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Public Speaking: An Audience-Centered Approach (FlexChoice Version),9780205346943

Public Speaking: An Audience-Centered Approach (FlexChoice Version)

by ;
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780205346943

ISBN10:
0205346944
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2002
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $55.60
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Summary

Public Speaking: An Audience-Centered Approach brings theory and practice together in an understandable and applicable manner. Its distinctive and popular approach emphasizes the importance of analyzing and considering the audience at every point along the way, with marginal icons highlighting audience-related discussions. This model of public speaking serves as a foundation as the text guides students through the step-by-step process of public speaking, focuses their attention on the importance and dynamics of diverse audiences, and narrows the gap between the classroom and the real world. Book jacket.

Table of Contents

Preface ix
Introduction to Public Speaking
1(16)
Why Study Public Speaking?
4(1)
Empowerment
4(1)
Employment
4(1)
Public Speaking and Conversation
5(2)
Public Speaking is More Planned
6(1)
Public Speaking Is More Formal
6(1)
The Roles of public Speakers and Audiences Are More Clearly Defined
7(1)
The Communication Process
7(2)
Communication as Action
7(1)
Communication as Interaction
8(1)
Communication as Transaction
9(1)
The Rich Heritage of Public Speaking
9(1)
Public Speaking and Diversity
10(3)
Speaker's Homepage: The Power of the Internet
11(1)
Summary
12(1)
Speech Preparation Activity 1.1: Listen to a Speech
13(2)
Speech Preparation Activity 1.2: Analyze a Speech
15(2)
Overview of the Speechmaking Process
17(26)
Improving your Confidence as a Speaker
20(5)
Understanding Your Nervousness
20(2)
Building Your Confidence
22(2)
Speaker's Homepage: Resources to Help Manage Your Speaking Anxiety
24(1)
Preparing Your First Speech: An Overview of the Speechmaking Process
25(12)
Consider Your Audience
26(1)
Select and Narrow Your Topic
26(1)
Determine Your Purpose
27(1)
Develop Your Central Idea
28(1)
Generate the Main Ideas
29(1)
Gather Verbal and Visual Supporting Material
30(1)
Organize Your Speech
31(3)
Rehearse Your Speech
34(1)
Deliver Your Speech
35(1)
Summary
35(2)
Speech Preparation Activity 2.1: Become a Confident Speaker
37(2)
Speech Preparation Activity 2.2: Demographic Analysis Worksheet
39(2)
Speech Preparation Activity 2.3: Conducting an Attitudinal Audience Analysis
41(2)
Ethics and Free Speech
43(16)
Speaking Freely
47(1)
Speaking Ethically
48(5)
Have a Clear, Responsible Goal
48(1)
Use Sound Evidence and Reasoning
49(1)
Be Sensitive to and Tolerant of Differences
49(1)
Be Honest
50(1)
Avoid Plagiarism
50(3)
Listening Ethically
53(4)
Communicate Your Expectations and Feedback
53(1)
Be Sensitive to and Tolerant of Differences
53(1)
Listen Critically
54(1)
Summary
54(3)
Speech Preparation Activity 3.1: Ethics and Public Speaking
57(2)
Listening
59(22)
Stages in Listening
62(3)
Selecting
63(1)
Attending
63(1)
Understanding
64(1)
Remembering
64(1)
Barriers to Effective Listening
65(3)
Information Overload
65(1)
Personal Concerns
65(1)
Outside Distractions
66(1)
Prejudice
66(1)
Watching Speech Race and Thought Rate Differences
67(1)
Becoming a Better Listener
68(4)
Adapt to the Speaker's Delivery
68(1)
Listen With Your Eyes as Well as Your Ears
68(1)
Avoid Overreacting co a Message
68(1)
Avoid Jumping to Conclusions
69(1)
Be a Selfish Listener
69(1)
Listen for Major Ideas
69(1)
Identify Your Listening Goal
70(2)
Practice Listening
72(1)
Become an Active Listener
72(1)
Improving Your Note-Taking Skills
72(2)
Listening and Critical Thinking
74(1)
Analyzing and Evaluating Speeches
74(5)
Speaker's Homepage: Practicing Your Critical Listening Skills
75(1)
Giving Feedback to Others
75(2)
Giving Feedback to Yourself
77(1)
Summary
78(1)
Speech Preparation Activity 4.1: Rank Your Listening Barriers
79(2)
Analyzing Your Audience
81(24)
Becoming an Audience-Centered Speaker
84(1)
What is Audience Analysis
84(2)
Analyzing Your Audience before You Speak
86(11)
Demographic Analysis
86(5)
Attitudinal Analysis
91(3)
Environmental Analysis
94(1)
Gathering Information About Your Audience
95(2)
Speaker's Homepage: Using the Internet to Gather Information About Your Audience
97(1)
Adapting to Your Audience as You Speak
97(3)
Identifying Nonverbal Audience Cues
98(1)
Responding to Nonverbal Cues
99(1)
Analyzing Your Audience After You Speak
100(3)
Nonverbal Responses
101(1)
Verbal Responses
101(1)
Survey Responses
101(1)
Behavioral Responses
102(1)
Summary
102(1)
Speech Preparation Activity 5.1: Audience Adaptation Exercise
103(2)
Developing Your Speech
105(28)
Select and Narrow Your Topic
108(7)
Guide lines for Selecting a Topic
109(2)
Strategies for Selecting a Topic
111(2)
Speaker's Homepage: Using the Web to Prime Your Creative Pump for a Speech Topic
113(1)
Narrowing the Topic
114(1)
Determine Your Purpose
115(4)
General Purpose
115(2)
Specific Purpose
117(2)
Develop Your Central Idea
119(2)
A Complete Declarative Sentence
119(1)
Specific Language
119(1)
A Single Idea
120(1)
An Audience-Centered Idea
120(1)
Generate and Preview Your Main Ideas
121(3)
Generating your Main Ideas
121(2)
Previewing your Main Ideas
123(1)
Meanwhile, Back at the Computer...
124(3)
Summary
124(3)
Speech Preparation Activity 6.1: Using Your Experience to Select a Topic
127(2)
Speech Preparation Activity 6.2: Brainstorming Topics
129(2)
Speech Preparation Activity 6.3: Narrowing Your Topic and Determining Your Purpose
131(2)
Gathering Supporting Material
133(30)
Personal Knowledge and Experience
136(1)
The Internet
136(6)
The World Wide Web
137(1)
Accessing the Web
137(2)
Evaluating Web Resources
139(3)
Speaker's Homepage: Evaluating Websites
142(1)
Library Resources
142(6)
Books
142(1)
Periodicals
143(1)
Full-Text Databases
144(1)
Newspapers
145(1)
Reference Resources
145(2)
Government Documents
147(1)
Special Services
147(1)
Interviews
148(3)
Determining the Purpose of the Interview
148(1)
Setting Up the Interview
149(1)
Planning the Interview
149(1)
Conducting the Interview
150(1)
Following Up the Interview
151(1)
Resources From Special-Interest Groups and Organizations
151(1)
Research Strategies
152(7)
Develop a Preliminary Bibliography
152(2)
Locate Resources
154(1)
Consider the Potential Usefulness of Resources
155(1)
Take Notes
155(1)
Identify Possible Visual Aids
156(1)
Summary
157(2)
Speech Preparation Activity 7.1: Using Five Key Research Sources
159(2)
Speech Preparation Activity 7.2: Research Action Steps
161(2)
Supporting Your Speech
163(28)
Illustrations
166(4)
Brief Illustrations
167(1)
Extended Illustrations
168(1)
Hypothetical Illustrations
168(1)
Using Illustrations Effectively
169(1)
Descriptions and Explanations
170(2)
Describing
170(1)
Explaining How
170(1)
Explaining Why
171(1)
Using Descriptions and Explanations Effectively
171(1)
Definitions
172(2)
Definitions by Classification
172(1)
Operational Definitions
173(1)
Using Definitions Effectively
173(1)
Analogies
174(2)
Literal Analogies
174(1)
Figurative Analogies
175(1)
Using Analogies Effectively
175(1)
Statistics
176(4)
Using Statistics as Support
176(1)
Using Statistics Effectively
177(3)
Opinions
180(3)
Expert Testimony
180(1)
Lay Testimony
180(1)
Literary Quotations
181(1)
Using Opinions Effectively
181(2)
Speaker's Homepage: Using the Internet to Find Interesting Supporting Material
183(2)
Summary
184(1)
Speech Preparation Activity 8.1: Identifying Supporting Materials
185(2)
Speech Preparation Activity 8.2: Supporting Materials for Your Speech
187(2)
Speech Preparation Activity 8.3: Selecting Supporting Material
189(2)
Organizing Your Speech
191(26)
Organizing Your Main Ideas
195(7)
Ordering Ideas Chronologically
196(1)
Organizing Ideas Topically
197(2)
Arranging Ideas Spatially
199(1)
Organizing Ideas to Show Cause and Effect
200(1)
Organizing Ideas by Problem and Solution
200(2)
Acknowledging Cultural Differences in Organization
202(1)
Speakers Homepage: Internet Resources to Help you Organize Your Speech
202(1)
Subdividing Your Main Ideas
202(1)
Integrating Your Supporting Material
203(2)
Organizing Your Supporting Material
205(2)
Primary or Recency
205(1)
Specificity
206(1)
Complexity
206(1)
``Soft'' to ``Hard'' Evidence
206(1)
Developing Signposts
207(4)
Transitions
208(1)
Previews
209(1)
Summaries
210(1)
Supplementing Signposts with Visual Aids
211(2)
Summary
212(1)
Speech Preparation Activity 9.1: Using Organizational Patterns
213(2)
Speech Preparation Activity 9.2: Using Transitions
215(2)
Introducing and Concluding your Speech
217(26)
Purposes of Introductions
220(4)
Get the Audience's Attention
221(1)
Introduce the Subject
221(1)
Give the Audience a Reason co Listen
222(1)
Establish Your Credibility
222(1)
Preview your Main Ideas
223(1)
Effective Introductions
224(8)
Illustrations or Anecdotes
224(1)
Startling Facts or Statistics
225(1)
Quotations
226(1)
Humor
227(1)
Questions
228(1)
References to Historical Events
229(1)
References to Recent Events
229(1)
Persona) References
230(1)
References to the Occasion
231(1)
References to Preceding Speeches
231(1)
Speaker's Homepage: Using the Web to Find an Attention-Catching Introduction
231(1)
Purposes of Conclusions
232(3)
Summarize the Speech
232(1)
Reemphasize the Central Idea in a Memorable Way
233(1)
Motivate the Audience to Respond
233(1)
Provide Closure
234(1)
Effective Conclusions
235(1)
Methods Also Used for Introductions
235(1)
References to the Introduction
235(1)
Inspirational Appeals or Challenges
236(3)
Appeals to Action
237(1)
Summary
237(2)
Speech Preparation Activity 10.1: Write Your Introduction
239(2)
Speech Preparation Activity 10.2: Write Your Conclusion
241(2)
Outlining Your Speech
243(14)
Preparation Outline
246(3)
Developing a Preparation Outline
246(2)
Sample Preparation Outline
248(1)
Delivery Outline
249(4)
Speaker's Homepage: Using Internet Resources to Improve Your Outlining Skill
249(1)
Developing a Delivery Outline
250(1)
Sample Delivery Outline
250(1)
Speaking Notes
250(2)
Summary
252(1)
Speech Preparation Activity 11.1: Writing Your Preparation Outline
253(2)
Speech Preparation Activity 11.2: Writing Your Delivery Outline
255(2)
Using Words Well: Speaker Language and Style
257(18)
Oral Versus Written Language Style
260(2)
Oral Style Is More Personal
261(1)
Oral Style Is Less Formal
261(1)
Oral Style Is More Repetitious
262(1)
Using Words Effectively
262(5)
Use Concrete Words
262(1)
Use Unbiased Words
263(1)
Use Vivid Words
264(1)
Use Simple Words
265(1)
Use Words Correctly
265(2)
Crafting Memorable Word Structures
267(4)
Creating Figurative Images
267(1)
Creating Drama
268(1)
Creating Cadence
269(2)
Speaker's Homepage: Using Internet Resources to Polish Your Spoken Prose
271(1)
Analyzing a Memorable Word Structure
271(1)
Tips for Using Language Effectively
271(2)
Summary
272(1)
Speech Preparation Activity 12.1: Using Similes
273(2)
Delivering Your Speech
275(30)
Rehearsing Your Speech
278(1)
Importance of Delivery
279(2)
The Role of Nonverbal Behavior in Delivery
279(1)
Communicating Emotions and Attitudes
280(1)
Audiences Believe What They See
281(1)
Methods of Delivery
281(4)
Manuscript Speaking
281(1)
Memorized Speaking
282(1)
Impromptu Speaking
282(2)
Extemporaneous Speaking
284(1)
Characteristic of Effective Delivery
285(12)
Body Language
285(4)
Eye Contact
289(1)
Facial Expression
290(1)
Vocal Delivery
291(5)
Personal Appearance
296(1)
Audience Diversity and Delivery
297(1)
Speaker's Homepage: Net Resources to Help You Evaluate Speaker Delivery
298(1)
Rehearsing Your Speech: Some Final Tips
298(1)
Delivering Your Speech
299(2)
Adapting Your Speech Delivery for Television
301(2)
Summary
302(1)
Speech Preparation Activity 13.1: Impromptu Speaking
303(2)
Visual Aids
305(26)
Why Use Visual Aids?
308(2)
Types of Visual Aids
310(10)
Three-Dimensional Visual Aids
310(1)
Two-Dimensional Visual Aids
311(8)
Audiovisual Aids
319(1)
Guidelines for Developing Visual Aids
320(3)
Make Them Easy to See
320(1)
Keep Them Simple
320(2)
Select the Right Visual Aids
322(1)
Prepare Polished Visual Aids
322(1)
Do Not Use Dangerous or Illegal Visual Aids
322(1)
Speaker's Homepage: Using the Internet as a Source for Visuals for Your Speech
322(1)
Guidelines for Using Visual Aids
323(6)
Rehearse With Your Visual Aids
323(1)
Have Eye Contact with Your Audience, Not Your Visual Aids
323(1)
Explain Your Visual Aids
323(1)
Do Not Pass Objects Among Your Audience
324(1)
Use Animals with Caution
324(1)
Use Handouts Effectively
324(1)
Time Your Visuals co Control Your Audience's Attention
325(1)
Use Technology Effectively
326(1)
Remember Murphy's Law
326(1)
Summary
326(3)
Speech Preparation Activity 14.1: Make a Visual Aid
329(2)
Speaking to Inform
331(22)
Goals of Informative Speaking
334(1)
Types of Informative Speeches
335(6)
Speeches About Objects
336(1)
Speeches About Procedures
337(1)
Speeches About People
338(1)
Speeches About Events
339(1)
Speeches About Ideas
340(1)
Strategies for Informing Your Listener
341(4)
Strategies to Explain New Ideas
341(1)
Strategies to Clarify Complex Processes
342(2)
Strategies to Change Common Misconceptions
344(1)
Speaker's Homepage: What's Happening Now: Finding Late-Breaking News and Information for Your Speech
345(1)
Making Your Informative Speech Memorable
345(6)
Present Information That Relates to Your Listeners
345(1)
Establish a Motive for Your Audience to Listen to You
346(1)
Build in Redundancy
346(1)
Use Simple Ideas Rather Than Complex Ones
346(1)
Reinforce Key Ideas Verbally
347(1)
Reinforce Key Ideas Nonverbally
347(1)
Pace Your Information Flow
347(1)
Relate New Information to Old
348(1)
Create Memorable Visual Aids
348(1)
Summary
348(3)
Speech Preparation Activity 15.1: Informative Speaking
351(2)
Principles of Persuasive Speaking
353(22)
What Is Persuasion?
357(2)
Motivating Listeners
359(6)
Using Dissonance to Motivate Listeners
359(3)
Using Needs co Motivate Listeners
362(1)
Using Positive Motivation
363(1)
Using Negative Motivation
364(1)
Developing Your Persuasive Speech
365(5)
Choosing a Persuasive Speech Topic
366(1)
Developing Your Purpose
366(4)
Putting Persuasive Principles into Practice
370(3)
Speaker's Homepage: Finding Out About Congressional Legislation for Persuasive Speeches
372(1)
Summary
372(1)
Speech Preparation Activity 16.1: Analyze a Controversial Topic
373(2)
Strategies for Speaking Persuasively
375(38)
Establishing Credibility
378(2)
Enhancing Your Credibility
379(1)
Using Logic and Evidence to Persuade
380(9)
Understanding Types of Reasoning
381(3)
Persuading the Diverse Audience
384(1)
Supporting Your Reasoning with Evidence
385(1)
Avoiding Faulty Reasoning: Ethical Issues
386(3)
Using Emotion to Persuade
389(5)
Speaker's Homepage: Information Triage: Identifying Reasoning Fallacies
390(1)
Tips for Using Emotion to Persuade
391(2)
Using Emotional Appeals: Ethical Issues
393(1)
Strategies for Adapting Ideas to People and People to Ideas
394(3)
Persuading the Receptive Audience
394(1)
Persuading the Neutral Audience
395(1)
Persuading the Unreceptive Audience
396(1)
Strategies for Organizing Persuasive Messages
397(8)
Problem-Solution
397(1)
Refutation
398(1)
Cause and Effect
399(1)
The Motivated Sequence
400(3)
Summary
403(2)
Speech Preparation Activity 17.1: Persuasive Speaking:Problem-SolutionOrganization
405(2)
Speech Preparation Activity 17.2: Persuasive Speaking: Refutation Organization
407(2)
Speech Preparation Activity 17.3: Persuasive Speaking: Cause-and-Effect Organization
409(4)
Speech Preparation Activity 17.4: Persuasive Speaking: The Motivated Sequence
411(2)
Special-Occasion Speaking
413(2)
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Public Speaking in the Workplace
3(2)
Reports
3(1)
Public-Relations Speeches
4(1)
Ceremonial Speaking
5(8)
Introductions
5(1)
Toasts
6(1)
Speaker's Homepage: A Toast to You and yours: Tips for Making Toasts
7(1)
Award Presentations
7(1)
Nominations
8(1)
Acceptances
9(1)
Keynote Addresses
10(1)
Commencement Addresses
11(1)
Commemorative Addresses and Tributes
11(1)
Eulogies
12(1)
After-Dinner Speaking
13(402)
Summary
14(401)
Speaking in Small Groups
415
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Solving Problems in Groups
4(3)
Identify and Define the Problem
4(1)
Analyze the Problem
5(1)
Generate Possible Solutions
5(1)
Select the Best Solution
6(1)
Test and Implement the Solution
7(1)
Tips for Participating in Small Groups
7(2)
Come Prepared for Group Discussions
7(1)
Do Not Suggest Solutions before Analyzing the Problem
8(1)
Evaluate Evidence
8(1)
Help Summarize the Group's Progress
8(1)
Listen and Respond Courteously to Others
8(1)
Help Manage Conflict
8(1)
Using the Power of Technology in Groups
9(1)
Leadership in Small Groups
10(2)
Leadership Responsibilities
10(1)
Leadership Styles
10(2)
Managing Meetings
12(4)
How to Give Meetings Structure
13(1)
How to Foster Group Interaction
14(1)
Speaker's Homepage: Using Parliamentary Procedures to Give Structure to Large Groups
15(1)
Presenting Group Recommendations
16(2)
Symposium Presentation
17(1)
Forum Presentation
17(1)
Panel Discussion
17(1)
Written Report
17(1)
Tips for Planning a Group Presentation
18
Summary
19
Epilogue E-1
Appendix A: The Classical Tradition of Rhetoric A-1
Appendix B: Suggested Speech Topics A-10
Appendix C: Preparing Visual Aids for Presentations A-14
Appendix D: Speeches for Analysis and Discussion A-27
Notes N-1
Index 1


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