9780130959751

Principles of Three-Dimensional Design Objects, Space and Meaning

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780130959751

  • ISBN10:

    0130959758

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2002-01-02
  • Publisher: Pearson

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Summary

This text is a thorough introduction to three-dimensional design: the importance of forms and objects in space. It covers the areas of problem solving: form/plane/space relationships. Of equal importance is its unique coverage of functional, cultural, and spatial contexts that condition the meanings we impart in creating objects. Its underlying goal is to provide a practical and theoretical understanding of how objects and the spaces they occupy shape the physical and perceptual nature of our reality.

Table of Contents

Preface v
Problem Solving
1(9)
Design and Form
1(1)
The Design Process
1(7)
Creativity
8(2)
Form in Space
10(13)
Design and Form
10(2)
Spatial Principles
12(3)
Point of View
15(4)
Frame of Reference
19(3)
Form and Context
22(1)
Plane and Space
23(14)
Introduction
23(1)
Interaction and Stability
23(2)
Environmental Planes
25(2)
Architectural Planes
27(1)
Transitions
28(1)
Planes of Space
29(5)
Plane and Volume
34(1)
Planes and Shape
35(2)
Organization
37(14)
Introduction
37(1)
Structure and Unity
37(2)
Balance
39(2)
Repetition with Variety
41(2)
Proportion
43(2)
Continuity
45(1)
Focus and Emphasis
45(1)
Economy
46(1)
Implied Structure
47(1)
Informality
47(1)
Randomness and Chance
48(1)
Order and Predictability
48(3)
Surface and Relief
51(6)
Introduction
51(1)
Light and Shadow
52(1)
Surface
53(3)
Depth of Relief
56(1)
Mass and Void
57(13)
Introduction
57(1)
Mass/Void Interaction
57(3)
Surface and Volume
60(2)
Geometric Volumes
62(3)
Form in Nature
65(2)
Stress Curves
67(1)
Generated Forms
68(2)
Line and Point
70(11)
Introduction
70(1)
Line and Surface
70(5)
Line as Object
75(2)
Pattern and Density
77(2)
Line, Point, and Dematerialization
79(2)
Color and Material
81(12)
Introduction
81(1)
Inherent and Applied Color
81(1)
Illumination
82(2)
Texture
84(1)
Texture and Value
85(1)
Properties of Material
85(3)
Strength
88(1)
Composites
88(5)
Structure
93(18)
Introduction
93(1)
Force and Structure
93(1)
Structural Configurations
93(4)
Lines of Force
97(4)
Surface Structures
101(1)
Modular Structure
102(1)
Joining
102(4)
Secure Balance
106(1)
Hierarchical Structure
106(5)
Time and Kinetics
111(11)
Introduction
111(1)
Patterns in Time
111(3)
Operators and Operations
114(1)
Medium and Motion
114(3)
Objects as Events
117(2)
Process and Performance
119(2)
Conclusion
121(1)
Notes on Meaning
122(7)
Introduction
122(1)
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Meaning
122(1)
Sign and Symbol
123(3)
Communication
126(3)
Environment and Place
129(13)
Introduction
129(1)
The Pedestal
129(2)
Installations
131(2)
Archetypes of Place
133(1)
Designating Place
134(2)
Behavior and Place
136(3)
Place and Ritual
139(3)
Virtual Space
142(1)
Introduction
142(1)
Digital 3D
142(2)
CAD-CAM
144(3)
Virtual Reality
147(1)
Virtual Place
147(2)
Perception and Communication
149

Excerpts

The disciplines of three-dimensional design are as varied as the objects that share our world. Between the pure expression of sculpture and the rigorous utility of engineering, between the nanotechnologist and the urban planner, are myriad journeys an author could navigate. This text veers toward the expressive principles of the sculptor, but broaches the logistics of the engineer when needed. Its underlying goal is to provide a practical and theoretical understanding of how the objects and the spaces they occupy shape the physical and perceptual nature of our reality. We play out our days in an environment awhirl with objects. Rising in the morning we crawl from between sheets and rise from the bed while listening for the weather on the radio. On a side table may rest the reading glasses, book, and lamp from the night before. We start to don the day''s clothing and address the shower, commode, washbasin, faucets, mirror, toothbrush, razor, make-up, and bottles, tubes, and jars of lotions and potions. This is just in the first few minutes of the day! Without these objects we would literally find ourselves naked in the wilderness. There, our first impulse would be to seek clothing, food, and shelter, and to fashion the tools needed to obtain these. We would, of necessity, become three-dimensional designers. Despite--or perhaps because of--our largely unconscious interaction with an object-ridden environment, objects shape our ideas and perceptions as much as the thoughts that we learn and expound. In his book "Man the Toolmaker," Kenneth Oakley suggests equivalence between objects and ideas in his definition of culture as "the communication of ideas and the manufacture of tools." A particular culture, by this definition, is a unique composite of its ideas and tools and of the systems by which they are propagated. One reason that this definition works is that, often as not, ideas and things are inseparable. Objects arise from ideas and translate these into actuality. Ideas in turn emerge from relationships observed within and between objects. The first chapters of this text look within objects for ideas. Chapters 1 through 9 examine the forms and their interrelationships that constitute objects and how these arrangements of forms aid the expressive and practical roles of the objects. Such elements of form as line, plane, surface, mass, material, and structure are examined in individual chapters. The other three chapters of problem solving, form in space, and organization address more general aspects of the interrelationship of form. In sum, these chapters offer the basis for a beginning course in three-dimensional design. The last four chapters step outside of the objects and look at the nature of objects in time, in their environment, in virtual space, and in the meanings they proffer. All of these have a profound effect on the role and, therefore, the design of objects. These chapters could augment a beginning course or underpin an advanced course in three-dimensional design. The entire text is laced with references and illustrations to a variety of cultural groups. At first this was intended to round out the student''s understanding of the principles covered. As the text progressed, it evolved into simply the best way to teach how form and its making intersect with the finest ideas of human thought. By seeking out these images the author personally gained renewed fascination with objects and spaces and the meanings imparted by their makers. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author wishes to thank Jalissa Bauman for her tenacious research style and gracious communication skills, and Margaret Lanterman for her patient expertise on the subject of introducing students to the world of form and its implications. The publisher wishes to thank the following reviewers for their helpful suggestions: Patrick James Shuck of St. Louis Community College, Meramec Campus; Pamela B. Lowrie of the College of DuPage; Paula Winokur of Beaver College; and Phil Vander Weg of Western Michigan University.

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