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Racism in the United States Implications for the Helping Professions,9780495004752
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Racism in the United States Implications for the Helping Professions



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Brooks Cole
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With this fascinating text, you will start to analyze the social and psychological dynamics of racism and the implications it will carry for you as helping professional. Authors Joshua Miller and Ann Marie Garran investigate the many facets of racism in the United States, examining how racism exists not only outside of us, but inside of us as well. Human service workers must confront and challenge racism in both these areas. Those in the helping professions are ethically obligated to work for a society of fairness and social justice and to provide culturally responsive services to all clients, ensuring equal access and quality. The authors demonstrate that it is insufficient to solely focus on social structures, services, institutional practices, or on changing other people. They show that we must also look within and explore our own biases and blind spots which influence how we view ourselves and those whom we are committed to helping.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xvii
Acknowledgmentp. xxii
Introduction: Racism in the United States: Implications for the Helping Professionsp. xx
Background: Social Identity and Situating Ourselvesp. 1
Social Identityp. 4
Situating Ourselvesp. 5
Power, Privilege, and Social Identityp. 7
Comfort Zones, Learning Edges, Triggers, and Creating a Context for Learningp. 9
Setting Guidelinesp. 10
Journal Writingp. 10
Creating a Safe Environmentp. 11
Conclusionp. 11
Social Identityp. 11
Exploring Triggersp. 12
Racial Identity Formationp. 12
What Is Racism?p. 13
How Race and Racism Have Been Conceptualizedp. 15
Historical Underpinningsp. 16
The Western Concept of Racep. 16
Theories about Racismp. 17
Ethnicity Theoriesp. 18
Race Relations Theoriesp. 19
Theories of Prejudicep. 20
Structural Theories of Racismp. 23
Critical Race Theoryp. 25
The Contours of Racismp. 28
Levels of Racismp. 28
Direct and Indirect Racismp. 29
Intentional and Unintentional Racismp. 30
Sites of Racismp. 30
Frequency and Magnitude of Racismp. 30
The Spectrum of Racismp. 30
Intrapersonalp. 31
Interpersonalp. 32
Intergroupp. 32
Institutionalp. 32
Official and Statep. 32
Extreme, State Sanctionedp. 33
Conclusionp. 33
Applying the Spectrum of Racismp. 33
A Brief History of Racism in the United States and Implications for the Helping Professionsp. 34
The Racial Contractp. 36
Native Americansp. 36
African Americansp. 38
Latinos/Hispanicsp. 41
Asian Americansp. 44
Factors Common to Anti-Immigrant Racismp. 46
White Ethnic Groupsp. 47
Push and Pull Factorsp. 47
Discrimination Against White Ethnic Groupsp. 48
Ethnicity and Racep. 49
Liminalityp. 51
Racism and the Helping Professions in Historical Perspectivep. 52
Progressive Erap. 52
The New Dealp. 55
The Civil Rights Movement and the Great Societyp. 57
Conclusionp. 59
Differential Group Experiencep. 60
The Web of Institutional Racismp. 61
The Nature of the Web of Racismp. 63
Residential Racism: Neighborhoods and Housingp. 66
Educational Racism: Public, Private, and Higher Educationp. 68
Employment Racismp. 70
Racism and Wealth Accumulation and Upward Mobilityp. 71
Environmental and Health Racismp. 73
Mental Health Racismp. 75
Accessp. 75
Services Offeredp. 75
Who Provides Treatmentp. 76
The Structure of Servicesp. 76
Theoretical Biasesp. 76
Racism in Clinical Encountersp. 77
Racism in the Criminal Justice Systemp. 78
Political Racismp. 80
Media Racismp. 83
Implications of the Web of Racism for the Helping Professionsp. 84
Conclusionp. 86
The Web of Racism and Passports of Privilegep. 86
Why Is It so Difficult for People with Privilege to See Racism?p. 87
Consciousnessp. 88
Invisible Knapsacks of Privilegep. 90
Socialization into White Privilegep. 91
The Role of the Familyp. 92
The Discourse of Denigration and the Creation of Otherp. 93
Renounced Targetsp. 93
Triangulationp. 94
Stereotypes and What Can Be Done about Themp. 95
Sources of Resistancep. 95
Consequences of Unexamined Stereotypesp. 96
Confronting Stereotypesp. 98
Conclusionp. 101
Personal Auditp. 101
Confronting Stereotypesp. 102
Social Identity Formation and Group Membershipp. 103
Identityp. 104
Racial and Ethnic Identity Theoryp. 106
Multiracial/Biracial Identity Developmentp. 110
Theoretical Assumptionsp. 111
Conceptual Expansions of Ethnic and Racial Identity Theoryp. 111
Multidimensional Social Identity Developmentp. 112
Assumptionsp. 114
Axes of Social Identityp. 115
Dimensionsp. 116
Lifespan Contextp. 117
Environmental Contextp. 117
Resolutions/Stancesp. 118
Social Identity Development Phasesp. 119
Targeted Identityp. 121
Agent Identityp. 123
Identity and Intergroup Relationsp. 125
What Can Prevent or Alleviate Intergroup Conflict?p. 127
Implications for the Helping Professionsp. 129
Conclusionp. 130
Multidimensional Social Identity Exercisep. 131
Intersectionality, Racism and Other Forms of Social Oppressionp. 134
Common Aspects of Social Oppressionp. 135
Tilly's Model of Categorical Inequalitiesp. 135
Bell's Features of Social Oppressionp. 136
Racism and Class Oppressionp. 137
Race and Class Visibilityp. 139
Race, Class, and Politicsp. 141
Interaction of Race and Class Todayp. 142
Racism and Sexismp. 143
Social Consequences of Racism and Sexismp. 145
Social Roles and Social Identityp. 146
Racism and Heterosexismp. 148
Heterosexismp. 149
The Interaction of Racism and Heterosexismp. 151
Immigration and Racismp. 153
Dynamics of Immigrationp. 154
Significant Legislationp. 156
Immigration and Racism Todayp. 156
Conclusionp. 161
Intersectionalityp. 161
Racial Dialogue: Talking about Race and Racismp. 163
Why Undertake Racial Dialogues?p. 165
Why Is Racial Dialogue so Challenging?p. 166
Conducting Successful Racial Dialoguesp. 168
Important Dimensions of Dialoguep. 171
Models and Stages of Intergroup Dialoguep. 172
Managing Effective Racial Dialoguesp. 175
Racial Reconciliation and Inter-Racial Justicep. 180
Recognitionp. 180
Responsibilityp. 180
Reconstructionp. 180
Reparationp. 181
Conclusionp. 181
Preparing for Dialoguep. 182
Responses to Racism in the Communityp. 183
Millvillep. 184
Snapshots of Millville Residentsp. 185
Racism in Millvillep. 186
The Dynamics of Racism in Communitiesp. 187
Structural/Institutional Racismp. 187
Political Powerp. 188
Social Identity and Group Membershipp. 190
The Phenomenology of Community Racismp. 191
Social Cohesion and Community Integrityp. 192
Responding to Racism in the Communityp. 194
Public Dialoguep. 194
Re-Storying the Communityp. 195
Structural Interventionsp. 196
Generating Social Capital in the Quest for Community Integrityp. 198
Anti-Racism Work in the Communityp. 200
Assessment and Prioritizationp. 200
Working with Existing Groups and Organizationsp. 202
Working in Coalitionsp. 203
Disruptive Strategiesp. 204
Participatory Effortsp. 205
Self-Carep. 206
Conclusionp. 207
Mapping Your Communityp. 207
Confronting Racism in Agencies and Organizationsp. 209
Terminologyp. 210
Types of Organizationsp. 211
How Racism Is Manifested in Social Service Organizationsp. 212
Policiesp. 212
Interpersonal Relationshipsp. 215
Organizational Powerp. 215
Resources Devoted to Anti-Racismp. 217
Developmental Models of Organizational Changep. 218
The Process of Becoming an Anti-Racism Organizationp. 222
Mission Statementp. 223
Project Groupp. 223
Assessment and Prioritizationp. 224
An Anti-Racism Auditp. 224
Conclusionp. 225
Anti-Racism Agency Assessmentp. 225
Cross-Racial Clinical Workp. 226
First Stepsp. 228
Social Identityp. 228
Culture, Values, and Worldviewp. 229
Powerp. 231
Legacies of Racism Seen in Clinical Workp. 232
Angerp. 232
Ragep. 232
Guiltp. 233
Shamep. 233
Stress and Traumap. 234
Grief and Mourningp. 234
Theoretical Biasesp. 235
Barriers to Effective Cross-Racial Clinical Workp. 236
Internalized Racismp. 236
Inattention to Power and Privilegep. 237
Defensive Racial Dynamicsp. 237
Guidelines for Effective Cross-Racial Clinical Workp. 239
Working with Social Identityp. 239
Focusing on Strengthsp. 240
Listening and Observingp. 240
Working with Racial Transference and Counter-Transferencep. 241
Ability to Tolerate and Respond to Strong Affectp. 242
Situating Clients in Their Historical and Social Contextp. 243
Mirroring and Empathyp. 243
Bringing up Issues of Race and Racismp. 244
Responding to Biasp. 245
Issues for Clinicians Who Identify as Whitep. 246
Issues for Clinicians Who Identify as People of Color or Multiracialp. 247
Supervision and Consultationp. 247
Structural and Environmental Issuesp. 249
Environmentp. 249
Accessp. 249
Staffing and Board Representationp. 250
Conclusionp. 250
Crossed Racial Identity between Worker and Clientp. 250
Exploring Emotionsp. 251
Teaching about Racismp. 252
Examplesp. 255
Reginap. 255
Aliciap. 256
Michaelp. 256
Course and Class Structurep. 257
Classroom Climatep. 259
Classroom Safetyp. 260
Classroom Normsp. 261
Caucus Groupsp. 262
Instructor Self-Awarenessp. 263
Resistancep. 264
Supporting Anti-Racism Teachingp. 265
Understanding Studentsp. 266
Teaching Strategies and Techniquesp. 267
Exercisesp. 268
Interviewing in Fairsp. 269
Maintaining Balancep. 269
Availability of Teachersp. 270
Feeling Stuckp. 271
Conclusionp. 273
p. 273
Dismantling Racism: Creating the Web of Resistancep. 275
Creating the Web of Resistancep. 277
Core Valuesp. 277
The Intrapersonal Realm: Introspection and Educationp. 279
The Interpersonal Realm: Engaging in Dialogue/Working in Coalitionsp. 280
The Organizational Realm: Creating Anti-Racism Organizationsp. 281
The Community Realm: Creating Inclusive Communitiesp. 281
Being Heard: The Realm of Discourse and Culturep. 281
The Political and Social Realm: Laws, Institutions, and Practicesp. 282
Maintaining Motivationp. 285
Self-Carep. 285
Self-Compassionp. 286
Avoiding Humiliating Othersp. 286
Working Togetherp. 287
Taking the Long Viewp. 287
Valuing the Process as Well as the Productp. 287
Growing as Activistsp. 288
Eternal Vigilancep. 288
Anti-Racism Activist Self-Auditp. 289
Confronting Racism Without Humiliating Othersp. 289
Study Circles Dialoguesp. 291
Steps to Successful Intergroup Conversation: A Critical-Dialogic Modelp. 292
Issues to Consider When Confronting Institutional Racismp. 294
Activities Toward Becoming an Anti-Racist Organizationp. 295
Cultural Values and Worldviewsp. 297
Culturally Influenced Behaviorsp. 299
Questions about Cross-Cultural Contactsp. 300
Further Reading about Cross-Racial/Cultural Clinical Practicep. 301
Imaginary Letterp. 303
Referencesp. 305
Indexp. 320
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