9781412905510

Public Relations Writing : Principles in Practice

by
  • ISBN13:

    9781412905510

  • ISBN10:

    1412905516

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2005-04-19
  • Publisher: SAGE Publications, Inc

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Summary

Public Relations Writing: Principles in Practice is a comprehensive core text that guides students from the most basic foundations of public relations writing-research, planning, ethics, organizational culture, law, and design-through the production of actual, effective public relations materials. The Second Edition focuses on identifying and writing public relations messages and examines how public relations messages differ from other messages.

Table of Contents

Preface xxi
Overview xxi
Purpose xxi
Structure and Scope xxii
Distinguishing Features xxii
For Faculty xxiii
For Students xxiv
With Appreciation xxv
Theoretical Influences on Public Relations Writing
1(24)
Public Relations in the 21st Century
2(4)
Enter the Public Relations Writer
4(2)
Theoretical Foundations of Public Relations Writing
6(13)
Systems Theory: Looking at the ``Big Picture''
7(2)
Persuasion Theories and Their Implications
9(1)
Centuries of Persuasion
10(2)
Theories of Behavior and Attitude Change
12(5)
Thinking About Message and Source
17(2)
Strategic Foundations of Public Relations Writing
19(3)
Publics
19(2)
Outcomes
21(1)
Summary
22(1)
On the Textbook Web Site
22(1)
References
22(1)
Resources
23(2)
Sending the Message: Writing for Style, Flow, and Credibility
25(32)
Where Does Public Relations Writing Originate?
26(1)
Organizational Goals
26(1)
Publics
26(1)
Thinking About Writing: Style and Flow
26(1)
Fundamentals of Style
27(2)
What Is Style, and How Can You Master It?
27(2)
Style Decisions: Writing for Credibility
29(8)
Detail
30(1)
Readability
30(1)
Vocabulary
31(3)
Grammar
34(3)
The Fundamentals of Flow
37(6)
What Is Flow, and Why Is It Important?
37(4)
How Do You Learn About Style and Flow?
41(1)
Style Resources
42(1)
Putting Theory and Fundamentals Into Practice: Writing a Cover Letter for Your First Client---You
43(12)
What Will You Write?
43(5)
The Cover Letter
48(6)
After the Letter
54(1)
After the Interview
55(1)
On the Textbook Web Site
55(1)
Writing Wrap-Up
55(1)
Reference
55(1)
Resources
56(1)
Ethical Influences on Public Relations Writing
57(18)
Theories of Ethical Action
58(2)
The Situational Approach to Public Relations Ethics
59(1)
Defining Ethical Standards
60(9)
Public Relations Ethics
60(2)
Professional Ethics
62(1)
Organizational Ethics
63(5)
Personal Ethics
68(1)
Ethics and Public Relations Writing
69(3)
On the Textbook Web Site
72(1)
Writing Wrap-Up
72(1)
References
72(1)
Resources
73(2)
Cultural Influences on Public Relations Writing
75(23)
What Is Culture?
75(2)
The Fluid Nature of Cultures
76(1)
Culture: Why It's Important
76(1)
The Global Audience
77(2)
What Does Having a Global Audience Mean?
77(2)
Societal Cultures
79(1)
Sector Cultures
80(1)
Organizational Cultures
81(12)
Types of Organizational Cultures
82(5)
The Macro-Focus: Understanding Cultures
87(3)
The Micro-Focus: Language and Vocabulary
90(3)
Culture and Its Implications for Public Relations Writing
93(1)
Facilitating Cross-Cultural Communication
94(1)
On the Textbook Web Site
95(1)
Writing Wrap-Up
95(1)
References
95(2)
Resources
97(1)
Research Influences on Public Relations Writing
98(26)
What Is Research?
98(1)
Research Components
99(1)
Researching the Environment
99(5)
The Environment: What to Research
100(1)
The Environment: How to Research
100(4)
Researching the Organization
104(3)
The Organization: What to Research
104(1)
The Organization: How to Research
105(2)
Researching Publics
107(5)
Publics: What to Research
108(1)
Publics: How to Research
108(4)
Researching Messages
112(4)
Messages: What to Research
112(1)
Messages: How to Research
113(3)
Researching Media
116(2)
Media: What to Research
116(1)
Media: How to Research
116(2)
Researching Effects
118(1)
Effects Research: What to Research
118(1)
Effects Research: How to Research
118(1)
Researching Relationships
119(1)
Research and the Web
119(3)
The Web Challenges
120(1)
The Web: What to Research
120(1)
The Web: How to Research
120(2)
On the Textbook Web Site
122(1)
Writing Wrap-Up
122(1)
References
122(1)
Resources
123(1)
Legal Influences on Public Relations Writing
124(28)
Protecting Organizational Interests: Working With Lawyers
127(1)
Protecting Your Own Interests: Contracts
128(1)
The Issues
129(15)
Copyright©
131(1)
Trademarks and Servicemarks, ™ ® SM
132(4)
Web Rights
136(2)
Privacy
138(1)
Spamming
139(1)
Defamation, Libel, and Slander
140(1)
Freedom of Information, Privacy, and Sunshine Laws
140(2)
What Does This Mean to the Public Relations Writer?
142(1)
Financial Reporting and Insider Trading
143(1)
The Agencies
144(3)
Securities and Exchange Commission
144(1)
Federal Trade Commission
144(1)
Food and Drug Administration
145(1)
Federal Communications Commission
145(1)
U.S. Postal Service
146(1)
On the Textbook Web Site
147(1)
Writing Wrap-Up
147(1)
References
148(1)
Resources
149(3)
Design Influences on Public Relations Writing
152(42)
Which Is More Important, the Copy or the Design?
152(2)
Communication Is the Key
152(1)
Design as a Public Relations Tactic
153(1)
Communicating With Space
154(7)
Format
154(1)
Balance
154(7)
Communicating With Type
161(5)
Fonts
161(1)
Type Size and Spacing
162(1)
Alignment
163(1)
Type Styles
163(1)
Special Type Effects
164(2)
Communicating With Graphics
166(12)
Rules
166(1)
Screens
166(1)
Photographs
167(4)
Line Art
171(1)
Charts and Graphs
171(6)
Diagrams
177(1)
Communicating With Color
178(5)
Selecting the Right Color
180(3)
Special Options
183(3)
Formats and Folding
183(2)
Die Cuts
185(1)
Embossing
185(1)
Foil Stamping
185(1)
The Presentation Folder
186(1)
Design Issues for the Web
186(5)
Layout
187(1)
Balance
188(1)
Type
188(1)
Color
189(1)
Navigational Support
189(1)
Graphics on the Web
190(1)
HTML, the Language of the Web
191(1)
On the Textbook Web Site
191(1)
Writing Wrap-Up
191(1)
References
191(1)
Resources
192(2)
From Principles to Planning to Practice: Business Writing, Fact Sheets, and Bios
194(30)
The Planning
194(12)
Planning for Publics: Audience-Based Decision Making
195(3)
Planning for Outcomes
198(1)
Planning for Media and Methods
199(1)
Planning for Cost or Budget
200(1)
Planning for Timing
201(1)
Planning for Evaluation
201(1)
Planning for Control
202(3)
Planning: Finding the Middle Ground
205(1)
Summary
206(1)
The Practice: Beginning With the Basics
206(17)
Letters
208(1)
Memos
209(1)
E-mail
210(2)
Reports (other than annual reports)
212(3)
Fact Sheets, Backgrounders, Boilerplates, and Bios
215(8)
On the Textbook Web Site
223(1)
Writing Wrap-Up
223(1)
References
223(1)
Resources
223(1)
Out of Your Control . . . or Is It? Newswriting for the Press
224(36)
Using the Media Effectively: More Than ``Making the Six o'Clock News''
227(3)
Where to Place News Releases: Media Selection
229(1)
Writing and Placing News Releases
230(1)
Newswriting for the Press: Content
230(7)
News Values or Determinants
231(3)
News Determinants in Action
234(3)
Newswriting for the Press: Structure
237(3)
Media Structure: The Inverted Pyramid
237(3)
Newswriting for the Press: Style
240(6)
Journalism Style
240(6)
Newswriting for the Press: Formatting
246(3)
Contact Information
246(1)
Page Numbering
246(2)
Spacing
248(1)
Release Date
248(1)
To Headline or Not to Headline
248(1)
Distributing Your Release: How to Get the Word Out
249(2)
Distributing Releases to the Press
249(2)
Customizing News Releases
251(1)
Why Are You Writing the Release or Producing the Video? (and the tools to help you avoid it)
251(4)
The Pitch Letter
252(1)
The Media Alert or Advisory
253(2)
Supporting the Media
255(3)
Media Kits
255(1)
Position Papers
256(1)
Success
256(2)
On the Textbook Web Site
258(1)
Writing Wrap-Up
258(1)
Reference
258(1)
Resources
258(2)
Under Your Control: Features and Newsletters
260(29)
Using Controlled Media for News
261(1)
Why Use Controlled Media for News?
261(1)
Feature Writing
261(11)
What Is a Feature?
262(1)
Feature Subjects
263(2)
Feature Structure
265(1)
Feature Style
265(7)
Newsletters
272(16)
Understanding Newsletters
273(1)
Newsletter Content
274(5)
Newsletter Structure
279(1)
Newsletter Style
280(4)
Newsletter Production and Distribution
284(2)
Web Letters
286(1)
Evaluation
287(1)
On the Textbook Web Site
288(1)
Writing Wrap-Up
288(1)
References
288(1)
Resources
288(1)
Let's Hear It: Writing for Broadcast, Scripts, and Speeches
289(28)
Newswriting for Broadcast Media
290(10)
Media Comparisons
290(2)
Newswriting for Broadcast: Content
292(1)
Newswriting for Broadcast: Style
293(3)
Newswriting for Broadcast: Formatting
296(3)
Distributing Releases to the Broadcast Media
299(1)
Scriptwriting: Writing for Sound and Visuals
300(7)
Scriptwriting: Content
302(1)
Scriptwriting: Approach
302(3)
Scriptwriting: Style
305(1)
Scriptwriting: Formatting for Production
305(2)
From DTP to DTV
307(1)
Speechwriting
307(8)
Speechwriting Considerations: Audience and Purpose
308(1)
Structure
309(2)
Speechwriting: Style
311(4)
On the Textbook Web Site
315(1)
Writing Wrap-Up
315(1)
Reference
316(1)
Resources
316(1)
When the News Isn't Good: Crisis Messages
317(22)
What Is a Crisis?
318(2)
Crisis Management
320(4)
The Crisis Plan
320(3)
Crises and the Media
323(1)
Crisis Writing
324(11)
The Message
324(1)
Strategies for Crisis Communications
325(6)
Media Decisions in a Crisis
331(1)
The Web in a Crisis
332(3)
Postcrisis: Follow-Up and Evaluation
335(2)
On the Textbook Web Site
337(1)
Writing Wrap-Up
337(1)
References
337(1)
Resources
338(1)
The Multipurpose Medium: Writing for the Web
339(28)
The Web and Communication Thinking
339(2)
The Prospect of Multiway Communications
340(1)
Web Cosmology and Anti-information
340(1)
Control of Distribution, Content, and Timing
341(1)
Public Relations on the Web
341(8)
The Web Audience
343(4)
Pros and Cons of the Web as a Public Relations Medium
347(2)
Writing for the Web
349(9)
Writing for Newsgroups
349(1)
Writing for Web Sites
350(8)
Using the Web for Specific PR Aims
358(2)
Online News Releases
358(1)
Online Newsletters
358(1)
Using the Web for Advocacy
359(1)
Online Annual Reports
359(1)
The Web as a Crisis Medium
360(1)
The Web and Cross-Cultural Communication
360(1)
Publicizing the Web Site
360(1)
Research and Evaluation
361(3)
On the Textbook Web Site
364(1)
Writing Wrap-Up
364(1)
References
364(1)
Resources
365(2)
Persuasion for Mass Action: Advocacy Campaigns, Op-Eds, and PSAs
367(30)
Foundations of Motivation and Message
368(9)
Motivation
369(1)
Appeals
370(1)
Developing Persuasive Messages
371(6)
Persuasion in Practice
377(1)
Image Communications
378(1)
Issues and Advocacy
379(15)
Advocacy Campaigns
380(2)
Advocacy Advertising
382(3)
Public Service Announcements: The PSA
385(4)
Writing for Op-Ed Pages or Broadcast Editorials
389(5)
On the Textbook Web Site
394(1)
Writing Wrap-Up
394(1)
References
395(1)
Resources
396(1)
Persuasion for Individual Action: Direct Mail, Brochures, and Proposals
397(26)
Direct Mail
398(13)
Direct Mail Formats
401(1)
Writing Direct Mail Copy
401(6)
Evaluation
407(1)
How Did They Get Your Name?
407(1)
Envelopes: A Look at Direct Mail From the Outside
407(3)
Catalogs and Price Lists
410(1)
Brochures
411(6)
Brochure Themes
412(1)
Brochure Content
412(5)
Signs
417(1)
Proposals and Grants
417(4)
Proposals
418(1)
Nonprofit Grants
419(2)
On the Textbook Web Site
421(1)
Writing Wrap-Up
421(1)
References
421(1)
Resources
422(1)
High-Profile Projects: Annual Reports, Events, and Exhibitions
423(28)
Annual Reports
424(12)
Annual Reports as Financial Documents
425(1)
Annual Reports as Public Relations Documents
425(1)
Annual Reports as Social Responsibility Documents
425(1)
Annual Reports for Public Companies
426(6)
Annual Reports for Nonprofit Organizations
432(3)
Annual Reports to Employees
435(1)
Annual Reports and the Internet
436(1)
Special Events
436(1)
Celebrations, Grand Openings, and Annual Meetings
437(3)
Invitations
438(1)
Speeches
439(1)
Information Kits: Media, Sales, Educational, and Public
440(1)
Industry Conferences, Exhibitions, Conventions, and Trade Shows
440(8)
Why Attend an Exhibition or Trade Show?
440(1)
Preparing for an Exhibition or Trade Show
441(2)
Booths and Displays
443(3)
Collaterals
446(2)
Evaluation and Follow-Up
448(1)
On the Textbook Web Site
448(1)
Writing Wrap-Up
449(1)
References
449(1)
Resources
449(2)
Appendix A: The Value of Editing 451(10)
Appendix B: Public Relations Society of America (PRSA) Code of Ethics 461(6)
Appendix C: Research Methods for Public Relations Writing 467(10)
Appendix D: Production Issues 477(2)
Appendix E: Grammar and Style 479(12)
Glossary 491(8)
Index 499(18)
About the Authors 517

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