Introduction to HVAC Systems | p. 1 |

Systems and Definitions | p. 1 |

History of Air Conditioning | p. 3 |

Trends in Energy Use and Impact | p. 5 |

HVAC System Design and Operation | p. 7 |

Energy Costs | p. 11 |

Book Philosophy and Organization | p. 11 |

Units | p. 13 |

Summary | p. 14 |

| p. 14 |

System Analysis Techniques and the Use of EES | p. 15 |

Introduction | p. 15 |

Introduction to EES | p. 19 |

Common Problems Encountered when Using EES | p. 22 |

Curve Fitting Using EES | p. 26 |

Optimization Using EES | p. 29 |

Successful Problem Solving Using EES | p. 31 |

Summary | p. 34 |

Problems | p. 35 |

Thermodynamics and Fluid Flow in HVAC Applications | p. 39 |

Introduction | p. 39 |

Conservation of Mass | p. 39 |

Conservation of Energy | p. 41 |

Thermodynamic Properties of Pure Substances | p. 43 |

Thermodynamic Limits on Performance | p. 45 |

Thermodynamic Work Relations for Pure Substances | p. 47 |

Thermodynamic Relations for Fluid Flow | p. 48 |

Energy Loss Mechanisms in Fluid Flow | p. 54 |

Summary | p. 59 |

Problems | p. 59 |

Heat Transfer in HVAC Applications | p. 61 |

Introduction | p. 61 |

Conduction Heat Transfer | p. 61 |

Convection Heat Transfer | p. 67 |

Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer | p. 76 |

Transient Heat Transfer | p. 83 |

Combined-Mode Heat Transfer | p. 87 |

Summary | p. 923 |

Problems | p. 92 |

Psychrometries for HVAC Applications | p. 95 |

Introduction | p. 95 |

Moist Air Properties | p. 95 |

The Psychrometric Chart | p. 102 |

The Standard Atmosphere | p. 103 |

Determining Psychrometric Properties Using EES | p. 105 |

Psychrometric Applications | p. 109 |

Heat and Mass Transfer for Air-Water Vapor Mixtures | p. 126 |

Summary | p. 132 |

Problems | p. 133 |

Overview of HVAC Systems | p. 137 |

Introduction | p. 137 |

Overview of HVAC Systems and Components | p. 137 |

Energy Comparison Between CAV and VAV Systems | p. 144 |

HVAC System Performance Calculations | p. 145 |

ASHRAE Load Calculation Equations | p. 153 |

HVAC System Improvements and Alternatives | p. 156 |

Summary | p. 167 |

Problems | p. 167 |

Thermal Comfort and Air Quality | p. 171 |

Introduction | p. 171 |

Criteria for Occupant Comfort Inside Buildings | p. 171 |

Criteria for Indoor Air Quality | p. 179 |

Summary | p. 182 |

Problems | p. 183 |

Weather Data, Statistics, and Processing | p. 185 |

Introduction | p. 185 |

Design Temperature Parameters for HVAC Systems | p. 186 |

Ambient Temperature and Humidity Correlations | p. 190 |

Degree-Day Data and Correlations | p. 195 |

Bin Method Data | p. 200 |

Ground Temperature Correlations | p. 202 |

Solar Radiation Fundamentals | p. 205 |

Clear-Sky Solar Radiation | p. 213 |

Weather Records | p. 216 |

Summary | p. 219 |

Problems | p. 219 |

Components of Building Heat Loss and Gain | p. 221 |

Introduction | p. 221 |

Thermal Resistance and Conductance of Building Elements | p. 222 |

Heat Flow Through Opaque Exterior Surfaces | p. 225 |

Liquid Distribution Systems | p. 329 |

Introduction | p. 329 |

Head Loss and Pressure Drop in Liquid Distribution Systems | p. 329 |

Water Distribution Systems | p. 332 |

Steam Distribution Systems | p. 335 |

Pump Characteristics | p. 338 |

Heat Loss and Gain for Pipes | p. 340 |

Summary | p. 342 |

Problems | p. 342 |

Heat Exchangers for Heating and Cooling Applications | p. 345 |

Introduction | p. 345 |

Overall Heat Transfer Conductance | p. 347 |

Heat Exchanger Thermal Performance | p. 349 |

Heating Coil Selection Process | p. 355 |

Cooling Coil Processes | p. 361 |

Cooling Coil Performance Using a Heat Transfer Analogy | p. 362 |

Cooling Coil Selection Procedure | p. 368 |

Summary | p. 376 |

Problems | p. 376 |

Cooling Towers and Desiccant Dehumidification Systems | p. 379 |

Introduction | p. 379 |

Cooling Towers | p. 379 |

Cooling Tower Performance using an Analogy to Heat Transfer | p. 381 |

Cooling Tower Selection Procedure | p. 385 |

Desiccant Dehumidifiers | p. 388 |

Desiccant Dehumidification Systems | p. 393 |

Summary | p. 397 |

Problems | p. 398 |

Vapor Compression Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Systems | p. 401 |

Introduction | p. 401 |

Vapor Compression System | p. 401 |

Refrigerants | p. 407 |

Vapor Compression System Compressors | p. 412 |

Vapor Compression System Performance | p. 416 |

Alternative Vapor Compression System Concepts | p. 421 |

Summary | p. 429 |

Problems | p. 429 |

Heat Pump Systems | p. 433 |

Introduction | p. 433 |

Air Source Heat Pumps | p. 435 |

Ground Source Heat Pumps | p. 441 |

Water Loop Heat Pump Systems | p. 443 |

Summary | p. 444 |

Problems | p. 444 |

Thermal Storage Systems | p. 447 |

troduction | p. 447 |

Ice Storage Systems | p. 451 |

Chilled Water Storage Systems | p. 452 |

Cold Air Distribution Systems | p. 453 |

Building Thermal Storage | p. 454 |

Thermal Storage Control Strategies | p. 456 |

Performance Characteristics of Ice Storage Tanks | p. 460 |

Selection of Ice Storage Capacity | p. 466 |

Summary | p. 471 |

Problems | p. 471 |

Introduction | p. 523 |

Introduction to Optimal Operation of HVAC Systems | p. 525 |

Optimization Statement for All-Electric Cooling Plants Without Storage | p. 531 |

Model-based Optimization Procedure | p. 531 |

Quadratic Optimization Procedure | p. 533 |

Simplified Control Strategies for System Components | p. 536 |

Optimization Statement for All-Electric Cooling Plants with Storage | p. 544 |

Simplified Control Strategies for Systems with Storage | p. 545 |

Methods for Forecasting Building Loads | p. 548 |

Summary | p. 550 |

Problems | p. 551 |

Designing HVAC Systems | p. 555 |

Introduction | p. 555 |

Design Methodology | p. 555 |

Life-Cycle Cost | p. 562 |

Rules of Thumb | p. 564 |

Design Problems for the Students | p. 565 |

Problems | p. 566 |

Thermal Property Values | p. 573 |

Psychrometric Charts for Sea-Level Conditions | p. 575 |

Wall and Roof Property Data | p. 577 |

| p. 583 |

Nomenclature | p. 589 |

Index | p. 595 |

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