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Principles of Water Treatment



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Abridgement of the reference work Water Treatment , 3rd edition by the same author team, this Student Edition maintains the same quality writing, illustrations, and worked examples as the larger book, but in a smaller, more manageable and inexpensive format. Designed specifically for students, this Student Edition includes end of chapter review questions, chapter summaries, and a glossary not found in the Reference Edition.

Author Biography

Kerry J. Howe is an Associate Professor of Civil Engineering at the University of New Mexico and former principal engineer at MWH. His teaching and research focuses on water quality, membrane processes, desalination, and advanced water treatment technologies. David W. Hand is a Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Michigan Technological University. He has authored or coauthored over 130 technical publications including six textbooks, two patents, and eight copyrighted software programs. John C. Crittenden is Director of the Brook Byers Institute for Sustainable Systems as well as Hightower Chair and Georgia Research Alliance Eminent Scholar in the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Georgia Institute of Technology. R. Rhodes Trussell is the founder of Trussell Technologies and former senior vice president at MWH. He has served as Chair of the Water Science and Technology Board for the National Academies and, in 2010, was awarded the prestigious A. P. Black Research Award from the American Water Works Association. George Tchobanoglous is Professor Emeritus of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of California, Davis. He is the author or coauthor of more than 500 technical papers and a number of textbooks, including Wastewater Engineering: Treatment and Reuse and Water Reuse: Issues, Technologies, and Applications.

MWH is a global consulting firm with more than 7,000 professionals and 180 offices in thirty-five countries that provides services to a full range of water-related projects and programs ranging from water supply, treatment and storage, dams, water management for the natural resources industry, and coastal restoration to renewable power and environmental services.

Table of Contents

Preface xv

Acknowledgments xvii

1 Introduction 1

1-1 The Importance of Principles 2

1-2 The Importance of Sustainability 4

References 4

2 Water Quality and Public Health 5

2-1 Relationship between Water Quality and Public Health 5

2-2 Source Waters for Municipal Drinking Water Systems 9

2-3 Regulations of Water Treatment in the United States 17

2-4 Evolving Trends and Challenges in Drinking Water Treatment 21

2-5 Summary and Study Guide 23

References 24

3 Process Selection 25

3-1 Process Selection Based on Contaminant Properties 26

3-2 Other Considerations in Process Selection 30

3-3 Sustainability and Energy Considerations 34

3-4 Design and Selection of Process Trains 39

3-5 Summary and Study Guide 42

Homework Problems 43

References 45

4 Fundamental Principles of Environmental Engineering 47

4-1 Units of Expression for Chemical Concentrations 48

4-2 Chemical Equilibrium 51

4-3 Chemical Kinetics 60

4-4 Reactions Used in Water Treatment 63

4-5 Mass Balance Analysis 66

4-6 Introduction to Reactors and Reactor Analysis 73

4-7 Reactions in Batch Reactors 77

4-8 Hydraulic Characteristics of Ideal Flow Reactors 80

4-9 Reactions in Ideal Flow Reactors 84

4-10 Measuring the Hydraulic Characteristics of Flow Reactors with Tracer Tests 88

4-11 Describing the Hydraulic Performance of Real Flow Reactors 95

4-12 Reactions in Real Flow Reactors 101

4-13 Introduction to Mass Transfer 103

4-14 Molecular Diffusion 104

4-15 Diffusion Coefficients 106

4-16 Models and Correlations for Mass Transfer at an Interface 115

4-17 Evaluating the Concentration Gradient with Operating Diagrams 126

4-18 Summary and Study Guide 131

Homework Problems 133

References 138

5 Coagulation and Flocculation 139

5-1 Role of Coagulation and Flocculation in Water Treatment 140

5-2 Stability of Particles in Water 142

5-3 Principles of Coagulation 149

5-4 Coagulation Practice 150

5-5 Principles of Mixing for Coagulation and Flocculation 162

5-6 Rapid-Mix Practice 163

5-7 Principles of Flocculation 165

5-8 Flocculation Practice 170

5-9 Energy and Sustainability Considerations 186

5-10 Summary and Study Guide 187

Homework Problems 188

References 190

6 Sedimentation 193

6-1 Principles of Discrete (Type I) Particle Settling 196

6-2 Discrete Settling in Ideal Rectangulor Sedimentation Basins 201

6-3 Principles of Flocculant (Type II) Particle Settling 205

6-4 Principles of Hindered (Type III) Settling 206

6-5 Conventional Sedimentation Basin Design 211

6-6 Alternative Sedimentation Processes 220

6-7 Physical Factors Affecting Sedimentation 228

6-8 Energy and Sustainability Considerations 230

6-9 Summary and Study Guide 231

Homework Problems 232

References 234

7 Rapid Granular Filtration 235

7-1 Physical Description of a Rapid Granular Filter 236

7-2 Process Description of Rapid Filtration 242

7-3 Particle Capture in Granular Filtration 246

7-4 Head Loss through a Clean Filter Bed 255

7-5 Modeling of Performance and Optimization 258

7-6 Backwash Hydraulics 266

7-7 Energy and Sustainability Considerations 273

7-8 Summary and Study Guide 274

Homework Problems 275

References 278

8 Membrane Filtration 281

8-1 Classification of Membrane Processes 282

8-2 Comparison to Rapid Granular Filtration 284

8-3 Principal Features of Membrane Filtration Equipment 286

8-4 Process Description of Membrane Filtration 296

8-5 Particle Capture in Membrane Filtration 301

8-6 Hydraulics of Flow through Membrane Filters 305

8-7 Membrane Fouling 309

8-8 Sizing of Membrane Skids 316

8-9 Energy and Sustainability Considerations 319

8-10 Summary and Study Guide 321

Homework Problems 322

References 325

9 Reverse Osmosis 327

9-1 Principal Features of a Reverse Osmosis Facility 329

9-2 Osmotic Pressure and Reverse Osmosis 335

9-3 Mass Transfer of Water and Solutes through RO Membranes 339

9-4 Performance Dependence on Temperature and Pressure 343

9-5 Concentration Polarization 348

9-6 Fouling and Scaling 353

9-7 Element Selection and Membrane Array Design 359

9-8 Energy and Sustainability Considerations 361

9-9 Summary and Study Guide 364

Homework Problems 365

References 368

10 Adsorption and Ion Exchange 369

10-1 Introduction to the Adsorption Process 370

10-2 Adsorption Equilibrium 377

10-3 Adsorption Kinetics 382

10-4 Introduction to the Ion Exchange Process 386

10-5 Ion Exchange Equilibrium 395

10-6 Ion Exchange Kinetics 399

10-7 Fixed-Bed Contactors 400

10-8 Suspended-Media Reactors 423

10-9 Energy and Sustainability Considerations 429

10-10 Summary and Study Guide 430

Homework Problems 431

References 435

11 Air Stripping and Aeration 437

11-1 Types of Air Stripping and Aeration Contactors 438

11-2 Gas–Liquid Equilibrium 443

11-3 Fundamentals of Packed Tower Air Stripping 449

11-4 Design and Analysis of Packed-Tower Air Stripping 459

11-5 Energy and Sustainability Considerations 471

11-6 Summary and Study Guide 472

Homework Problems 473

References 475

12 Advanced Oxidation 477

12-1 Introduction to Advanced Oxidation 479

12-2 Ozonation as an Advanced Oxidation Process 486

12-3 Hydrogen Peroxide/Ozone Process 494

12-4 Hydrogen Peroxide/UV Light Process 505

12-5 Energy and Sustainability Considerations 518

12-6 Summary and Study Guide 519

Homework Problems 520

References 522

13 Disinfection 525

13-1 Disinfection Agents and Systems 526

13-2 Disinfection with Free and Combined Chlorine 532

13-3 Disinfection with Chlorine Dioxide 538

13-4 Disinfection with Ozone 538

13-5 Disinfection with Ultraviolet Light 543

13-6 Disinfection Kinetics 555

13-7 Disinfection Kinetics in Real Flow Reactors 565

13-8 Design of Disinfection Contactors with Low Dispersion 567

13-9 Disinfection By-products 572

13-10 Residual Maintenance 575

13-11 Energy and Sustainability Considerations 576

13-12 Summary and Study Guide 578

Homework Problems 579

References 581

14 Residuals Management 585

14-1 Defining the Problem 586

14-2 Physical, Chemical, and Biological Properties of Residuals 591

14-3 Alum and Iron Coagulation Sludge 595

14-4 Liquid Wastes from Granular Media Filters 599

14-5 Management of Residual Liquid Streams 601

14-6 Management of Residual Sludge 604

14-7 Ultimate Reuse and Disposal of Semisolid Residuals 614

14-8 Summary and Study Guide 616

Homework Problems 617

References 618

Appendix A Conversion Factors 621

Appendix B Physical Properties of Selected Gases and Composition of Air 627

B-1 Density of Air at Other Temperatures 629

B-2 Change in Atmospheric Pressure with Elevation 629

Appendix C Physical Properties of Water 631

Appendix D Periodic Table 633

Appendix E Electronic Resources Available on the John Wiley & Sons Website for This Textbook 635

Index 637

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