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Principles of Sedimentology and Stratigraphy,9780131547285
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Principles of Sedimentology and Stratigraphy

by
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780131547285

ISBN10:
0131547283
Media:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2006
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $177.40
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Summary

A concise treatment of the fundamental principles of sedimentology and stratigraphy, featuring the important physical, chemical, biological and stratigraphic characteristics of sedimentary rocks. Emphasized are the ways in which the study of sedimentary rocks is used to interpret depositional environments, changes in ancient sea level, and other intriguing aspects of Earth history.Topics include the origin and transport of sedimentary materials; physical properties of sedimentary rocks; composition, classification and diagenesis of sedimentary rocks and principles of stratigraphy and basin analysis.For individuals interested in one text providing comprehensive coverage of both sedimentology and stratigraphy.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
Introduction xvii
PART I Origin and Transport of Sedimentary Materials
1(48)
Weathering and Soils
3(18)
Introduction
3(1)
Subaerial Weathering Processes
4(9)
Physical Weathering
4(3)
Chemical Weathering
7(3)
Weathering Rates
10(1)
Products of Subaerial Weathering
11(2)
Submarine Weathering Processes and Products
13(2)
Soils
15(4)
Soil-Forming Processes
15(1)
Soil Profiles and Soil Classification
16(1)
Paleosols
17(1)
Recognition of Paleosols
17(2)
Concluding Remarks
19(1)
Further Reading
20(1)
Transport and Deposition of Siliciclastic Sediment
21(28)
Introduction
21(1)
Fundamentals of Fluid Flow
22(5)
Laminar versus Turbulent Flow
24(1)
Reynolds Number
25(1)
Boundary Layers and Velocity Profiles
25(2)
Froude Number
27(1)
Particle Transport by Fluids
27(9)
Particle Entrainment by Currents
28(3)
Role of Particle Settling Velocity in Transport
31(2)
Sediment Loads and Transport Paths
33(1)
Transport by Wind
34(1)
Transport by Glacial Ice
35(1)
Deposits of Fluid Flows
35(1)
Particle Transport by Sediment Gravity Flows
36(13)
Turbidity Currents
38(5)
Liquefied Flows
43(1)
Grain Flows
44(1)
Debris Flows and Mud Flows
45(2)
Further Reading
47(2)
PART II Physical Properties of Sedimentary Rocks
49(68)
Sedimentary Textures
51(23)
Introduction
51(1)
Grain Size
51(14)
Grain-Size Scales
52(1)
Measuring Grain Size
52(3)
Graphical and Mathematical Treatment of Grain-Size Data
55(6)
Application and Importance of Grain-Size Data
61(4)
Particle Shape
65(5)
Particle Form (Sphericity)
65(1)
Particle Roundness
66(1)
Fourier Shape Analysis
66(1)
Significance of Particle Shape
67(1)
Surface Texture
68(2)
Fabric
70(4)
Grain Orientation
70(1)
Grain Packing, Grain-to-Grain Relations, and Porosity
71(2)
Further Reading
73(1)
Sedimentary Structures
74(43)
Introduction
74(1)
Kinds of Primary Sedimentary Structures
75(1)
Stratification and Bedforms
76(22)
Bedding and Lamination
76(5)
Bedforms
81(6)
Cross-Stratification Structures
87(7)
Irregular Stratification
94(4)
Bedding-Plane Markings
98(16)
Markings Generated by Erosion and Deposition
98(1)
Markings Generated by Erosion and Deposition
98(3)
Markings' Generated by Deformation: Load Casts
101(1)
Biogenic Structures
102(10)
Bedding-Plane Markings of Miscellaneous Origin
112(2)
Other Structures
114(1)
Paleocurrent Analysis from Sedimentary Structures
114(3)
Further Reading
116(1)
PART III Composition, Classification, and Diagenesis of Sedimentary Rocks
117(124)
Siliciclastic Sedimentary Rocks
119(40)
Introduction
119(1)
Sandstones
119(16)
Framework Mineralogy
120(5)
Mineral Cements
125(1)
Matrix Minerals
126(1)
Chemical Composition
126(1)
Classification of Sandstones
127(3)
Sandstone Maturity
130(1)
General Characteristics of Major Classes of Sandstones
131(4)
Conglomerates
135(4)
Particle Composition
135(1)
Classification
136(1)
Origin and Occurrence of Conglomerates
137(2)
Shales (Mudrocks)
139(6)
Composition
140(3)
Classification
143(1)
Origin and Occurrence of Shales (Mudrocks)
144(1)
Diagenesis of Siliciclastic Sedimentary Rocks
145(9)
Stages and Realms of Diagenesis
146(1)
Major Diagenetic Processes and Effects
147(7)
Provenance Significance of Mineral Composition
154(5)
Further Reading
157(2)
Carbonate Sedimentary Rocks
159(38)
Introduction
159(1)
Chemistry and Mineralogy
160(1)
Limestone Textures
161(6)
Carbonate Grains
162(4)
Microcrystalline Calcite
166(1)
Sparry Calcite
166(1)
Dolomite Textures
167(1)
Structures in Carbonate Rocks
168(1)
Classification of Carbonate Rocks
169(3)
Origin of Carbonate Rocks
172(16)
Limestones
174(8)
Dolomite
182(6)
Diagenesis
188(9)
Regimes of Carbonate Diagenesis
189(1)
Major Diagenetic Processes and Changes
190(5)
Summary Results of Carbonate Diagenesis
195(1)
Further Reading
196(1)
Other Chemical/Biochemical and Carbonaceous Sedimentary Rocks
197(44)
Introduction
197(1)
Evaporites
198(8)
Introduction
198(1)
Kinds of Evaporites
199(4)
Origin of Evaporite Deposits
203(3)
Diagenesis of Evaporites
206(1)
Siliceous Sedimentary Rocks (Cherts)
206(11)
Introduction
206(1)
Varieties of Chert
207(4)
Origin of Chert
211(6)
Iron-Bearing Sedimentary Rocks
217(6)
Introduction
217(1)
Kinds of Iron-Rich Sedimentary Rocks
217(4)
Origin of Iron Formations and Ironstones
221(2)
Sedimentary Phosphorites
223(6)
Introduction
223(1)
Mineralogy and Chemistry
224(1)
Distinguishing Characteristics
225(1)
Principal Kinds of Phosphorite Deposits
226(1)
Origin of Phosphorites
227(1)
Summary of Phosphorite Deposition
228(1)
Carbonaceous Sedimentary Rocks: Coal, Oil Shale, Bitumens
229(12)
Introduction
229(1)
Kinds of Organic Matter in Sedimentary Rocks
230(1)
Classification of Carbonaceous Sedimentary Rocks
230(9)
Further Reading
239(2)
PART IV Depositional Environments
241(156)
Continental (Terrestrial) Environments
245(44)
Introduction
245(1)
Fluvial Systems
245(13)
Alluvial Fans
246(4)
River Systems
250(8)
Eolian Desert Systems
258(10)
Introduction
258(1)
Transport and Depositional Processes in Deserts
258(2)
Deposits of Modern Deserts
260(3)
Kinds of Eolian Systems
263(1)
Bounding Surfaces in Eolian Deposits
264(1)
Ancient Desert Deposits
265(3)
Lacustrine Systems
268(8)
Origin and Size of Lakes
268(1)
Lake Settings and Principal Kinds of Lakes
269(1)
Factors Controlling Lake Sedimentation
270(2)
Characteristics of Lacustrine Deposits
272(2)
Ancient Lake Deposits
274(2)
Glacial Systems
276(13)
Introduction
276(1)
Environmental Setting
276(1)
Transport and Deposition in Glacial Environments
277(3)
Glacial Facies
280(1)
Continental Ice Facies
281(3)
Marine Glacial Facies
284(1)
Vertical Facies Successions
285(1)
Ancient Glacial Deposits
286(1)
Further Reading
287(2)
Marginal-Marine Environments
289(45)
Introduction
289(1)
Deltaic Systems
289(17)
Introduction
289(3)
Delta Classification and Sedimentation Processes
292(7)
Physiographic and Sediment Characteristics of Deltas
299(3)
Delta Cycles
302(1)
Ancient Deltaic Systems
303(3)
Beach and Barrier Island Systems
306(11)
Introduction
306(2)
Depositional Setting
308(1)
Beaches
309(2)
Barrier-Island Systems
311(1)
Characteristics of Modern Beach and Barrier-Island Systems
312(2)
Ancient Beach and Barrier-Island Sediments
314(3)
Estuarine Systems
317(5)
Introduction
317(1)
Physiographic, Hydrologic, and Sediment Characteristics of Estuaries
318(3)
Ancient Estuarine Facies
321(1)
Lagoonal Systems
322(4)
Introduction
322(3)
Ancient Lagoonal Deposits
325(1)
Tidal-Flat Systems
326(8)
Introduction
326(1)
Depositional Setting
327(1)
Sedimentary Processes and Sediment Characteristics of Tidal-Flats
328(3)
Ancient Tidal-Flat Sediments
331(1)
Further Reading
332(2)
Siliciclastic Marine Environments
334(32)
Introduction
334(1)
The Shelf Environment
335(14)
Physiography and Depositional Setting
336(1)
Shelf Sediment Transport and Deposition
337(1)
Wave- and Storm-Dominated Shelves
338(5)
Tide-Dominated Shelves
343(2)
Shelves Affected by Intruding Ocean Currents
345(1)
Shelf Transport by Density Currents
346(1)
Effects of Sea-Level Change on Shelf Transport
347(1)
Biological Activities on Shelves
347(1)
Ancient Siliciclastic Shelf Sediments
347(2)
The Oceanic (Deep-Water) Environment
349(17)
Introduction
349(1)
Depositional Setting
350(2)
Transport and Depositional Processes to and within Deep Water
352(4)
Principal Kinds of Modern Deep-Sea Sediments
356(8)
Ancient Deep-Sea Sediments
364(1)
Further Reading
365(1)
Carbonate and Evaporite Environments
366(31)
Introduction
366(2)
Carbonates
366(1)
Evaporites
367(1)
Carbonate Shelf (Nonreef) Environments
368(11)
Depositional Setting
368(3)
Sedimentation Processes
371(1)
Skeletal and Sediment Characteristics of Carbonate Deposits
372(2)
Examples of Modern Carbonate Platforms
374(2)
Examples of Ancient Carbonate Shelf Successions
376(3)
Slope/Basin Carbonates
379(3)
Organic Reef Environments
382(6)
Modern Reefs and Reef Environments
382(5)
Ancient Reefs
387(1)
Mixed Carbonate-Siliciclastic Systems
388(2)
Evaporite Environments
390(7)
General Statement
390(1)
Modern Evaporite Environments
390(3)
Ancient Evaporite Environments
393(2)
Further Reading
395(2)
PART V Stratigraphy and Basin Analysis
397(226)
Lithostratigraphy
399(34)
Introduction
399(1)
Types of Lithostratigraphic Units
399(1)
Stratigraphic Relations
400(6)
Contacts between Conformable Strata
401(1)
Contacts between Laterally Adjacent Lithosomes
402(1)
Unconformable Contacts
403(3)
Vertical and Lateral Successions of Strata
406(11)
Nature of Vertical Successions
406(1)
Cyclic Successions
406(6)
Sedimentary Facies
412(1)
Walther's Law of Succession of Facies
413(2)
Effects of Climate and Sea Level on Sedimentation Patterns
415(2)
Nomenclature and Classification of Lithostratigraphic Units
417(4)
Development of the Stratigraphic Code
417(1)
Major Types of Stratigraphic Units
418(1)
Formal Lithostratigraphic Units
419(2)
Correlation of Lithostratigraphic Units
421(12)
Introduction
421(1)
Definition of Correlation
422(2)
Lithocorrelation
424(8)
Further Reading
432(1)
Seismic, Sequence, and Magnetic Stratigraphy
433(45)
Introduction
433(1)
Seismic Stratigraphy
434(17)
Early Development of Seismic Methods
434(1)
Principles of Reflection Seismic Methods
434(4)
Application of Reflection Seismic Methods to Stratigraphic Analysis
438(13)
Sequence Stratigraphy
451(11)
Fundamental Principles
451(1)
Fundamental Units of Sequence Stratigraphy
451(4)
Methods and Applications of Sequence Stratigraphy
455(7)
Magnetostratigraphy
462(16)
General Principles
462(2)
Sampling, Measuring, and Displaying Remanent Magnetism
464(2)
Magnetic Polarity Time Scales
466(3)
Terminology in Magnetostratigraphy
469(1)
Applications of Magnetostratigraphy and Paleomagnetism
469(7)
Further Reading
476(2)
Biostratigraphy
478(35)
Introduction
478(2)
Fossils as a Basis for Stratigraphic Subdivision
480(3)
Principle of Faunal Succession
480(1)
Concept of Stage
481(1)
Concept of Zone
481(2)
Biostratigraphic Units
483(2)
Principal Categories of Zones
483(1)
Rank of Biostratigraphic Units
484(1)
Naming of Biostratigraphic Units
485(1)
The Basis for Biostratigraphic Zonation: Changes in Organisms Through Time
485(10)
Evolution
485(1)
Taxonomic Classification and Importance of Species
486(1)
Changes in Species Through Time
487(8)
Distribution of Organisms in Space: Paleobiogeography
495(6)
Combined Effects of the Distribution of Organisms in Time and Space
501(1)
Biocorrelation
502(11)
Correlation by Assemblage Biozones
502(1)
Correlation by Abundance Biozones
503(1)
Chronocorrelation by Fossils
504(1)
Correlation by Taxon-Range and Interval Biozones
505(4)
Correlation by Biogeographical Abundance Biozones
509(3)
Further Reading
512(1)
Chronostratigraphy and Geologic Time
513(37)
Introduction
513(1)
Geologic Time Units
513(5)
The Geologic Time Scale
518(15)
Purpose and Scope
518(1)
Development of the Geologic Time Scale
518(15)
Chronocorrelation
533(17)
Event Correlation and Event Stratigraphy
533(5)
Correlation by Stable Isotope Events
538(10)
Problems with Isotopic Chronocorrelation
548(1)
Further Reading
549(1)
Basin Analysis, Tectonics, and Sedimentation
550(73)
Introduction
550(1)
Mechanisms of Basin Formation (Subsidence)
551(1)
Plate Tectonics and Basins
552(2)
Kinds of Sedimentary Basins
554(13)
Basins in Divergent Settings
557(1)
Basins in Intraplate Settings
558(4)
Basins in Convergent Settings
562(3)
Basins in Strike-Slip/Transform-Fault-Related Settings
565(1)
Basins in Hybrid Settings
566(1)
Sedimentary Basin Fill
567(1)
Techniques of Basin Analysis
568(9)
Measuring Stratigraphic Sections
569(1)
Preparing Stratigraphic Maps and Cross Sections
569(6)
Siliciclastic Petrofacies (Provenance) Studies
575(1)
Geophysical Studies
576(1)
Applications of Basin Analysis
577(5)
Interpreting Geologic History
577(2)
Economic Applications
579(2)
Further Reading
581(1)
Appendices
Appendix A Form and Roundness of Sedimentary Particles
582(3)
Appendix B Paleothermometry
585(3)
Appendix C North American Stratigraphic Code
588(27)
Appendix D Nomenclature of Global and North American Chronostratigraphic Units
615(4)
Appendix E Web Sites Pertaining to Sedimentology and Stratigraphy
619(4)
Bibliography 623(32)
Index 655


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