9780444532114

Progress In Optics

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780444532114

  • ISBN10:

    0444532110

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2008-03-10
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science Serials
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Summary

In the fourty-six years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. The volumes in this series which have appeared up to now contain more than 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments. - Metamaterials - Polarization Techniques - Linear Baisotropic Mediums - Ultrafast Optical Pulses - Quantum Imaging - Point-Spread Funcions - Discrete Wigner Functions

Table of Contents

Prefacep. v
Negative refractive index metamaterials in opticsp. 1
Introductionp. 3
Ambidextrous light in a left-handed worldp. 3
Negative index: Brief historyp. 8
Optical negative index metamaterials: State of the artp. 8
Plasmonic NIMsp. 9
Loss managementp. 13
Alternative approaches to negative refractionp. 15
Negative refraction and superlensp. 20
Negative refractionp. 20
Superlensp. 22
Enhanced nonlinearity and its origin in metamaterialsp. 25
Optical bistability and solitonsp. 27
Generalized nonlinear Schrodinger equationp. 28
Solitons in plasmonic nanostructuresp. 30
Gap solitonsp. 33
Optical bistabilityp. 35
Ultra-narrow spatial solitonsp. 36
"Backward" phase-matching conditions: Implications for nonlinear opticsp. 38
Second-harmonic generationp. 39
Optical parametric amplificationp. 42
Surface polaritons, waveguides and resonatorsp. 44
Linear surface polaritonsp. 44
Nonlinear surface polaritonsp. 47
NIM slab as a linear waveguidep. 48
Linear waveguide in nonlinear surroundingsp. 51
Nano-resonatorsp. 53
New frontiers: Metamaterials for cloakingp. 55
Summaryp. 59
Acknowledgementsp. 60
Referencesp. 60
Polarization techniques for surface nonlinear opticsp. 69
Introductionp. 71
Polarization effects in the nonlinear response of surfaces and thin filmsp. 73
Functional form of the measured signalsp. 74
Approximation of unity refractive indicesp. 76
Polarization arrangements for the characterization of nonlinear samplesp. 78
Low-symmetry samplesp. 86
Experimental considerationsp. 87
Applications of polarization techniquesp. 90
Chirality and circular-difference responsep. 90
Higher-multipole contributions to the surface nonlinearity of isotropic materialsp. 93
Complete theoretical model including linear opticsp. 101
Geometry and notational conventionsp. 104
Second-harmonic field exiting from a thick samplep. 108
Limit of zero thicknessp. 111
Effect on the susceptibility componentsp. 113
Conclusions and outlookp. 115
Acknowledgementsp. 116
Referencesp. 117
Electromagnetic fields in linear bianisotropic mediumsp. 121
Introductionp. 123
The Maxwell postulates and constitutive relationsp. 124
Maxwell postulatesp. 125
Constitutive relationsp. 126
The frequency domainp. 127
6-vector/6 x 6 dyadic notationp. 129
Form invariancesp. 130
Constitutive dyadicsp. 135
Linear mediumsp. 142
Isotropyp. 143
Anisotropyp. 144
Bianisotropyp. 151
Nonhomogeneous mediumsp. 153
Plane-wave propagationp. 156
Uniform and non-uniform plane wavesp. 157
Eigenanalysisp. 158
Isotropic scenariosp. 160
Anisotropic scenariosp. 161
Bianisotropic scenariosp. 168
Nonhomogeneous mediumsp. 170
Plane waves with negative phase velocityp. 174
Dyadic Green functionsp. 175
Definition and propertiesp. 176
Closed-form representationsp. 178
Eigenfunction representationsp. 183
Depolarization dyadicsp. 185
Homogenizationp. 192
Constituent mediumsp. 193
Maxwell Garnett formalismp. 194
Bruggeman formalismp. 195
Strong-property-fluctuation theoryp. 197
Anisotropy and bianisotropy via homogenizationp. 200
Closing remarksp. 201
Referencesp. 202
Ultrafast optical pulsesp. 21
Overview of ultrashort optical pulsesp. 213
Historic developments in short optical pulse developmentp. 213
Outline of chapterp. 214
Fundamental properties of optical pulsesp. 215
Amplitudes, envelopes, and intensityp. 215
Phase, frequency, and group delayp. 218
Time-bandwidth productp. 220
The "zero area" pulsep. 221
Ultrashort-pulse generationp. 222
Spectral properties of ultrafast laser materialsp. 222
Modelocking issuesp. 224
Active and passive modulationp. 226
Modelocking schemesp. 228
Ultrafast-pulse characterizationp. 236
Autocorrelationp. 237
Frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG)p. 239
Ultrafast Ti:sapphire lasers and amplifiersp. 240
Dispersion controlp. 240
Ultrashort Ti:sapphire lasersp. 242
Ti:sapphire amplifiersp. 243
Attosecond pulsesp. 244
Conclusionp. 246
Referencesp. 247
Quantum imagingp. 251
Introduction to quantum imagingp. 253
Optical parametric down-conversion of type Ip. 255
Spatially multimode versus single-mode squeezingp. 260
Spatial structure of squeezed vacuum states in the degenerate optical parametric oscillator below thresholdp. 261
Quantum images in the OPO above and below thresholdp. 264
The interference of signal and idler waves in type I PDCp. 271
Quantum spatial intensity correlations in optical parametric down-conversionp. 274
Degenerate OPO below threshold, spatial quantum correlation and entanglementp. 275
Multimode-model for single-pass parametric down-conversionp. 279
Single-pass PDC of type I. Near-field/far-field dualityp. 282
Single-pass PDC of type II. Simultaneous near-field and far-field spatial correlationp. 285
Detection of sub-shot-noise spatial correlation in the high gain regime of type II PDC. Spatial analogue of photon antibunchingp. 288
Detection of weak amplitude objects beyond the standard quantum limitp. 295
Multimode polarization entanglement in high-gain PDCp. 295
Ghost imagingp. 298
General theory of ghost imaging with entangled beamsp. 300
Two paradigmatic imaging schemesp. 302
Spatial average in ghost diffraction: Increase of spatial bandwidth and of speed in retrieval. Homodyne detection schemep. 305
Debate: Is quantum entanglement really necessary for ghost imaging?p. 307
Ghost imaging by splitted thermal-like beams: Theoryp. 309
Resolution aspects, correlation aspects, visibility aspectsp. 311
Ghost imaging with splitted thermal beams: Experimentp. 313
Complementarity between "thermal" ghost imaging and the classic Hanbury-Brown-Twiss (HBT) correlation technique, with respect to spatial coherencep. 317
Image amplification by parametric down-conversionp. 319
Twin (quantum entangled) imagesp. 319
Noiseless amplification of imagesp. 321
Theory of noiseless amplification of optical imagesp. 324
Noiseless amplification of optical images: Experiments in the pumped regimep. 326
Noiseless amplification of optical images: Experiment in the cw regime. Experimental observation of twin imagesp. 328
The quantum laser pointerp. 329
1D experimentp. 331
2D quantum laser pointerp. 332
Miscellaneousp. 335
Object reconstructionp. 336
Entangled two-photon microscopyp. 337
Quantum-optical coherence tomographyp. 338
Quantum ellipsometryp. 338
Transverse distribution of quantum fluctuations in free-space spatial solitonsp. 338
Quantum fluctuations in cavity solitonsp. 339
Quantum holographic teleportation and dense coding of optical imagesp. 339
Quantum-optical lithographyp. 341
Referencesp. 343
Assessment of optical systems by means of point-spread functionsp. 349
Introductionp. 351
The optical point-spread functionp. 352
Quality assessment by inverse problem solvingp. 354
Theory of point-spread function formationp. 355
Field representations and the diffraction integralp. 355
The Debye integral for focused fieldsp. 359
The Rayleigh-I integral for focused fieldsp. 362
Comparison of the various diffraction integralsp. 364
The amplitude of the point-spread function produced by an optical systemp. 367
Analytic expressions for the point-spread function in the focal region (scalar case)p. 376
Analytic expressions for the point-spread function in the vector diffraction casep. 384
The point-spread function in a stratified mediump. 389
Energy density and power flow in the focal regionp. 391
Expression for the electric energy densityp. 391
Expression for the Poynting vectorp. 403
Quality assessment by inverse problem solutionp. 409
Intensity measurements and phase retrievalp. 410
The optical inverse problem for finite-aperture imaging systemsp. 411
Solving the optical inverse problem using phase diversityp. 415
Quality assessment using the Extended Nijboer-Zernike diffraction theoryp. 417
Scalar retrieval process using the Extended Nijboer-Zernike theoryp. 419
Pupil function retrieval for high-NA imaging systemsp. 431
Retrieval examples for high-NA systemsp. 435
Conclusion and outlookp. 454
Acknowledgementsp. 455
Derivation of Weyl's plane wave expansion of a spherical wavep. 456
The Debye integral in the presence of aberrationsp. 457
Series expansion of the diffraction integral at large defocusp. 458
Series expansion for the diffraction integral V[superscript m subscript n,j](r, f)p. 459
Expansion using the functions V[superscript m subscript n] (r, f)p. 460
Expansion using the functions T[superscript m subscript n] (r, f)p. 461
The predictor-corrector procedurep. 463
Zernike coefficients for circularly symmetric polarization statesp. 465
Referencesp. 466
The discrete Wigner functionp. 469
Introductionp. 471
Continuous Wigner functionp. 476
Discrete finite space and finite fieldsp. 477
The generalized Pauli groupp. 480
Prime-dimensional spacesp. 480
Power-of-a-prime-dimensional spacesp. 481
Mutually unbiased basesp. 485
The discrete Wigner functionp. 488
Wigner function in prime-dimensional spacesp. 488
Wigner function in composite-dimensional spacesp. 495
Wigner function for p[superscript N]-dimensional spacep. 496
Reconstruction of the density operator from the discrete Wigner functionp. 498
Lines and raysp. 498
Marginal probability density and the density operatorp. 500
Tomographic reconstructionp. 501
Rotation operatorsp. 502
The phase of the displacement operatorp. 507
Applicationsp. 509
Discussion and outlookp. 512
Acknowledgementsp. 513
Referencesp. 514
Author index for Volume 51p. 517
Subject index for volume 51p. 533
Contents of previous volumesp. 537
Cumulative index - Volumes 1-51p. 549
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