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Principles of Sedimentology and Stratigraphy,9780130996961
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Principles of Sedimentology and Stratigraphy

by
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780130996961

ISBN10:
0130996963
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2006
Publisher(s):
PRENTICE HALL
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Summary

A text for the combined sedimentology/stratigraphy course, or can be used for separate courses, offered in the geosciences at the junior level and up. Covers processes that form sedimentary rocks, describes the important physical, chemical, biological and stratigraphic characteristics of these rocks and interprets depositional environments.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
Introduction xvii
PART I Origin and Transport of Sedimentary Materials 1(56)
Weathering, Soils, and Paleoclimates
3(22)
Introduction
3(1)
Subaerial Weathering Processes
4(6)
Physical Weathering
4(1)
Chemical Weathering
5(3)
Weathering Rates
8(1)
Products of Subaerial Weathering
9(1)
Submarine Weathering Processes and Products
10(2)
Soils
12(5)
Soil-Forming Processes
12(1)
Soil Profiles and Soil Classification
13(1)
paleosols
14(1)
Recognition of Paleosols
15(2)
Paleoclimates
17(6)
Paleoclimate Indicators
18(1)
Causes of Climatic Variations---Forcing Factors
19(1)
Influence of Climate on the Sedimentary Record
20(1)
Paleoclimate Modeling
21(1)
Major Paleoclimatic Patterns on Earth
22(1)
Concluding Remarks
23(2)
Further Reading
24(1)
Transport and Deposition of Siliciclastic Sediment
25(32)
Introduction
25(1)
Fundamentals of Fluid Flow
26(6)
Types of Fluids
27(1)
Laminar versus Turbulent Flow
28(2)
Reynolds Number
30(1)
Velocity Profile and Bed Roughness
30(1)
Boundary Shear Stress
31(1)
Froude Number
31(1)
Particle Transport by Fluids
32(14)
Particle Entrainment by Currents
32(3)
Role of Particle Setting Velocity in Transport
35(1)
Sediment Loads and Transport Paths
36(1)
Sediment Transport and Bedform Generation
37(6)
Transport by Wind
43(1)
Transport by Glacial Ice
44(1)
Deposits of Fluid Flows
44(2)
Particle Transport by Sediment Gravity Flows
46(11)
Turbidity Currents
47(6)
Liquiefied Flows
53(1)
Grain Flows
54(1)
Debris Flows and Mud Flows
55(1)
Further Reading
56(1)
PART II Physical Properties of Sedimentary Rocks 57(74)
Sedimentary Textures
59(29)
Introduction
59(1)
Grain Size
59(15)
Grain-size Scales
60(1)
Measuring Grain Size
61(3)
Graphical and Mathematical Treatment of Grain-size Data
64(8)
Application and Importance of Grain-size Data
72(2)
Particle Shape
74(9)
Particle Form
75(3)
Roundness
78(2)
Surface Texture
80(2)
Fourier Shape Analysis
82(1)
Fabric
83(5)
Grain Orientation
83(2)
Grain Packing, Grain-to-Grain Relations, and Porosity
85(2)
Further Reading
87(1)
Sedimentary Structures
88(43)
Introduction
88(1)
Kinds of Primary Sedimentary Structures
88(1)
Stratification and Bedforms
89(21)
Bedding and Lamination
89(8)
Ripples and Cross-Bedding
97(4)
Ripple Cross-Lamination
101(2)
Flaser and Lenticular Bedding
103(1)
Hummocky Cross-stratification
104(1)
Irregular Stratification
105(5)
Bedding-Plane Markings
110(16)
Markings Generated by Erosion and Deposition
110(3)
Markings Generated by Deformation: Load Casts
113(1)
Biogenic Structures
114(9)
Bedding-Plane Markings of Miscellaneous Origin
123(3)
Other Structures
126(2)
Sandstone Dikes and Sills
126(1)
Structures of SEcondary Origin
126(2)
Paleocurrent Analysis From Sedimentary Structures
128(3)
Further Reading
130(1)
PART III Composition, Classification, and Diagenesis of Sedimentary Rocks 131(122)
Siliciclastic Sedimentary Rocks
133(37)
Introduction
133(1)
Sandstones
133(15)
Framework Mineralogy
134(4)
Mineral Cements
138(2)
Chemical Composition
140(2)
Classification of Sandstones
142(1)
Sandstone Maturity
143(1)
General Characteristics of Major Classes of Sandstones
144(4)
Conglomerates
148(5)
Particle Composition
148(2)
Classification
150(1)
Origin and Occurrence of Conglomerates
151(2)
Shales
153(5)
Composition
154(1)
Classification
155(1)
Origin and Occurrence of Shales
156(2)
Provenance Significance of Mineral Composition
158(3)
Diagenesis
161(9)
Stages and Realms of Diagenesis
162(1)
Major Diagenetic Processes and Effects
163(5)
Further Reading
168(2)
Carbonate Sedimentary Rocks
170(39)
Introduction
170(1)
Elemental Chemistry
171(1)
Minearlogy
171(2)
Limestone Textures
173(6)
Carbonate Grains
173(4)
Microcrystalline Calcite
177(1)
Sparry Calcite
178(1)
Dolomite Textures
179(1)
Structures in Carbonate Rocks
179(2)
Classification of Carbonate Rocks
181(3)
Origin of Carbonate Rocks
184(17)
Limestone
186(3)
The Role of Organisms in Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate
189(6)
Dolomites
195(5)
Other Factors Affecting Early Dolomitization
200(1)
Diagenesis
201(8)
Regimes of Carbonate Diagenesis
201(2)
Major Diagenetic Processes and Changes
203(5)
Summary Results of Carbonate Diagenesis
208(1)
Further Reading
208(1)
Other Chemical/Biochemical and Carbonaceous Sedimentary Rocks
209(44)
Introduction
209(1)
Evaporites
210(8)
Composition
210(1)
Kinds of Evaporites
210(5)
Origin of Evaporite Deposits
215(2)
Diagenesis of Evaporites
217(1)
Siliceous Sedimentary Rocks (Cherts)
218(10)
Mineralogy and Texture
218(1)
Chemical Composition
219(1)
Varieties of Chert
219(1)
Bedded Chert
219(3)
Nodular Cherts
222(1)
Origin of Cherts
222(6)
Iron-Bearing Sedimentary Rocks
228(7)
Kinds of Iron-rich Sedimentary Rocks
229(1)
Iron-Formations
229(1)
Ironstones
230(1)
Iron-rich Shales
231(1)
Miscellaneous Iron-rich Sediments
232(1)
Origin of Iron Formations and Ironstones
232(3)
Sedimentary Phosphorites
235(8)
Composition of Phosphorites
236(1)
Characteristics of Phosphate Deposits
237(1)
Principal Kinds of Phosphorite Deposits
238(1)
Origin of Phosphorites
239(2)
Summary of Phosphorites Deposition
241(1)
An Alternate View
242(1)
Carbonaceous Sedimentary Rocks: Coal, Oil Shale, Bitumens
243(10)
Introduction
243(1)
Kinds of Organic Matter in Sedimentary Rocks
244(1)
Classification of Carbonaceous Sedimentary Rocks
244(4)
Oil Shale (Kerogen Shale)
248(2)
Petrodeum and Natural Bitumins
250(3)
Further Reading
253(1)
PART IV Depositional Environments 253(196)
Principles of Environmental Interpretation and Classification
257(10)
Concept of Environment
257(1)
Sedimentary Processes and Products
257(3)
Sedimentary Process and Responses
258(1)
Facies Associations
259(1)
Basic Tools of Environmental Analysis
260(2)
Classification of Depositional Environments
262(1)
Facies Models
262(5)
Definition of Models
263(1)
Types of Facies Models
264(1)
Construction and use of Models
265(1)
Further Reading
266(1)
Continental Environments
267(54)
Introduction
267(1)
Fluvial Systems
267(18)
Alluvial Fans
268(6)
River Systems
274(11)
Eolian Desert Systems
285(9)
Introduction
285(1)
Transport and Depositional Process
285(2)
Deposits of Modern Deserts
287(4)
Kinds of Eolian Systems
291(1)
Bounding Surfaces in Eolian Deposits
291(1)
Ancient Desert Deposits
292(2)
Lacustrine Systems
294(13)
Origin and Size and Lakes
295(1)
Sedimentation Processes in Lakes
296(3)
Characteristics of Lacustrine Deposits
299(4)
Recognition of Ancient Lake Deposits
303(1)
Examples of Ancient Lake Deposits
303(4)
Glacial Systems
307(14)
Introduction
307(1)
Environmental Setting
308(1)
Transport and Deposition in Glacial Environments
309(3)
Glacial Facies
312(1)
Continental Ice Facies
313(3)
Marine Glacial Facies
316(1)
Vertical Facies Successions
317(1)
Ancient Glacial Deposits
318(1)
Further Reading
319(2)
Marginal Marine Environments
321(57)
Introduction
321(1)
Deltaic Systems
321(22)
Introduction
321(3)
Delta Classification and Sedimentation Processes
324(9)
Physiographic and Sediment Characteristics of Alluvial Deltaic Systems
333(3)
Progradational and Transgressive Phases of Delta Development
336(2)
Recgnition of Ancient Deltaic Deposits
338(1)
Ancient Deltaic Systems
339(4)
Beach and Barrier Island Systems
343(13)
Introduction
343(1)
Depositional Setting
344(2)
Depositional Processes on Beaches
346(3)
Characteristics of Beach and Barrier-Island Deposits in Modern Environments
349(4)
Transgressive and Regressive Beach and Barrier-Island Deposits in the Geologic Record
353(3)
Estuarine Systems
356(7)
Introduction
356(1)
Physiography of Estuaries and lagoons
357(1)
Hydrologic and Sediment Characteristics
358(5)
Lagoonal Systems
363(4)
Ancient lagoonal Deposits
366(1)
Tidal-Flat Systems
367(11)
Introduction
367(2)
Depositional Setting
369(1)
Sedimentation Process
370(1)
Characteristics of Tidal-Flat Sediments
371(4)
Ancient Tidal-Flat Sediments
375(1)
Further Reading
376(2)
Siliciclastic Marine Environments
378(39)
Introduction
378(1)
The Neritic (Shelf) Environment
379(19)
Physiography and Depositional Setting
380(1)
Shelf Sediment Transport and Deposition
381(1)
Wave-and Storm-dominated Shelves
382(6)
Tide-Dominated Shelves
388(2)
Shelves Dominated by Intruding Ocean Currents
390(2)
Shelf Transport by Density Currents
392(1)
Effects of Sea-Level Change on Shelf Transport
392(1)
Biologic Activities on Shelves
393(1)
Ancient Siliclastic Shelf Sediments
393(5)
The Oceanic (Deep-Water) Environment
398(19)
Depositional Setting
399(2)
Transport and Depositional Processes to and within Deep Water
401(4)
Principal Kinds of Modern Deep-Sea Sediments
405(1)
Terrigenous Sediments
405(7)
Pelagic Sediments
412(1)
Chemical Sediments
413(1)
Ancient Deep-Sea Sediments
413(2)
Further Reading
415(2)
Carbonate and Evaporite Environments
417(32)
Introduction
417(2)
Carbonate Shele (Nonreef) Environments
419(13)
Depositional Setting
419(3)
Sedimentation Processes
422(2)
Skeletal and Sediment Characteristics of Carbonate Deposits
424(3)
Examples of Modern Carbonate Platforms
427(3)
Examples of Ancient Carbonate Shelf Successions
430(2)
Slope/Basin Carbonates
432(3)
Organic Reef Environments
435(7)
Modern Reefs and Reef Environments
435(4)
Ancient Reefs
439(3)
Mixed Carbonate-Siliciclastic Systems
442(1)
Evaporite Environments
442(7)
General Statement
442(1)
Modern Evaporite Environments
442(3)
Ancient Evaporite Environments
445(2)
Further Reading
447(2)
PART V Principles of Stratigraphy and Basin Analysis 449(237)
Lithostratigraphy
451(34)
Introduction
451(1)
Types of Lithostratigraphic Units
451(1)
Stratigraphic Contacts
452(6)
Contacts between Conformable Strata
454(1)
Contacts Between Laterally Adjacent Lithosomes
454(1)
Unconformable Contacts
455(3)
Vertical and Lateral Successions of Strata
458(11)
Nature of Vertical Successions
458(1)
Cyclic Successions
458(5)
Sedimentary Facies
463(1)
Walthers Law of Succession of Facies
464(4)
Effects of Climate and Sea Level on Sedimentation Patterns
468(1)
Nomenclature and Classification of Lithostratigraphic Units
469(4)
Development of the Stratigraphic Code
470(1)
Major Types of Stratigraphic Units
470(1)
Formal Lithostratigraphic Units
471(2)
Correlation of Lithostratigraphic Units
473(12)
Introduction
473(1)
Definition of Correlation
474(2)
Lithocorrelation
476(8)
Further Reading
484(1)
Seismic Stratigraphy
485(25)
Introduction
485(1)
Early Development of Seismic Methods
485(1)
Principles of Reflection Seismic Methods
486(4)
On-Land Surveying
486(2)
Marine Seismic Surveying
488(2)
Application of Reflection Seismic Methods to Stratigraphic Analysis
490(18)
Parameters Used in Seismic Stratigraphic Interpretation
491(8)
Procedures in Seismic Stratigraphic Analysis
499(3)
Identification of Depositional Sequences
502(6)
Correlation by Seismic Events
508(1)
Nomenclature and Classification of Seismic Stratigraphic Units
508(2)
Further Reading
509(1)
Sequence Stratigraphy
510(15)
Introduction
510(1)
Fundamental Concepts of Sequences Stratigraphy
511(5)
Methods and Applications of Sequence Stratigraphy
516(2)
Methods
516(1)
Range of Environmental Application
517(1)
Global Sea-Level Analysis
518(5)
General Principles
518(3)
The Reliability of Sea-Level Analysis from Sequence-Stratigraphic Data
521(2)
Concluding Remarks
523(2)
Further Reading
524(1)
Magnetostratigraphy
525(22)
Introduction
525(2)
Sampling, Measuring, and Displaying Remanent Magnetism
527(2)
Development of the Magnetic Polarity Time Scale
529(9)
Nomenclature and Classification of Magnetostratigraphic Units
538(3)
Applications of Magnetostratigraphy and Paleomagnetism
541(6)
Correlation
541(2)
Geochronology
543(2)
Paleoclimatology
545(1)
Other Applications of Paleomagnetism
545(1)
Further Reading
546(1)
Biostratigraphy
547(34)
Introduction
547(2)
Fossils as a Basis for Stratigraphic Subdivision
549(3)
Principle of Faunal Succession
549(1)
Concept of Stage
549(1)
Concept of Zone
550(2)
Biostratigraphic Units
552(3)
Principal Categories of Zones
552(3)
Rank of Biostratigraphic Units
555(1)
Naming Biostratigraphic Units
555(1)
The Basis for Biostratigraphic Zonation: Changes in Organisms Through time
555(9)
Evlution
555(1)
Taxonomic Classification and Importance of Species
556(1)
Changes in Species through Time
556(2)
Models and Rates of Evolution
558(6)
Distribution of Organims in Space: Paleobiogrography
564(5)
Disperasl of Organisms
564(3)
Barriers to Dispersal
567(2)
Combined Effects of the Distribution of Organisms in Time and Space
569(1)
Biocorrelation
570(11)
Correlation by Assemblage Zones
571(1)
Correlation by Abundance Zones
572(1)
Chronocorrelation by Fossils
573(1)
Correlation by Biologic Interval Zones
573(5)
Correlation by Biogeographical Abundance Zones
578(2)
Further Reading
580(1)
Chronostratigraphy and Geologic Time
581(38)
Introduction
581(1)
Geologic Time Units
581(3)
The Geologic Time Scale
584(5)
Purpose and Scope
584(1)
Development of the Geologic Time Scale
584(5)
Calibrating the Geologic Time Scale
589(12)
Calibrating the Geologic Time Scale by Fossils: Biochronology
590(2)
Calibrating by Absolute Ages: Radiochronology
592(9)
Chronocorrelation
601(18)
Event Correlation and Event Stratigraphy
602(5)
Correlation by Stable Isotope Events
607(10)
Problems with Isotopic Chronocorrelation
617(1)
Further Reading
617(2)
Basin Analysis, Tectonics, and Sedimentation
619(67)
Introduction
619(1)
Mechanisms of Basin Formation (Subsidence)
620(1)
Kinds of Sedimentary Basins
621(11)
Intracratonic Basins
622(1)
Rifts
623(2)
Aulacogens
625(1)
Continental Rises and Terraces
625(3)
Intraplate Basins Floored by Oceanic Crust
628(1)
Subduction-related Basins
628(1)
Strike-Slip/Transform-Fault-Related Settings
629(1)
Collision-related Settings
629(3)
Sedimentary Basin Fill
632(1)
Techniques of Basin Analysis
633(8)
Measuring Stratigraphic Sections
633(1)
Preparation of Stratigraphic Maps and Cross Sections
634(5)
Paleocurrent Analysis and Paleocurrent Maps
639(1)
Siliciclastic Petrofacies (Provenance) Studies
639(1)
Geophysial Studies
640(1)
Applications of Basin Analysis
641(4)
Interpreting Geologic History
641(2)
Economic Applications
643(2)
Relationship of Tectonics and Sedimentation
645(2)
Further Reading
646(1)
Appendices
Appendix A Shields Diagram
647(2)
Appendix B North American Stratigraphic Code
649(27)
Appendix C Nomenclature of Chronostratigraphic Units
676(4)
Appendix D Major Kinds of Sedimentary Basins and their Tectonic Settings
680(2)
Appendix E Web Sites Pertaining to Sedimentology and Stratigraphy
682(4)
Bibliography 686(33)
Index 719


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