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Psychology of Learning for Instruction,9780205375196
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Psychology of Learning for Instruction

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780205375196

ISBN10:
0205375197
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
8/3/2004
Publisher(s):
Pearson
List Price: $159.60
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Summary

"" This is an excellent textbook about the psychology of learning and memory in instructional settings." " Robert G. Winningham, Western Oregon University "" The scenarios and reflective questions and activities assist in gaining a deeper understanding and knowledge base of the material." " Dr. Ernescia M. Torbert Richardson, Cleveland State University "" Driscoll's text provides a solid survey of the prominent theories and concepts of human learning and instruction." " Ronald A. Beghetto, Indiana University The Third Edition of this popular text focuses on the applications and implications of learning theories. Using excellent examples ranging from primary school instruction to corporate training, this text combines the latest thinking and research to give students the opportunity to explore individual theories as viewed by the experts. Students are encouraged to apply " reflective practice, " which is designed to foster a critical and reflective mode of thinking and orientation to application when considering any particular approach to learning and instruction. New To This Edition Includes new graphics and concrete examples to help students grasp complex concepts and learn how they can be applied. Provides a theory matrix at the close of each chapter to capture the key components of each theory and permit easy comparisons. A single case scenario is included and discussed in each chapter to illustrate similarities and differences in what theories reveal and explain about learning. Updated references, including new research and literature on motivation, constructivism, situaedlearning, and self-regulation.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
PART I INTRODUCTION
1(28)
Introduction to Theories of Learning and Instruction
1(28)
What Is a Theory of Learning?
2(8)
A Definition of Learning
9(1)
A Definition of Learning Theory
9(1)
Learning in History
10(13)
The Epistemology of Learning
11(4)
Early Experimental Approaches to Learning
15(1)
Ebbinghaus (1850--1909)
16(1)
Thorndike (1874--1949)
17(1)
Pavlov (1849--1946)
18(3)
Gestalt Theory (Early 1900s)
21(1)
Summary
22(1)
Learning Theory and Instruction
23(1)
The General Plan and Approach of This Book
24(2)
Kermit and the Keyboard
26(2)
Suggested Readings
28(1)
Reflective Questions and Activities
28(1)
PART II LEARNING AND BEHAVIOR
29(42)
Radical Behaviorism
29(42)
The Experimental Analysis of Behavior
34(2)
Respondent and Operant Behavior
34(1)
Contingencies of Reinforcement
34(2)
Principles of Behavior Management
36(19)
Strengthening or Weakening Operant Behaviors
36(1)
Strengthening a Response: Positive Reinforcement
37(2)
Strengthening a Response: Negative Reinforcement
39(1)
Weakening a Response: Punishment
40(2)
Weakening a Response: Reinforcement Removal
42(2)
Teaching New Behaviors
44(1)
Shaping
44(3)
Chaining
47(1)
Discrimination Learning and Fading
47(2)
Maintaining Behavior
49(1)
Fixed Ratio Schedules
49(1)
Fixed Interval Schedules
50(1)
Variable Ratio and Variable Interval Schedules
51(1)
Planning a Program of Behavior Change
52(1)
Step One: Set Behavioral Goals
52(1)
Step Two: Determine Appropriate Reinforcers
53(1)
Step Three: Select Procedures for Changing Behavior
53(1)
Step Four: Implement Procedures and Record Results
54(1)
Step Five: Evaluate Progress and Revise as Necessary
54(1)
Contributions of Behaviorism to Instruction
55(9)
Changing Behavior Through Behavior Modification
56(1)
Managing Learning and Behavior in Instructional Systems
57(1)
Classroom Management
57(1)
Instructional Objectives
58(1)
Contingency Contracts
59(1)
Personalized System of Instruction (PSI)
59(2)
Teaching Machines to Computer-Based Instruction
61(1)
Improving Performance in Organizational Systems
62(2)
The Behaviorist Perspective on Learning: Issues and Criticisms
64(2)
Verbal Behavior
64(1)
Reinforcement and Human Behavior
65(1)
Intrinsic Motivation
65(1)
Conclusion
66(1)
A Behaviorist Perspective on ``Kermit and the Keyboard''
67(1)
Theory Matrix
68(1)
Suggested Readings
68(1)
Reflective Questions and Activities
69(2)
PART III LEARNING AND COGNITION
71(114)
Cognitive Information Processing
71(40)
Overview of the Information-Processing System
74(3)
The Stages of Information Processing
74(2)
The Flow of Information During Learning
76(1)
Sensory Memory
77(9)
Selective Attention
79(1)
Automaticity
80(2)
Pattern Recognition and Perception
82(4)
Working Memory
86(5)
Rehearsal
88(1)
Encoding
89(2)
Long-Term Memory
91(13)
Representation and Storage of Information
92(1)
Network Models of LTM
92(1)
Feature Comparison Models of LTM
93(1)
Propositional Models of LTM
94(1)
Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) Models of LTM
95(3)
Dual-Code Models of LTM
98(1)
Retrieval of Learned Information
99(1)
Recall
99(1)
Recognition
100(1)
Encoding Specificity
101(1)
Forgetting
102(2)
Implications of CIP for Instruction
104(4)
Providing Organized Instruction
104(1)
Arranging Extensive and Variable Practice
105(1)
Enhancing Learners' Encoding and Memory
105(1)
Enhancing Learners' Self-Control of Information Processing
106(2)
Conclusion
108(1)
A CIP Look at ``Kermit and the Keyboard''
109(1)
Theory Matrix
110(1)
Suggested Readings
110(1)
Reflective Questions and Activities
110(1)
Meaningful Learning and Schema Theory
111(42)
Ausubel's Meaningful Reception Learning
115(11)
Cognitive Organization in the Learner
116(2)
Processes of Meaningful Learning
118(1)
Derivative and Correlative Subsumption
118(3)
Superordinate and Combinatorial Learning
121(2)
Assimilation Theory
123(1)
Retention of Meaningful Learning
123(1)
Readiness for Learning
124(2)
Meaningful Learning a Assimilation to Schema
126(11)
Efforts Toward an Understanding of Schema
127(2)
The Nature of Schema
129(2)
Schema-Based Processing
131(1)
Comprehending Text
131(2)
Understanding Events and Guiding Actions
133(1)
Solving Problems
134(1)
Schema Acquisition and Modification
135(1)
Schema Automation and Cognitive Load
136(1)
Meaningful Learning, Schema Theory, and Instruction
137(12)
Activating Prior Knowledge
137(1)
Advance Organizers
138(2)
Schema Signals
140(3)
Making Instructional Materials Meaningful
143(1)
Comparative Organizers and Elaboration
144(1)
Conceptual and Pedagogical Models
145(3)
Using Prior Knowledge in New Contexts
148(1)
Conclusion
149(1)
Schema and Meaningful Reception Learning in ``Kermit and the Keyboard''
149(2)
Theory Matrix
151(1)
Suggested Readings
152(1)
Reflective Questions and Activities
152(1)
Situated Cognition
153(32)
The Nature of Situated Cognition
157(3)
Knowledge as Lived Practices
158(1)
Learning as Participation in Communities of Practice
159(1)
Antecedents to Situated Cognition Theory
160(5)
The Ecological Psychology of Perception
161(1)
Critical Pedagogy
162(1)
Everyday Cognition
163(1)
Summary: Toward a Theory of Situated Cognition
164(1)
Process of Situated Cognition
165(9)
Legitimate Peripheral Participation
165(2)
Apprenticeship
167(1)
Other Forms of Legitimate Peripheral Participation
168(2)
Cognition as Semiosis
170(4)
Implications of Situated Cognition for Instruction
174(6)
Cognitive Apprenticeships
174(2)
Anchored Instruction
176(1)
Learning Communities
177(1)
Assessment In-Situ
178(2)
Conclusion
180(1)
A Situative Perspective on ``Kermit and the Keyboard''
181(1)
Theory Matrix
182(1)
Suggested Readings
183(1)
Reflective Questions and Activities
183(2)
PART IV LEARNING AND DEVELOPMENT
185(80)
Cognitive and Knowledge Development
185(38)
Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology
190(14)
Types of Knowledge
191(3)
The Stages of Development
194(1)
The Sensorimotor Period (Birth to 2 Years)
195(2)
The Preoperational Period (2 to 7 Years)
197(1)
The Concrete Operational Period (7 to 11 Years)
197(1)
The Formal Operational Period (11 Years Onward)
197(1)
The Processes of Development
198(1)
Assimilation
198(1)
Accommodation
198(1)
Equilibration
199(1)
Criticisms of Genetic Epistemology
199(1)
Claim 1: The Sequence of Stages Is Invariant
199(2)
Claim 2: The Stages Represent Qualitative Changes in Cognition
201(1)
Claim 3: Children Exhibit the Characteristics of Each Stage
202(1)
Claim 4: Global Restructuring Characterizes the Shift from Stage to Stage
203(1)
Beyond Piaget: Alternative Perspectives on Cognitive Development
204(9)
A Neo-Piagetian View
205(1)
A Computational Model
206(1)
A Componential Analysis
207(1)
A Framework Theory Approach
208(2)
A New Agenda Based on Variability, Choice, and Change
210(1)
Conclusion: Comparisons Among Theories
211(2)
Implications for Instruction of Developmental Theory
213(6)
Piagetian-Inspired Instruction
213(1)
Principle 1: The Learning Environment Should Support the Activity of the Child
214(1)
Principle 2: Children's Interactions with Their Peers Are an Important Source of Cognitive Development
215(1)
Principle 3: Adopt Instructional Strategies That Make Children Aware of Conflicts and Inconsistencies in Their Thinking
215(1)
Instructional Implications of an Information-Processing View
216(1)
The Role of Rules in Children's Thinking
216(1)
Promoting Conceptual Change
217(2)
A Piagetian Perspective on ``Kermit and the Keyboard''
219(2)
Theory Matrix
221(1)
Suggested Readings
221(1)
Reflective Questions and Activities
221(2)
Interactional Theories of Cognitive Development
223(42)
Bruner: Going Beyond the Information Given
227(18)
Three Modes of Representation
228(1)
The Sequence of Representational Stages
229(3)
Sequence and Instruction
232(2)
The Course of Cognitive Growth
234(1)
Learning by Discovery
234(6)
Culture and Cognitive Growth
240(4)
Summary: Toward a Theory of Instruction
244(1)
Vygotsky: The Social Formation of Mind
245(15)
Vygotsky's Developmental Method
248(1)
The Natural Process of Development
248(1)
Phylogenetic Comparisons
249(1)
Sociocultural History
249(1)
The Social Origins of Higher Mental Processes
250(2)
Internalization
252(1)
The Zone of Proximal Development
253(2)
Learning, Instruction, and Development
255(1)
Teaching Thinking Versus Content-Specific Skills
256(1)
Interaction in the Zone of Proximal Development
257(2)
The Role of Language and Other Sign Systems
259(1)
Conclusion
260(1)
``Kermit and the Keyboard'' from the Perspective of Interactional Theories of Cognitive Development
261(1)
Theory Matrix
262(1)
Suggested Readings
263(1)
Reflective Questions and Activities
263(2)
PART V LEARNING AND BIOLOGY
265(42)
Biological Bases of Learning and Memory
265(42)
Ultimate Causes: Evolution and Behavior
269(8)
Evolution and Conditioning
270(2)
Evolution and Cognition
272(2)
Implications of Evolutionary Psychology for Learning and Instruction
274(3)
Proximate Causes: Neurophysiology of Learning
277(26)
An Overview of Neural Architecture Implicated in Learning
278(1)
Cerebral Localization and the Search for the Engram
279(3)
Attention and the Brain
282(1)
Controlling Attentional States
283(2)
Selectively Allocating Attentional Resources
285(1)
Selectively Organizing Attention
286(2)
Learning, Memory, and the Brain
288(1)
Types of Memory Systems
289(2)
A Biological Basis for Language Learning
291(3)
Cognitive Development and the Brain
294(1)
Fixed Circuitry and Critical Periods
295(1)
Plasticity
296(1)
Modularity
297(1)
Implications of Neurophysiology for Learning and Instruction
298(1)
Modularity and ``Brain-Based'' Curricula
298(2)
Use It or Lose It: Enriched Environments, Critical Periods, and Plasticity
300(2)
Language Learning
302(1)
Learning Disabilities and Their Treatment
303(1)
A Biological Understanding of ``Kermit and the Keyboard''
303(2)
Theory Matrix
305(1)
Suggested Readings
305(1)
Reflective Questions and Activities
305(2)
PART VI LEARNING AND MOTIVATION
307(42)
Motivation and Self-Regulation in Learning
307(42)
A Brief History
310(2)
Origins and Determinants of Motivation
312(11)
Curiosity and Interest
313(1)
Goals and Goal Orientation
314(2)
Self-Efficacy Beliefs
316(2)
Enactive Mastery Experiences
318(1)
Vicarious Experiences
319(1)
Verbal Persuasion
320(2)
Physiological States
322(1)
Integration of Efficacy Information
323(1)
Summary
323(1)
Continuing Motivation
323(5)
Satisfying Expectancies
323(2)
Making Attributions
325(3)
Self-Regulation
328(4)
Processes of Self-Regulation
328(3)
Developing Self-Regulation Skills
331(1)
Summary
331(1)
A Model of Motivational Design
332(12)
Strategies for Stimulating Motivation
334(1)
Gaining and Sustaining Attention
334(1)
Enhancing Relevance
335(1)
Building Confidence
336(1)
Generating Satisfaction
337(1)
Summary
338(1)
The Process of Motivational Design
338(2)
Step 1: Analyze the Audience
340(2)
Step 2: Define Motivational Objectives
342(1)
Step 3: Design a Motivational Strategy
342(1)
Step 4: Try Out and Revise as Necessary
343(1)
Summary
343(1)
Motivation and Self-Regulation in ``Kermit and the Keyboard''
344(2)
Theory Matrix
346(1)
Suggested Readings
346(1)
Reflective Questions and Activities
346(3)
PART VII LEARNING AND INSTRUCTION
349(62)
Gagne's Theory of Instruction
349(35)
Instructional Psychology, Instructional Theories, Instructional Models
352(2)
Robert M. Gagne and the Conditions of Learning
354(25)
A Taxonomy of Learning Outcomes
355(1)
Verbal Information
356(2)
Intellectual Skills
358(4)
Cognitive Strategies
362(1)
Attitudes
363(1)
Motor Skills
364(1)
Conditions for Learning
365(1)
Conditions for Learning Verbal Information
366(2)
Conditions for Learning Intellectual Skills
368(1)
Conditions for Learning Cognitive Strategies
369(1)
Conditions for Learning Attitudes
370(1)
Conditions for Learning Motor Skills
371(1)
Summary
371(1)
The Nine Events of Instruction
372(1)
Event 1: Gaining Attention
372(1)
Event 2: Informing the Learner of the Objective
373(1)
Event 3: Stimulating Recall of Prior Learning
373(1)
Event 4: Presenting the Stimulus
374(1)
Event 5: Providing Learning Guidance
375(1)
Event 6: Eliciting Performance
376(1)
Event 7: Providing Feedback
376(1)
Event 8: Assessing Performance
377(1)
Event 9: Enhancing Retention and Transfer
377(1)
Summary: Planning Instructional Events
377(2)
An Application of Gagne's Instructional Theory
379(1)
Conclusion
380(1)
``Kermit and the Keyboard'': How Does Gagne's Instructional Theory Fit?
381(1)
Theory Matrix
382(1)
Suggested Readings
382(1)
Reflective Questions and Activities
383(1)
Constructivism
384(27)
Constructivism: A Contrasting Theory
386(20)
Constructivist Assumptions About Learning
387(1)
Constructivist Models of Memory
388(2)
Constructivist Learning Goals
390(3)
Constructivist Conditions for Learning
393(1)
Complex and Relevant Learning Environments
394(2)
Social Negotiation
396(2)
Multiple Perspectives and Multiple Modes of Learning
398(1)
Ownership in Learning
399(2)
Self-Awareness of Knowledge Construction
401(1)
Summary
402(1)
Constructivist Methods of Instruction
402(1)
Microworlds and Hypermedia Designs
403(1)
Collaborative Learning and Problem Scaffolding
404(1)
Goal-Based Scenarios and Problem-Based Learning
404(1)
Software Shells and Course Management Tools
405(1)
Summary
406(1)
Conclusion
406(2)
A Constructivist Perspective on ``Kermit and the Keyboard''
408(1)
Theory Matrix
409(1)
Suggested Readings
409(1)
Reflective Questions and Activities
409(2)
PART VIII EPILOGUE
411(12)
Toward a Personal Theory of Learning and Instruction
411(12)
References 423(38)
Index 461


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