9780240806822

Programming for TV, Radio & The Internet: Strategy, Development & Evaluation

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780240806822

  • ISBN10:

    0240806824

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Nonspecific Binding
  • Copyright: 2005-02-24
  • Publisher: Focal Press

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Summary

Where do program ideas come from? How are concepts developed into saleable productions? Who do you talk to about getting a show produced? How do you schedule shows on the lineup? What do you do if a series is in trouble? The answers to these questions, and many more, can be found in this comprehensive, in-depth look at the roles and responsibilities of the electronic media programmer. Topics include: Network relationships with affiliates, the expanded market of syndication, sources of programming for stations and networks, research and its role in programming decisions, fundamental appeals to an audience and what qualities are tied to success, outside forces that influence programming, strategies for launching new programs or saving old ones. Includes real-life examples taken from the authors' experiences, and 250+ illustrations!

Table of Contents

About the Authors xv
Preface xvii
The History of Programming
1(28)
The Need for Programming
1(1)
The Early Days of Programming
2(1)
The Beginning of Network Programming: A New Lease for Radio
3(2)
Radio's Golden Age: The Advertising Agency Years
3(2)
The Introduction of Television and Its Effect on Radio
5(1)
Programming Cycles and Trends
6(1)
Radio Redux: The Switch from Shows to Formats
6(1)
Television's Golden Age of Drama
6(3)
Quiz Shows Take Center Stage
9(2)
The Television Networks Take Over Programming
11(1)
The Development of Public Broadcasting
12(1)
The Financial Interest and Domestic Syndication Rule
13(1)
The Rise of Independent Stations and Syndicators
14(1)
The Explosion of Cable
14(2)
Syndication in Radio
16(1)
New Networks with Targeted and Niche Programming
16(1)
The Quest for a Young Demographic
17(1)
Viewing Patterns and Changing Audience Attention Spans
17(2)
The Decline of Longform Programming
19(1)
Supercharged Programming Choices: The Internet
20(1)
New Media Recording Technologies
21(1)
The Rise of Consumer-supported Media
22(1)
The Video Game Explosion
23(1)
Regulations
23(2)
Globalization
25(1)
Exercises
26(1)
References/Notes
27(2)
Sources of Television Programming
29(22)
Beyond the Idea---into the ``Deep Pockets''
29(1)
Major Production Companies
30(3)
Independent Production Companies
33(5)
Foreign Production Sources
38(1)
Networks
39(1)
Stations
40(1)
Buyers
41(1)
Syndicators
42(1)
Advertisers
43(1)
In-House Production
44(2)
Members of the Public
46(1)
Newspapers, Magazines, and Books
46(2)
Managers, Agents, and Stars
48(2)
Exercises
50(1)
References/Notes
50(1)
Sources of Radio and Internet Programming
51(18)
Sources of Programming for Radio
51(12)
Syndicator/Network Programming
52(1)
The Purpose of Today's Radio Networks / Syndicators
53(1)
From Town to City to Metropolis and Syndication
54(2)
Sources of Music Programming
56(3)
Sources of News Programming
59(1)
Sources of Talk Radio Programming
59(3)
Sources of Other Programming
62(1)
Sources of Satellite Radio Programming
62(1)
Sources of Low-Power FM Programming
63(1)
Sources of Internet Programming
63(4)
Every Computer a Potential Source of Programming
64(1)
Obstacles to Internet Mass Usage
64(1)
Traditional Media Sources
64(2)
Internet-Only Sources
66(1)
Private vs. Public Sources of Programming
66(1)
Exercises
67(1)
References/Notes
67(2)
Development
69(30)
Television Development
70(15)
Securing the Rights
70(1)
Attaching a Star, Writer, or Showrunner During the Development Process
71(1)
The Role of Agents
71(1)
Development Deals
72(1)
Getting Ready for the Pitch: Creating a Log Line
72(1)
Writing an Effective Log Line
73(1)
Getting a Meeting
74(1)
The Pitch Meeting
75(2)
``Laying Pipe'' for a Pass
77(1)
Fundamentals of the Deal
77(1)
Public Television Development
78(1)
Syndication Development
78(2)
Station Development
80(1)
The Pilot
81(1)
Development Ratios
82(1)
Testing
83(1)
The Decision
83(1)
Globalization
84(1)
Radio Development
85(7)
Developing a Format
85(1)
Management and Consultants
86(2)
Developing Programming
88(1)
Profit and Other-Than-Profit Motives
89(1)
Satellite Radio Development
89(2)
Public Radio Development
91(1)
Internet Development
92(5)
History of Internet Development
92(1)
Traditional Developers Adapt to the Internet
93(2)
A New Venue for Independent Developers
95(2)
Exercises
97(1)
References/Notes
98(1)
Testing
99(24)
Television Testing
99(11)
Awareness Testing
100(1)
Sampling
100(2)
Focus Groups
102(2)
Minitheater Research
104(2)
Cable-Based Research
106(1)
Telephone Research
106(3)
Station Testing
109(1)
Public Broadcasting
109(1)
Radio Testing
110(4)
Sampling
110(1)
Testing Methodology
111(1)
Research Areas
112(2)
Public Radio
114(1)
Internet Testing
114(3)
Testing (Or Not) Simulcast Content
115(1)
Testing Archived and Independently Produced Content
115(1)
Testing User Friendliness
116(1)
Does the Research Work?
117(3)
Exercises
120(1)
References/Notes
121(2)
Elements of Successful Programming
123(38)
Television Programming
123(27)
Programming Objectives
124(6)
The Search for a Successful Formula
130(2)
Industry Professionals Weigh In
132(2)
Key Elements for Success
134(16)
Radio Programming
150(5)
Programming Objectives
150(1)
Fundamental Appeals to an Audience
151(2)
Qualities Tied to Success
153(2)
Internet Programming
155(4)
Freshness
155(1)
Targeting Content
156(1)
Consistency
157(1)
Innovation
158(1)
Branding
158(1)
Exercises
159(1)
References/Notes
160(1)
Influences on Television Programming
161(28)
External Influences on Television
161(17)
Station Influence
162(1)
Advertisers
163(1)
The Family Friendly Programming Forum
164(1)
Pressure Groups
165(2)
The Religious Right
167(1)
Timing
168(1)
The Media
169(2)
Academic and Nonprofit Studies
171(1)
The Government
171(7)
Internal Influences on Television
178(8)
The Sales Department
178(1)
The Finance Department
179(1)
The Broadcast Standards and Practices Department
180(4)
The Top Management
184(1)
The Promotion, Marketing and Research Divisions
185(1)
Exercises
186(1)
References/Notes
187(2)
Influences on Radio and Internet Programming
189(26)
Influences on Radio Programming
189(13)
Internal Influences on Radio
189(4)
External Influences on Radio
193(9)
Influences on Internet Programming
202(10)
Internal Influences on Internet Content
202(3)
External Influences on Internet Content
205(7)
Exercises
212(1)
References/Notes
213(2)
Scheduling Strategies for Television
215(24)
Television Scheduling
215(22)
Fitting the Show to the Available Audience
216(1)
Dayparting
216(2)
Launching the Show: The First Strategy
218(3)
Tentpoling
221(1)
Hammocking
221(1)
Counterprogramming
222(3)
Bridging and Supersizing
225(1)
Blunting
226(2)
Stacking
228(1)
Stunting
229(1)
Crossprogramming
230(1)
Theming
231(1)
Stripping
232(1)
Changing a Show's Time Slot
232(1)
Overexposure
233(1)
Rerunning and Repurposing
234(1)
Boosting the Audience in Sweep Periods
235(1)
Patience
236(1)
Exercises
237(1)
References/Notes
238(1)
Scheduling Strategies for Radio and the Internet
239(12)
Commercial Radio Scheduling
239(5)
The Clock
239(4)
Dayparting
243(1)
Launching
244(1)
Satellite Radio Scheduling
244(1)
Public Radio Scheduling
245(2)
Internet Scheduling
247(2)
Exercises
249(1)
References/Notes
249(2)
Program Evaluation
251(22)
Television
251(10)
Nielsen
252(9)
Commercial Radio
261(3)
Arbitron
262(1)
Radar
263(1)
The Internet
264(3)
Do the Ratings Work and Do Samples Sample?
267(5)
Variables That Affect Rating Accuracy
267(2)
Rating Techniques
269(1)
Studies and Investigations
269(1)
Programming Aberrations
270(1)
How Programmers Should Use Ratings
270(2)
Exercises
272(1)
References/Notes
272(1)
Changing and Canceling Programs
273(18)
Television
273(11)
Unsatisfactory Ratings
273(1)
Exhaustion
274(1)
A Lack of Focus
275(1)
Social Changes
276(1)
Aging Demographics
276(1)
The Wrong Time Period
277(1)
Excessive Relocation
277(1)
A Lack of Awareness
278(1)
Bringing on the Understudy
278(1)
The Desire for Something New
278(1)
Programming Options
279(4)
Giving a Cancellation Notice
283(1)
Radio
284(4)
Adjusting Program Elements
284(2)
Network Changes
286(1)
Dealing with Unwanted Changes
287(1)
Internet
288(2)
Is It Worth the Trouble?
288(1)
TMI: Too Much Information
289(1)
Facelifts and Add-ons
289(1)
Exercises
290(1)
References/Notes
290(1)
Programming Ethics
291(18)
The Meaning of Ethics
291(6)
Ethics and Illegality
292(2)
Ethics in Programming Decisions and Business Practices
294(1)
Ethics and Lying
295(2)
Ethical Guidelines
297(1)
Considering Ethics
298(1)
Case Histories: Actual Incidents
298(7)
Checkbook Journalism
299(1)
Make the Deal, but Don't Close It
300(1)
An On-Air Murder Confession
300(1)
Sex in Public Places
301(1)
Sharing the Wealth
301(1)
Who Is to Blame?
301(1)
Anonymous Complaints at E!
301(1)
A Suicide on TV
302(1)
Images of the Iraqi War
302(1)
The Right to Privacy
303(1)
First Amendment vs. the Sixth Amendment
303(1)
Entertainment Programming Ethics
304(1)
A Series of Ethical Dilemmas
305(2)
References/Notes
307(2)
Glossary 309(8)
Index 317

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