9780471720010

Principles of Plasma Discharges and Materials Processing

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780471720010

  • ISBN10:

    0471720011

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 4/14/2005
  • Publisher: Wiley-Interscience

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Summary

A Thorough Update of the Industry Classic on Principles of Plasma Processing The first edition of Principles of Plasma Discharges and Materials Processing, published over a decade ago, was lauded for its complete treatment of both basic plasma physics and industrial plasma processing, quickly becoming the primary reference for students and professionals. The Second Edition has been carefully updated and revised to reflect recent developments in the field and to further clarify the presentation of basic principles. Along with in-depth coverage of the fundamentals of plasma physics and chemistry, the authors apply basic theory to plasma discharges, including calculations of plasma parameters and the scaling of plasma parameters with control parameters. New and expanded topics include: * Updated cross sections * Diffusion and diffusion solutions * Generalized Bohm criteria * Expanded treatment of dc sheaths * Langmuir probes in time-varying fields * Electronegative discharges * Pulsed power discharges * Dual frequency discharges * High-density rf sheaths and ion energy distributions * Hysteresis and instabilities * Helicon discharges * Hollow cathode discharges * Ionized physical vapor deposition * Differential substrate charging With new chapters on dusty plasmas and the kinetic theory of discharges, graduate students and researchers in the field of plasma processing should find this new edition more valuable than ever.

Author Biography

MICHAEL A. LIEBERMAN, PhD, is Professor in the Graduate School in Electrical Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley. He has published more than 170 journal articles on the topics of plasmas, plasma processing, and nonlinear dynamics. He has also coauthored, with Professor Lichtenberg, Regular and Stochastic Motion and Regular and Chaotic Dynamics, Second Edition.

ALLAN J. LICHTENBERG, PhD, is Professor in the Graduate School in Electrical Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley. A respected pioneer in the fields of high-temperature plasmas, plasma discharges, and nonlinear dynamics, he has published about 150 articles in these areas. In addition to the books coauthored with Professor Lieberman, he has written an earlier monograph Phase-Space Dynamics of Particles (Wiley).

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
Preface to the First Edition xxi
Symbols and Abbreviations xxv
Physical Constants and Conversion Factors xxxiii
Practical Formulae xxxv
Introduction
1(22)
Materials Processing
1(5)
Plasmas and Sheaths
6(8)
Plasmas
6(5)
Sheaths
11(3)
Discharges
14(6)
Radio Frequency Diodes
14(4)
High-Density Sources
18(2)
Symbols and Units
20(3)
Basic Plasma Equations and Equilibrium
23(20)
Introduction
23(1)
Field Equations, Current, and Voltage
24(4)
Maxwell's Equations
24(4)
The Conservation Equations
28(7)
Boltzmann's Equation
28(2)
Macroscopic Quantities
30(1)
Particle Conservation
30(1)
Momentum Conservation
31(3)
Energy Conservation
34(1)
Summary
35(1)
Equilibrium Properties
35(8)
Boltzmann's Relation
37(1)
Debye Length
38(2)
Quasi-neutrality
40(1)
Problems
41(2)
Atomic Collisions
43(44)
Basic Concepts
43(6)
Elastic and Inelastic Collisions
43(1)
Collision Parameters
44(2)
Differential Scattering Cross Section
46(3)
Collision Dynamics
49(6)
Center-of-Mass Coordinates
49(3)
Energy Transfer
52(1)
Small Angle Scattering
53(2)
Elastic Scattering
55(8)
Coulomb Collisions
55(3)
Polarization Scattering
58(5)
Inelastic Collisions
63(15)
Atomic Energy Levels
63(4)
Electric Dipole Radiation and Metastable Atoms
67(3)
Electron Ionization Cross Section
70(2)
Electron Excitation Cross Section
72(1)
Ion--Atom Charge Transfer
73(5)
Ion--Atom Ionization
78(1)
Averaging Over Distributions and Surface Effects
78(9)
Averaging Over a Maxwellian Distribution
78(3)
Energy Loss per Electron--Ion Pair Created
81(1)
Surface Effects
82(1)
Problems
83(4)
Plasma Dynamics
87(46)
Basic Motions
87(6)
Motion in Constant Fields
87(3)
E x B Drifts
90(1)
Energy Conservation
91(2)
Nonmagnetized Plasma Dynamics
93(9)
Plasma Oscillations
93(2)
Dielectric Constant and Conductivity
95(2)
Ohmic Heating
97(2)
Electromagnetic Waves
99(2)
Electrostatic Waves
101(1)
Guiding Center Motion
102(8)
Parallel Force
104(1)
Adiabatic Constancy of the Magnetic Moment
105(1)
Drift Due to Motion Along Field Lines (Curvature Drift)
106(1)
Drift Due to Gyration (Gradient Drift)
107(1)
Polarization Drift
108(2)
Dynamics of Magnetized Plasmas
110(3)
Dielectric Tensor
110(2)
The Wave Dispersion
112(1)
Waves in Magnetized Plasmas
113(10)
Principal Electron Waves
115(3)
Principal Waves Including Ion Dynamics
118(3)
The CMA Diagram
121(2)
Wave Diagnostics
123(10)
Interferometer
123(3)
Cavity Perturbation
126(1)
Wave Propagation
127(2)
Problems
129(4)
Diffusion and Transport
133(32)
Basic Relations
133(3)
Diffusion and Mobility
133(1)
Free Diffusion
134(1)
Ambipolar Diffusion
135(1)
Diffusion Solutions
136(8)
Boundary Conditions
136(2)
Time-Dependent Solution
138(1)
Steady-State Plane-Parallel Solutions
139(3)
Steady-State Cylindrical Solutions
142(2)
Low-Pressure Solutions
144(5)
Variable Mobility Model
144(2)
Langmuir Solution
146(1)
Heuristic Solutions
147(2)
Diffusion Across a Magnetic Field
149(6)
Ambipolar Diffusion
152(3)
Magnetic Multipole Confinement
155(10)
Magnetic Fields
155(2)
Plasma Confinement
157(2)
Leak Width w
159(1)
Problems
160(5)
Direct Current (DC) Sheaths
165(42)
Basic Concepts and Equations
165(3)
The Collisionless Sheath
167(1)
The Bohm Sheath Criterion
168(7)
Plasma Requirements
169(1)
The Presheath
170(2)
Sheath Potential at a Floating Wall
172(1)
Collisional Sheaths
173(1)
Simulation Results
174(1)
The High-Voltage Sheath
175(3)
Matrix Sheath
175(1)
Child Law Sheath
176(2)
Generalized Criteria for Sheath Formation
178(6)
Electronegative Gases
179(3)
Multiple Positive Ion Species
182(2)
High-Voltage Collisional Sheaths
184(1)
Electrostatic Probe Diagnostics
185(22)
Planar Probe With Collisionless Sheath
187(2)
Non-Maxwellian Electrons
189(2)
Cylindrical Probe With a Collisionless Sheath
191(4)
Double Probes and Emissive Probes
195(3)
Effect of Collisions and DC Magnetic Fields
198(1)
Probe Construction and Circuits
199(2)
Probes in Time-Varying Fields
201(2)
Problems
203(4)
Chemical Reactions and Equilibrium
207(28)
Introduction
207(1)
Energy and Enthalpy
208(8)
Entropy and Gibbs Free Energy
216(5)
Gibbs Free Energy
219(2)
Chemical Equilibrium
221(5)
Pressure and Temperature Variations
224(2)
Heterogeneous Equilibrium
226(9)
Equilibrium Between Phases
226(3)
Equilibrium at a Surface
229(2)
Problems
231(4)
Molecular Collisions
235(50)
Introduction
235(1)
Molecular Structure
236(5)
Vibrational and Rotational Motion
237(2)
Optical Emission
239(1)
Negative Ions
240(1)
Electron Collisions With Molecules
241(12)
Dissociation
243(2)
Dissociative Ionization
245(1)
Dissociative Recombination
246(1)
Example of Hydrogen
247(1)
Dissociative Electron Attachment
247(3)
Polar Dissociation
250(1)
Metastable Negative Ions
251(1)
Electron Impact Detachment
251(1)
Vibrational and Rotational Excitations
252(1)
Elastic Scattering
253(1)
Heavy-Particle Collisions
253(12)
Resonant and Nonresonant Charge Transfer
255(1)
Positive--Negative Ion Recombination
256(2)
Associative Detachment
258(2)
Transfer of Excitation
260(2)
Rearrangement of Chemical Bonds
262(1)
Ion--Neutral Elastic Scattering
263(1)
Three-Body Processes
264(1)
Reaction Rates and Detailed Balancing
265(9)
Temperature Dependence
266(1)
The Principle of Detailed Balancing
267(3)
A Data Set for Oxygen
270(4)
Optical Emission and Actinometry
274(11)
Optical Emission
275(2)
Optical Actinometry
277(1)
O Atom Actinometry
278(1)
Problems
279(6)
Chemical Kinetics and Surface Processes
285(42)
Elementary Reactions
285(4)
Relation to Equilibrium Constant
288(1)
Gas-Phase Kinetics
289(10)
First-Order Consecutive Reactions
290(2)
Opposing Reactions
292(1)
Bimolecular Association With Photon Emission
293(2)
Three-Body Association
295(2)
Three-Body Positive--Negative Ion Recombination
297(1)
Three-Body Electron--Ion Recombination
298(1)
Surface Processes
299(12)
Positive Ion Neutralization and Secondary Electron Emission
299(4)
Adsorption and Desorption
303(5)
Fragmentation
308(1)
Sputtering
308(3)
Surface Kinetics
311(16)
Diffusion of Neutral Species
311(1)
Loss Rate for Diffusion
312(3)
Adsorption and Desorption
315(1)
Dissociative Adsorption and Associative Desorption
316(1)
Physical Adsorption
316(1)
Reaction With a Surface
317(1)
Reactions on a Surface
318(1)
Surface Kinetics and Loss Probability
319(1)
Problems
320(7)
Particle and Energy Balance in Discharges
327(60)
Introduction
327(3)
Electropositive Plasma Equilibrium
330(10)
Basic Properties
330(3)
Uniform Density Discharge Model
333(3)
Nonuniform Discharge Model
336(2)
Neutral Radical Generation and Loss
338(2)
Electronegative Plasma Equilibrium
340(10)
Differential Equations
342(3)
Boltzmann Equilibrium for Negative Ions
345(3)
Conservation Equations
348(1)
Validity of Reduced Equations
349(1)
Approximate Electronegative Equilibria
350(9)
Global Models
351(3)
Parabolic Approximation For Low Pressures
354(4)
Flat-Topped Model For Higher Pressures
358(1)
Electronegative Discharge Experiments and Simulations
359(10)
Oxygen Discharges
360(6)
Chlorine Discharges
366(3)
Pulsed Discharges
369(18)
Pulsed Electropositive Discharges
370(6)
Pulsed Electronegative Discharges
376(4)
Neutral Radical Dynamics
380(1)
Problems
381(6)
Capacitive Discharges
387(74)
Homogeneous Model
388(11)
Plasma Admittance
390(1)
Sheath Admittance
391(4)
Particle and Energy Balance
395(2)
Discharge Parameters
397(2)
Inhomogeneous Model
399(19)
Collisionless Sheath Dynamics
400(2)
Child Law
402(1)
Sheath Capacitance
403(1)
Ohmic Heating
404(1)
Stochastic Heating
405(1)
Self-Consistent Model Equations
406(4)
Scaling
410(1)
Collisional Sheaths
411(2)
Low and Moderate Voltages
413(1)
Ohmic Heating in the Sheath
413(1)
Self-Consistent Collisionless Heating Models
414(2)
Dual-Frequency and High-Frequency Discharges
416(1)
Electronegative Plasmas
417(1)
Experiments and Simulations
418(12)
Experimental Results
419(4)
Particle-in-Cell Simulations
423(5)
Role of Secondaries
428(1)
Implications for Modeling
429(1)
Asymmetric Discharges
430(4)
Capacitive Voltage Divider
430(2)
Spherical Shell Model
432(2)
Low-Frequency RF Sheaths
434(7)
Ion Bombarding Energy at Electrodes
441(7)
Magnetically Enhanced Discharges
448(4)
Matching Networks and Power Measurements
452(9)
Power Measurements
456(1)
Problems
457(4)
Inductive Discharges
461(30)
High-Density, Low-Pressure Discharges
462(8)
Inductive Source Configurations
462(2)
Power Absorption and Operating Regimes
464(2)
Discharge Operation and Coupling
466(3)
Matching Network
469(1)
Other Operating Regimes
470(7)
Low-Density Operation
470(1)
Capacitive Coupling
471(2)
Hysteresis and Instabilities
473(3)
Power Transfer Efficiency
476(1)
Exact Solutions
476(1)
Planar Coil Configuration
477(6)
Helical Resonator Discharges
483(8)
Problems
487(4)
Wave-Heated Discharges
491(44)
Electron Cyclotron Resonance Discharges
492(21)
Characteristics and Configurations
492(5)
Electron Heating
497(4)
Resonant Wave Absorption
501(6)
Model and Simulations
507(2)
Plasma Expansion
509(3)
Measurements
512(1)
Helicon Discharges
513(14)
Helicon Modes
514(3)
Antenna Coupling
517(3)
Helicon Mode Absorption
520(5)
Neutral Gas Depletion
525(2)
Surface Wave Discharges
527(8)
Planar Surface Waves
528(2)
Cylindrical Surface Waves
530(1)
Power Balance
530(2)
Problems
532(3)
Direct Current (DC) Discharges
535(36)
Qualitative Characteristics of Glow Discharges
535(4)
Positive Column
536(1)
Cathode Sheath
537(1)
Negative Glow and Faraday Dark Space
537(1)
Anode Fall
537(1)
Other Effects
538(1)
Sputtering and Other Configurations
539(1)
Analysis of the Positive Column
539(4)
Calculation of Te
540(1)
Calculation of E and n0
541(1)
Kinetic Effects
542(1)
Analysis of the Cathode Region
543(8)
Vacuum Breakdown
544(2)
Cathode Sheath
546(4)
The Negative Glow and Faraday Dark Space
550(1)
Hollow Cathode Discharges
551(8)
Simple Discharge Model
552(3)
Metal Vapor Production in a Hollow Cathode Discharge
555(4)
Planar Magnetron Discharges
559(5)
Limitations of Glow Discharge Sputtering Source
559(1)
Magnetron Configuration
560(1)
Discharge Model
561(3)
Ionized Physical Vapor Deposition
564(7)
Problems
568(3)
Etching
571(48)
Etch Requirements and Processes
571(8)
Plasma Etch Requirements
572(4)
Etch Processes
576(3)
Etching Kinetics
579(7)
Surface Kinetics
579(4)
Discharge Kinetics and Loading Effect
583(2)
Chemical Framework
585(1)
Halogen Atom Etching of Silicon
586(14)
Pure Chemical F-Atom Etching
587(2)
Ion Energy-Driven F-Atom Etching
589(3)
CF4 Discharges
592(4)
O2 and H2 Feedstock Additions
596(2)
Cl-Atom Etching
598(2)
Other Etch Systems
600(6)
F and CFx Etching of SiO2
600(2)
Si3N4 Etching
602(1)
Aluminum Etching
602(1)
Copper Etching
603(1)
Resist Etching
604(2)
Substrate Charging
606(13)
Gate Oxide Damage
607(1)
Grounded Substrate
607(1)
Nonuniform Plasmas
608(3)
Transient Damage During Etching
611(1)
Electron Shading Effect
612(1)
Radiofrequency Biasing
613(1)
Etch Profile Distortions
614(2)
Problems
616(3)
Deposition and Implantation
619(30)
Introduction
619(2)
Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition
621(9)
Amorphous Silicon
622(3)
Silicon Dioxide
625(4)
Silicon Nitride
629(1)
Sputter Deposition
630(4)
Physical Sputtering
630(2)
Reactive Sputtering
632(2)
Plasma-Immersion Ion Implantation (PIII)
634(15)
Collisionless Sheath Model
636(5)
Collisional Sheath Model
641(3)
Applications of PIII to Materials Processing
644(2)
Problems
646(3)
Dusty Plasmas
649(30)
Qualitative Description of Phenomena
649(2)
Particle Charging and Discharge Equilibrium
651(7)
Equilibrium Potential and Charge
651(5)
Discharge Equilibrium
656(2)
Particulate Equilibrium
658(4)
Formation And Growth Of Dust Grains
662(6)
Physical Phenomena And Diagnostics
668(5)
Strongly Coupled Plasmas
668(1)
Dust Acoustic Waves
669(1)
Driven Particulate Motion
670(1)
Laser Light Scattering
671(2)
Removal or Production of Particulates
673(6)
Problems
675(4)
Kinetic Theory of Discharges
679(44)
Basic Concepts
679(10)
Two-Term Approximation
680(1)
The Krook Collision Operator
680(1)
Two-Term Collisional Kinetic Equations
681(3)
Diffusion and Mobility
684(1)
Druyvesteyn Distribution
685(1)
Electron Distribution in an RF Field
686(1)
Effective Electrical Conductivity
687(2)
Local Kinetics
689(4)
Nonlocal Kinetics
693(6)
Quasi-Linear Diffusion and Stochastic Heating
699(7)
Quasi-linear Diffusion Coefficient
700(3)
Stochastic Heating
703(1)
Relation to Velocity Kick Models
704(1)
Two Term Kinetic Equations
704(2)
Energy Diffusion in a Skin Depth Layer
706(5)
Stochastic Heating
706(2)
Effective Collision Frequency
708(1)
Energy Distribution
709(2)
Kinetic Modeling of Discharges
711(12)
Non-Maxwellian Global Models
711(1)
Inductive Discharges
712(3)
Capacitive Discharges
715(4)
Problems
719(4)
APPENDIX A. COLLISION DYNAMICS
723(4)
Coulomb Cross Section
725(2)
APPENDIX B. THE COLLISION INTEGRAL
727(4)
Boltzmann Collision Integral
727(1)
Maxwellian Distribution
728(3)
APPENDIX C. DIFFUSION SOLUTIONS FOR VARIABLE MOBILITY MODEL
731(4)
References 735(14)
Index 749

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