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In this revision to their lauded core text, Clawson and Oxley continue to link the enduring normative questions of democratic theory to existing empirical research on public opinion. Exploring the tension between ideals and their practice, each chapter focuses on a handful of exemplary studies so students gain a richer understanding of the research process and see methods applied in context. With new scholarship and data throughout, this second edition includes substantial new material on the critical role of groups in shaping public opinion, as well as recent developments in U.S. politics, such as public evaluations of President Obama, the power of new media, the rise of the Tea Party movement, and more.
Zoe M. Oxley is associate professor of political science at Union College. Her research interests include the effects of the media on public opinion, new media and political knowledge, political psychology, and women in electoral politics. Her work has been published in the American Political Science Review, Journal of Politics, Politics Gender, Political Research Quarterly, Political Behavior, Judicature, and PS: Political Science and Politics.
Table of Contents
|Tables, Figures, and Features||p. xiii|
|What Should the Role of Citizens Be in a Democratic Society?||p. 1|
|Public Opinion in a Democracy||p. 3|
|Theories of Democracy||p. 4|
|What is Public Opinion?||p. 14|
|Defining Key Concepts||p. 17|
|Empirical Assessments of Public Opinion||p. 22|
|Themes of the Book||p. 23|
|Key Concepts||p. 25|
|Suggested Sources for Further Reading||p. 25|
|Appendix. Studying Public Opinion Empirically||p. 27|
|Public Opinion Surveys||p. 27|
|Focus Groups||p. 36|
|Content Analysis||p. 37|
|Key Concepts||p. 39|
|Suggested Sources for Further Reading||p. 39|
|Are Citizens Pliable?||p. 41|
|Political Socialization||p. 43|
|Childhood Socialization||p. 45|
|Parental Transmission of Political Attitudes||p. 49|
|Political Events and Socialization||p. 57|
|Genetic Inheritance of Political Attitudes||p. 61|
|Key Concepts||p. 66|
|Suggested Sources for Further Reading||p. 67|
|Mass Media||p. 69|
|What Should Citizens Expect from the Mass Media in a Democracy?||p. 72|
|What General Characteristics of the Mass Media Shape News Coverage?||p. 73|
|What Specific Characteristics of the News Media Shape the Reporting of Political Events?||p. 81|
|Are Citizens Affected by the Mass Media?||p. 85|
|Key Concepts||p. 99|
|Suggested Sources for Further Reading||p. 99|
|Attitude Stability and Attitude Change||p. 101|
|Are Americans' Attitudes Stable?||p. 102|
|Collective Attitude Stability||p. 105|
|Presidential Approval||p. 109|
|Psychological Approaches to Attitudes||p. 112|
|Key Concepts||p. 129|
|Suggested Sources for Further Reading||p. 129|
|Do Citizens Organize Their Political Thinking?||p. 131|
|Ideological Innocence and Critiques||p. 133|
|Converse's Claim: Ideological Innocence||p. 135|
|Critiques of Converse||p. 141|
|Related Evidence?||p. 156|
|Key Concepts||p. 160|
|Suggested Sources for Further Reading||p. 160|
|Pluralistic Roots of Public Opinion: Personality, Self-interest, Values, and History||p. 162|
|Historical Events||p. 179|
|Key Concepts||p. 183|
|Suggested Sources for Further Reading||p. 183|
|Pluralistic Roots of Public Opinion: The Central Role of Groups||p. 185|
|Party Identification||p. 186|
|Race and Public Opinion||p. 189|
|Gender and Public Opinion||p. 203|
|Key Concepts||p. 207|
|Suggested Sources for Further Reading||p. 207|
|Do Citizens Endorse and Demonstrate Democratic Basics?||p. 209|
|Knowledge, Interest, and Attention to Politics||p. 211|
|How Knowledgeable, Interested, and Attentive Should Citizens Be in a Democracy?||p. 212|
|Are Citizens Knowledgeable about Politics?||p. 214|
|Measuring Political Knowledge||p. 221|
|Why Are Some Citizens More Knowledgeable than Others?||p. 228|
|What Are the Consequences of Political Knowledge?||p. 233|
|Are Citizens Interested in and Attentive to Politics?||p. 234|
|Key Concepts||p. 239|
|Suggested Sources for Further Reading||p. 239|
|Support for Civil Liberties||p. 241|
|Are Americans Tolerant?||p. 244|
|Sources of Tolerant Attitudes||p. 253|
|Contextual Influences on Tolerance Judgments||p. 255|
|Are Elites More Tolerant?||p. 259|
|Civil Liberties Post-9/11||p. 262|
|Key Concepts||p. 270|
|Suggested Sources for Further Reading||p. 270|
|Support for Civil Rights||p. 273|
|Public Opinion and Presidential Candidates||p. 275|
|Support for Civil Rights Policies||p. 284|
|Key Concepts||p. 299|
|Suggested Sources for Further Reading||p. 299|
|What Is the Relationship between Citizens and Their Government?||p. 301|
|Trust in Government, Support for Institutions, and Social Capital||p. 303|
|Trust in Government||p. 305|
|Support for Institutions||p. 319|
|Social Capital||p. 325|
|Key Concepts||p. 334|
|Suggested Sources for Further Reading||p. 334|
|Impact of Public Opinion on Policy||p. 337|
|Should Public Opinion Influence Policy?||p. 340|
|Is Public Opinion Related to Policy?||p. 341|
|Do Politicians Follow or Lead the Public?||p. 349|
|Public Opinion and Foreign Policy||p. 357|
|Key Concepts||p. 364|
|Suggested Sources for Further Reading||p. 364|
|What Do We Make of Public Opinion in a Democracy?||p. 367|
|What Should the Role of Citizens Be in a Democratic Society?||p. 369|
|Are Citizens Pliable?||p. 370|
|Do Citizens Organize Their Political Thinking?||p. 371|
|Do Citizens Endorse and Demonstrate Democratic Basics?||p. 372|
|What Is the Relationship between Citizens and Their Government?||p. 373|
|What Do We Make of Public Opinion in a Democracy?||p. 374|
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