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Public Relations : A Values-Driven Approach,9780205295746

Public Relations : A Values-Driven Approach

by ; ;
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780205295746

ISBN10:
0205295746
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2000
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $55.00
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Summary

In a time when society is holding individuals and organizations to high standards of conduct, Public Relations teaches students how to build ethical, productive relationships with strategic constituencies. By placing public relations in a broad social context, Public Relations: A Values-Driven Approach provides an introduction to a dynamic, growing, and honorable profession. Steeped in the traditions and theories of public relations, the book features a lively, informal tone designed to engage the audience. It abounds with lively anecdotes. A sustained focus on how public relations activities reflect and affect an organization's core values is a thread that runs through every chapter.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
About the Authors xix
SECTION I: Foundations of Public Relations
What Is Public Relations?
1(28)
Public Relations: Separating Fact from Fiction
2(6)
The Search for a Definition
3(2)
Public Relations Defined
5(2)
Prsa's View of the Profession
7(1)
Theory versus Reality
8(2)
The Hunt-Grunig Models of Public Relations
8(1)
Public Relations and Marketing
9(1)
Why a Public Relations Career?
10(3)
A Profession or a Trade?
11(1)
A Profile of Practitioners
11(1)
J.C. Penney Company
12(1)
The Public Relations Process
13(2)
The Traditional Four-Step Model of the Public Relations Process
13(1)
The Dynamic Model of the Public Relations Process
14(1)
The Role of Values in Public Relations
15(1)
Actions Speak Louder Than Words---Part I
16(1)
Values-Driven Public Relations
16(5)
Actions Speak Louder Than Words---Part II
17(1)
Whose Values Should You Follow?
18(1)
Johnson & Johnson
19(1)
How Organizations Establish Their Values
20(1)
Summary
21(1)
Discussion Questions
22(4)
Samuel L. Waltz Jr., Apr, Sam Waltz & Associates
22(2)
Thumbs Up, Ashland Inc.; Thumbs Down, Exxon: A Tale of Two Oil Spills
24(2)
The Question
26(1)
Key Terms
26(1)
Notes
27(2)
Jobs in Public Relations
29(25)
Where the Jobs Are
30(10)
Corporations
30(4)
Nonprofit Organizations and Trade Associations
34(1)
Ben & Jerry's Homemade, Inc.
35(1)
Governments
35(1)
The Values of Successful Employers
36(2)
Public Relations Agencies
38(1)
Independent Public Relations Consultants
39(1)
Getting that First Job or Internship
40(1)
Public Relations Activities and Duties
40(4)
Action in Alabama
43(1)
Salaries in Public Relations
44(2)
Standards of Professional Performance
45(1)
What's Important in a Job?
46(1)
Summary
46(1)
Discussion Questions
47(5)
Mike Swenson, Barkley Evergreen & Partners
47(2)
Silver Anvils and Gold Quills
49(1)
A List to Avoid
50(2)
Career Day at High School
52(1)
Key Terms
52(1)
Notes
53(1)
A Brief History of Public Relations
54(33)
Premodern Public Relations
55(6)
Trends Leading to the Development of Modern Public Relations
56(3)
Pre-Twentieth-Century America
59(1)
The United States Constitution
60(1)
Thomas Paine: Revolutionary Practitioner?
61(1)
The Seedbed Years
61(4)
Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919)
63(1)
Ivy Ledbetter Lee (1877-1934)
64(1)
War and Propaganda
65(6)
The Strange Case of the Zimmerman Telegram
66(2)
Edward L. Bernays (1891-1995)
68(1)
Why Bernays and Not Lee?
69(1)
The Mother of Public Relations
70(1)
American Red Cross
71(1)
The Postwar Boom
71(3)
Postwar Social Activism
72(1)
Other Notable Figures From Public Relations' Past
73(1)
The Downsizing of the United States
74(3)
The Baby Boomers Come of Age
75(2)
``Future History''
77(1)
Summary
77(1)
Discussion Questions
78(6)
Tim Moore, Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum
78(2)
Torches of Freedom
80(2)
Corporate Giving
82(1)
Megashop Comes to Sunnyview
83(1)
Key Terms
84(1)
Notes
84(3)
The Publics in Public Relations
87(42)
Two Words: Public and Relations
88(1)
The Publics in Public Relations
89(5)
Traditional and Nontraditional Publics
89(3)
Latent, Aware, and Active Publics
92(1)
Intervening Publics
92(1)
Primary and Secondary Publics
93(1)
Internal and External Publics
93(1)
Your Tax Dollars at Work
93(1)
Domestic and International Publics
94(1)
What Do We Need to Know about Each Public?
94(3)
The Traditional Publics in Public Relations
97(22)
Employees
97(3)
The News Media
100(1)
Sabotage in the Workplace
101(2)
Governments
103(1)
American Society of Newspaper Editors
104(1)
Microsoft Learns the Hard Way
105(1)
Investors
106(4)
Consumers/Customers
110(3)
The Customer is Always Right?
113(1)
Multicultural Communities
113(4)
Constituents (Voters)
117(2)
Summary
119(1)
Discussion Questions
119(6)
Gordon Lindsey, J.C. Penney Company
120(1)
Cloudy Days for Sunbeam
121(1)
Parrott Talks; Rand Mcnally Listens
122(2)
The Tuition Increase
124(1)
Key Terms
125(1)
Notes
125(4)
Communication Theory and Public Opinion
129(32)
The Power of Public Opinion
130(2)
A Communication Model
132(4)
Mokusatsu
134(2)
Theories of Persuasion
136(6)
The Magic Bullet Theory
136(1)
The Two-Step Theory
137(1)
The N-Step Theory
137(1)
Diffusion Theory
137(1)
The Agenda-Setting Hypothesis
138(1)
A Royal Mess
139(1)
Uses and Gratifications Theory
140(1)
A Two-Way Process
141(1)
The Third Battle of Bull Run
142(1)
Motivation
142(4)
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
143(1)
Examples of Maslow's Theory at Work
144(1)
Flashes in the Pan
145(1)
Persuasion and Public Opinion
146(4)
Aristotle, Persuasion, and Public Relations
147(1)
The Evolution of Public Opinion
147(1)
Persuasion versus Manipulation
148(1)
A Public Opinion Checklist
149(1)
Provincial Emergency Program
150(1)
Summary
150(1)
Discussion Questions
151(8)
Tresa Coe, Mothers Against Drunk Driving
151(2)
Using Public Relations to Ban Land Mines
153(2)
Citizens for a Free Kuwait
155(3)
The Acme Widget Company
158(1)
Key Terms
159(1)
Notes
159(2)
Ethics in Public Relations
161(30)
What Are Ethics?
162(2)
Ethics Codes for Values-Driven Public Relations
162(2)
The Rewards of Ethical Behavior
164(3)
The Ethics Codes of Prsa and IABC
165(2)
Objectivity versus Advocacy: A Misleading Ethics Debate
167(5)
Aristotle and the Golden Mean
168(2)
Objectivity versus Advocacy: The Solution
170(1)
Aristotle and the Power of Character
171(1)
Challenges to Ethical Behavior
172(3)
Dilemmas
172(1)
Overwork
172(1)
Legal/Ethical Confusion
173(1)
Cross-Cultural Ethics
173(1)
Immanuel Kant and the Categorical Imperative
174(1)
Short-Term Thinking
174(1)
Achieving Ethical Behavior
175(7)
Ethics Audits
175(1)
Integrating Ethics into the Public Relations Process
176(1)
The Potter Box
176(2)
Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill, and Utilitarianism
178(1)
John Rawls and Social Justice
179(1)
The Potter Box at Work
179(1)
Goodwill Industries of Orange County
180(2)
Summary
182(1)
Discussion Questions
183(6)
Terrie Williams, The Terrie Williams Agency
183(1)
Inside the Body Shop
184(2)
Undisclosed Interest: Glaxo Wellcome and the Committee to Protect MDIs
186(2)
Trouble Brewing
188(1)
Key Terms
189(1)
Notes
189(2)
SECTION II: The Public Relations Process
Research and Evaluation
191(37)
The Value of Research and Evaluation
192(2)
Research, Evaluation, and Tobacco
193(1)
The Many Uses of Research and Evaluation
194(2)
Developing a Research Strategy: What Do I Want to Know?
196(4)
Client Research
197(1)
Stakeholder Research
197(1)
Problem-Opportunity Research
197(2)
Issues Management and the Aids Epidemic
199(1)
Bureau of Labor Statistics
200(1)
Evaluation Research
200(1)
Developing a Research Strategy: How Will I Gather Information?
200(8)
Secondary (Library) Research
202(1)
Feedback Research
203(1)
The Communication Audit
204(1)
Focus Groups
205(3)
Survey Research
208(9)
The Survey Sample
209(1)
What do Survey Results Really Mean?
209(6)
The Survey Instrument
215(1)
Five Ways to Ask Questions
216(1)
Analyzing Survey Results
217(3)
Back to City Hospital
219(1)
Summary
220(1)
Discussion Questions
220(6)
Walter K. Lindenmann, Ketchum Public Relations Worldwide
221(1)
The Battle Over Clean Air Regulations
222(2)
President Landon and President Dewey
224(2)
Tinker, Evers & Chance
226(1)
Key Terms
226(1)
Notes
227(1)
Planning: The Strategies of Public Relations
228(28)
The Basics of Values-Driven Planning
230(1)
Different Kinds of Public Relations Plans
231(3)
Ad Hoc Plans
231(1)
Standing Plans
231(1)
Contingency Plans
232(1)
Planning for the Entire Organization
233(1)
Why Do We Plan?
234(2)
To Keep Our Actions in Line with Our Organization's Values-Based Mission
234(1)
To Help Us Control Our Destiny
234(1)
To Help Us Better Understand and Focus Our Research
235(1)
To Help Us Achieve Consensus
235(1)
To Allow Effective Management of Resources
235(1)
Boeing Company
236(1)
How Do We Plan?
236(10)
Consensus Building
237(1)
Brainstorming
237(2)
Goals, Objectives, and Tactics: The Written Plan
239(1)
The Prsa Planning Grid
240(2)
Sacramento Police Department
242(3)
The Challenge of Measurability
245(1)
Expanding a Plan into a Proposal
246(1)
Qualities of a Good Plan
247(1)
Summary
248(1)
Discussion Questions
248(6)
Fred Repper, Retired Public Relations Consultant
249(1)
MCI Changes the Message
250(2)
No News is Bad News: Media Relations at the Atlanta Olympics
252(2)
Planning a Blood Drive
254(1)
Key Terms
254(1)
Notes
255(1)
Communication: The Tactics of Public Relations
256(41)
Communicating with Specific Publics
257(1)
Tactics as Messages and Channels
258(5)
Special Events
259(1)
Controlled Media
260(1)
Don't Forget the Net
261(1)
Uncontrolled Media
262(1)
Controlled versus Uncontrolled Media
262(1)
Procter & Gamble
263(1)
Tactics and Traditional Publics
263(24)
Employees
264(2)
Extranets: Vendor Relations Goes High-Tech
266(1)
News Media
267(8)
Investors
275(1)
Beating the Odds: Successful News Releases
276(2)
The Viagra VNR
278(1)
Community Groups
278(2)
Governments
280(2)
Lobbies in the U.S.A.: Who Has the Clout?
282(1)
Customers
282(3)
Constituents (Voters)
285(2)
Accomplishing the Tactics
287(1)
Summary
288(1)
Discussion Questions
289(6)
Evie Lazzarino, Richard Nixon Library & Birthplace
289(2)
Comic Relief in Texas
291(1)
The Dog That Didn't Bark: Abercrombie & Fitch and Madd
292(2)
The Tuition Increase Revisited
294(1)
Key Terms
295(1)
Notes
296(1)
Writing and Presentation Skills
297(44)
The Importance of Writing and Presentation Skills
298(1)
A Context for Public Relations Writing
299(1)
The Writing Process
299(20)
Credbility: Stage One of the Writing Process
302(1)
Writing for Diverse Publics: Tips for Inclusive Language
303(1)
Research: Stage Two of the Writing Process
304(2)
Organization: Stage Three of the Writing Process
306(3)
Writing: Stage Four of the Writing Process
309(2)
Revision: Stage Five of the Writing Process
311(1)
Ten Tips for Writing Better Sentences
312(1)
Macroediting: Stage Six of the Writing Process
313(1)
Microediting: Stage Seven of the Writing Process
314(2)
Approval: Stage Eight of the Writing Process
316(2)
Distribution: Stage Nine of the Writing Process
318(1)
Evaluation: Stage Ten of the Writing Process
318(1)
Writing for the Ear
319(4)
Grammar on the Web
320(3)
The Process of Successful Presentations
323(8)
Researching Your Presentation
323(1)
Kellogg Company
324(1)
Planning Your Presentation
324(4)
Making Your Presentation
328(1)
Conquering the Presentation Jitters
329(1)
Evaluating Your Presentation
330(1)
Summary
331(1)
Discussion Questions
331(8)
Kerry Tucker and Adam Behar, Nuffer, Smith, Tucker
332(3)
Letter from Birmingham Jail
335(2)
Poison Postcards in Kansas
337(2)
Elayne Anderson's Speech
339(1)
Key Terms
339(1)
Notes
340(1)
New Communications Technology
341(38)
The Growth of New Technology
342(4)
Is the Medium the Message?
344(1)
The Role of Values in Message and Medium Selection
344(2)
The Digital Revolution
346(5)
Convergence and Hypermedia
347(1)
Public Relations and the Evolution of TV
348(1)
Convergence Issues
349(2)
Virtual Public Relations
351(1)
Computer Technology
351(1)
The Internet
352(11)
Motorola, Inc.
353(1)
The History of the Internet
354(2)
Individuals as Gatekeepers
356(2)
Spinning ``The Web''
358(1)
Individuals as Publishers
358(2)
Other Internet Issues
360(2)
The Dark Side of the Web
362(1)
Wireless Communications Technology
363(3)
Satellite Communications
364(2)
Satellite Media Tours
366(1)
Why ``New'' Isn't Always ``Better''
366(3)
New Tools for an Old Profession
368(1)
Summary
369(1)
Discussion Questions
370(6)
Craig Settles, Successful.Com
370(1)
The Mount Everest Tragedy
371(3)
Freedom of Expression in the Digital Age
374(1)
Hale & Hardy All-Natural Granola Bars
375(1)
Key Terms
376(1)
Notes
376(3)
SECTION III: Public Relations Today and Tomorrow
Crisis Communications
379(36)
Learning Hard Lessons from Others
380(6)
Crises Can Happen to Anyone
382(1)
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
383(1)
The Lessons of Dallas
384(2)
The Anatomy of a Crisis
386(7)
What Is a Crisis?
386(2)
Crisis Dynamics
388(2)
Crises Can Bring Opportunity
390(1)
Twenty-First-Century Crises
391(2)
Crisis Communications Planning
393(11)
Step One: Risk Assessment
393(2)
The Crisis Plotting Grid
395(1)
Step Two: Developing the Plan
396(5)
Step Three: Response
401(1)
Things to Do Before a Crisis Breaks
402(1)
Step Four: Recovery
403(1)
Crisis Planning Ethics
404(1)
Pepsico
405(1)
Summary
405(1)
Discussion Questions
406(7)
Tom Ditt, North Carolina Division of Emergency Management
406(2)
Mitsubishi's Lemon
408(1)
Classic Crises: Tylenol and Pepsi
409(3)
Death of a Salesman
412(1)
Key Terms
413(1)
Notes
413(2)
Integrated Marketing Communications
415(27)
The Decline of Mass Marketing
416(2)
An Alternative: Integrated Marketing Communications
416(1)
IMC: Public Relations, Advertising, and Marketing
417(1)
The Impact of IMC on Public Relations
418(3)
Direct Mail: Also Known as Junk Mail
419(1)
The Impact of Public Relations on IMC
419(1)
The J.M. Smucker Company
420(1)
Differences between Public Relations and IMC
420(1)
A Closer Look at Marketing
421(3)
Marketing Public Relations
422(2)
A Closer Look at IMC
424(4)
Focusing on Individual Customers
424(1)
Sending One Clear Message
424(1)
IMC on the World Wide Web
425(3)
How IMC Works
428(5)
Creating an IMC Campaign
428(3)
The Vips of IMC
431(1)
Applying IMC
431(2)
Problems with IMC
433(1)
Summary
434(1)
Discussion Questions
435(6)
Vin Cipolla, Pamet River Inc.
435(2)
Hal Riney Launches Saturn into Orbit
437(1)
Reebok and the Incubus
438(2)
Making the Pitch
440(1)
Key Terms
441(1)
Notes
441(1)
Cross-Cultural Communication
442(29)
Cultures: Definitions and Characteristics
443(7)
Attitudes about Time
445(1)
Attitudes about Formality
446(1)
Special Olympics
447(1)
Attitudes about Individualism
447(1)
Attitudes about Rank and Hierarchy
447(1)
The Melting-Pot Myth
448(1)
Attitudes about Religion
448(1)
Attitudes about Taste and Diet
449(1)
Attitudes about Colors, Numbers, and Symbols
449(1)
Attitudes about Assimilation and Acculturation
449(1)
Cross-Cultural Communication: Definitions and Dangers
450(4)
Encoding and Decoding
451(1)
Gestures and Clothing
452(1)
Stereotyping
452(1)
Lost in Translation: Part One
453(1)
Achieving Successful Cross-Cultural Communication: A Process
454(8)
Sensitivity
454(2)
Lost in Translation: Part Two
456(1)
Commitment
457(1)
Research
457(1)
Local Assistance
458(1)
Diversity
458(1)
Testing
458(2)
Corporate Culture Clash
460(1)
Evaluation
460(1)
Advocacy
460(2)
Continuing Education
462(1)
Summary
462(1)
Discussion Questions
463(5)
Renu K. Aldrich, Pr Newswire
463(2)
A Toast to Coors
465(1)
Border Wars for Wal-Mart
466(2)
Cultures Close to Home
468(1)
Key Terms
468(1)
Notes
468(3)
Public Relations and the Law
471(41)
Public Relations, the Law, and You
472(1)
Public Relations and the First Amendment
473(3)
Political versus Commercial Speech
474(1)
The Key: Know Your Own Business
475(1)
Federal Agencies That Regulate Speech
476(10)
The Federal Trade Commission
476(1)
The Freedom of Information Act
477(1)
The Securities and Exchange Commission
477(5)
Sec Rule 10B-5
482(2)
The Federal Communications Commission
484(1)
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
485(1)
The Food and Drug Administration
485(1)
Libel
486(5)
The Burden of Proof in Libel
487(1)
Actual Malice
488(1)
Common Law Libel
489(1)
``Free Speech Rocks!''
490(1)
Privacy
491(2)
Privacy Issues in Public Relations
492(1)
Copyright
493(3)
Copyright Guidelines
493(1)
R.I.P. Larry Bud Melman?
494(2)
Litigation Public Relations
496(5)
Public Relations as a Legal Strategy
497(2)
The Use of LPR Tactics
499(1)
Is LPR in Society's Best Interests?
500(1)
Summary
501(1)
Discussion Questions
502(6)
Richard S. Levick, Levick Strategic Communications
502(2)
The Court of Public Opinion
504(2)
The Lion Roars
506(2)
Supergas
508(1)
Key Terms
508(1)
Notes
509(3)
Your Future in Public Relations
512(33)
A New Century with New Challenges
513(1)
Public Relations' Mixed Legacy
513(1)
Social Forces and Public Relations
514(14)
The Global Spread of Democracy
514(1)
Public Relations in the New Russia
514(2)
Interconnectedness
516(1)
The Changing Face of the United States
517(1)
The Growing Hispanic Market
518(2)
The Growth in World Population
520(2)
The Greening of Public Relations
522(2)
Feminization of the Workplace
524(2)
League of Women Voters of the United States
526(1)
Sexual Harassment
527(1)
Where Public Relations Is Headed
528(5)
Virtual Public Relations
532(1)
Your Future in Public Relations
533(4)
The Future of Values-Driven Public Relations
535(2)
Summary
537(1)
Discussion Questions
537(5)
Kent Landers, 1998-99 Prssa National President
538(1)
Thumbs Up, Abbott Laboratories; Thumbs Down, Nestle
539(2)
Battling Bambi
541(1)
Key Terms
542(1)
Notes
542(3)
Appendix A Code of Professional Standards for the Practice of Public Relations, Public Relations Society of America 545(8)
Appendix B Code of Ethics for Professional Communicators, International Association of Business Communicators 553(3)
Glossary 556(13)
Index 569


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