7)
The Signal Hypothesis
728(4)
Glycosylation of Proteins
732(1)
Summary
733(1)
Problems
733(1)
Selected Readings
734(1)
Recombinant DNA Technology
735(32)
Making Recombinant DNA
735(2)
Cloning Vectors
737(5)
Plasmid Vectors
739(1)
Bacteriophage β Vectors
739(2)
Shuttle Vectors
741(1)
Yeast Artificial Chromosomes as Vectors
741(1)
Identification of Host Cells Containing Recombinant DNA
742(2)
Selection Strategies Use Marker Genes
742(1)
Selection in Eukaryotes
743(1)
Visual Markers: Insertional Inactivation of the β-Galactosidase Gene
744(1)
Genomic Libraries
744(1)
The Human Genome Project
745(1)
cDNA Libraries Are Made from Messenger RNA
745(2)
Screening a Library
747(2)
Chromosome Walking
749(1)
Expression of Proteins Using Recombinant DNA Technology
750(3)
Prokaryotic Expression Vectors
750(1)
Expression of Proteins in Eukaryotes
751(2)
Applications of Recombinant DNA Technology
753(2)
Genetic Engineering of Plants
753(2)
Genetic Engineering in Prokaryotes
755(1)
Applications to Human Diseases
755(2)
The Polymerase Chain Reaction Amplifies Selected DNA Sequences
757(3)
Medical Uses of PCR
759(1)
Site-Directed Mutagenesis of Cloned DNA
760(7)
Summary
761(1)
Problems
761(2)
Selected Readings
763(4)
Solutions 767(54)
Illustration Credits 821(2)
Glossary 823(14)
Index 837


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