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Radio Propagation Measurement and Channel Modelling,9780470751848
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Radio Propagation Measurement and Channel Modelling

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780470751848

ISBN10:
0470751843
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
4/22/2013
Publisher(s):
Wiley
List Price: $112.00

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Summary

While there are numerous books describing modern wireless communication systems that contain overviews of radio propagation and radio channel modelling, there are none that contain detailed information on the design, implementation and calibration of radio channel measurement equipment, the planning of experiments and the in depth analysis of measured data. The book would begin with an explanation of the fundamentals of radio wave propagation and progress through a series of topics, including the measurement of radio channel characteristics, radio channel sounders, measurement strategies, data analysis techniques and radio channel modelling. Application of results for the prediction of achievable digital link performance would be discussed with examples pertinent to single carrier, multi-carrier and spread spectrum radio links. This work would address specifics of communications in various different frequency bands for both long range and short range fixed and mobile radio links.

Table of Contents

1 Radio wave fundamentals

1.1 Maxwell’s equations

1.2 Free space propagation

1.3 Uniform plane-wave propagation

1.4 Propagation of electromagnetic waves in isotropic and homogenous media

1.5 Wave polarization

1.6 Propagation mechanisms

1.6.1 Reflection by an isotropic material

1.6.2 Reflection/refraction by an anisotropic material

1.6.3 Diffuse reflection/scattering

1.6.4 Diffraction

1.7 Propagation in the earth’s atmosphere

1.7.1 Properties of the earth’s atmosphere

1.7.2 Radio waves in the ionosphere

1.8 Frequency dispersion of radio waves

1.8.1 Phase velocity versus group velocity

1.8.2 Group path versus phase path

1.8.3 Phase path stability: Doppler shift/dispersion

References

2 Radio wave transmission

2.1 Free space transmission

2.1.1 Path loss

2.1.2 Relating power to the electric field

2.2 Transmission loss of radio waves in the earth’s atmosphere

2.2.1 Attenuation due to gases in the lower atmosphere and rain:  Troposphere

2.2.2 Attenuation of radio waves in an ionized medium: ionosphere

2.3 Attenuation due to propagation into buildings

2.4 Transmission loss due to penetration into vehicles

2.5 Diffraction loss

2.5.1 Fundamentals of diffraction loss: Huygen’s principle

2.5.2 Diffraction loss due to a single knife edge: Fresnel integral approach

2.6  Diffraction loss models 

2.6.1 Single knife edge diffraction loss

2.6.2 Multiple edge diffraction loss

2.7 Path loss due to scattering

2.8 Multipath propagation: two ray model

2.8.1 Two ray model in a non-dispersive medium

2.8.2 Two ray model due to LOS and ground reflected wave: plane earth model

2.8.3 Two ray propagation via the ionosphere

2.9 General multipath propagation

2.9.1 Time dispersion due to multipath propagation

2.9.2 Effects of multipath propagation in frequency, time and space

2.10 Shadow fading: medium scale

2.11 Measurement based large scale path loss models

References

3 Radio channel models

3.1 System model for ideal channel: Linear time invariant (LTI) model

3.2 Narrowband single input single output channels

3.2.1 Single path model

3.2.2 Multipath scattering model

3.3 Wideband single input single output channels

3.3.1 Single path time invariant frequency dispersive channel model

3.3.2 Single path time variant frequency dispersive channel

3.3.3 Multipath model in a non frequency dispersive time invariant channel

3.3.4 Multipath propagation in a non frequency dispersive time variant channel

3.3.5 Multipath propagation in a frequency dispersive time variant channel

3.4 System functions in a linear randomly time-variant channel

3.5 Simplified channel functions

3.5.1 The Wide-Sense Stationary (WSS) Channel

3.5.2 The Uncorrelated Scattering Channel (US)

3.5.3 The Wide-Sense Stationary Uncorrelated Scattering Channel (WSSUS)

3.6 Coherence functions

3.7 Power delay profile and Doppler spectrum

3.8 Parameters of the power delay profile and Doppler spectrum

3.8.1 First and second order moments

3.8.2 Delay window and delay interval

3.8.3 Angular dispersion

3.9 The two ray model revisited in a stochastic channel

3.10 Multiple input multiple output channels

3.10.1 Desirable channel properties for narrowband MIMO systems

3.10.2 MIMO capacity for spatial multiplexing

3.11 Capacity Limitations for MIMO systems

3.12 Effect of correlation using stochastic models

3.12.1 Capacity expressions based on stochastic correlation models

3.12.2 Capacity expressions based on uniform and exponential correlation models

3.12.3 The Kronecker stochastic model

3.13 Correlation effects with physical channel models

3.13.1 Distributed scattering model

3.13.2 Single ring model

3.13.3 Double ring model

3.13.4 COST 259 models

3.13.5 Multidimensional parametric channel model

3.13.6 Effect of antenna separation, antenna coupling and angular spread on channel capacity

3.13.7 Effect of mutual coupling

3.14 Effect of number of scatterers on channel capacity

3.14.1 Free space propagation

3.14.2 Limited number of multipath components

3.15 Keyholes

3.16 Rician channels

3.17 Wideband MIMO channels

References

4 Radio channel sounders

4.1 Echoes of sound and radio

4.2 Definitions and objectives of radio sounders and radar

4.2.1 Modes of operation

4.2.2 Basic parameters 

4.3 Waveforms

4.4 Single tone CW waveforms

4.5 Single tone measurements

4.5.1 Measurement configurations

4.5.2 Triggering of data acquisition

4.5.3 Strategy of CW measurements

4.6 Spaced tone waveform

4.7 Pulse waveform

4.7.1 Properties of the pulse waveform

4.7.2 Factors affecting the resolution of pulse waveforms

4.7.3 Typical configuration of a pulse sounder

 4.7.4 Practical considerations for pulse sounding

4.8 Pulse compression waveforms

4.8.1 Ideal correlation properties of pulse compression waveforms

4.8.2 Pulse compression detectors

4.8.3 Comment on pulse compression detectors

4.9 Coded pulse signals

4.9.1 Serial correlation detection of coded transmission

4.9.2 Comment regarding coded transmission

4.10 Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) SIGNAL

4.10.1 Matched filter detector

4.10.2 Heterodyne detector of FMCW signals

4.10.3 Practical consideration of detection methods of FMCW signals

4.11 Range Doppler ambiguity of chirp signals: Advanced waveforms

4.12 Architectures of chirp sounders

4.13 Mono-static operation of FMCW sounder/radar

4.14 Single and multiple antenna sounder architectures

4.14.1 Single input single output (SISO) sounders

4.14.2 MISO, SIMO and MIMO measurements with SISO sounders

4.14.3 Semi-sequential MIMO sounders

4.14.4 Parallel MIMO sounders

4.15 Ultra Wide Band (UWB) channel sounders

4.16 Sounder design

4.16.1 Sounder for indoor radio channels in the UHF band

4.16.2 Sounder for UHF frequency division duplex links for outdoor radio          channels

4.16.3 Sounder for multiple frequency links for outdoor radio channels

4.17 Performance tests of a channel sounder and calibration

4.17.1 Ambiguity function

4.17.2 Linearity test

4.17.3 Frequency response

4.17.4 Calibration of automatic gain control

4.17.5 Isolation between multiple channels: 

4.17.6 Sensitivity and dynamic range

4.17.7 Effect of interference on the dynamic range

4.17.8 Stability of frequency sources

4.17.9 Temperature variations

4.18 Overall data acquisition and calibration

References

5 Data analysis

5.1 Data validation

5.2 Spectral analysis via the Discrete Fourier Transform

5.3 DFT analysis of FMCW channel sounder using heterodyne detector

5.3.1 Snapshot impulse response analysis

5.3.2 Frequency response analysis

5.3.3 Estimation of the delay Doppler function

5.4 Spectral analysis of network analyser data via the IDFT

5.5 DFT analysis of CW measurements for the estimation of Doppler spectrum

5.6 Estimation of the channel frequent response via the Hilbert transform

5.7 Parametric modelling

5.7.1 Parametric modelling for interference reduction

5.7.2 Parametric modelling for enhancement of multipath resolution

5.8 Estimation of power delay profile

5.8.1 Noise threshold

5.8.2 Stationarity test

5.9 Small scale characterisation

5.9.1 Time domain parameters

5.9.2 Estimation of the coherent bandwidth

5.9.3 Statistical modelling of the time variations of the channel response

5.10 Medium/Large scale characterisation

5.10.1 CDF representation

5.10.2 Estimation of pathloss

5.10.3 Relating rms delay spread to pathloss and distance

5.10.4 Frequency dependence of channel parameters

5.11 Multiple antenna array processing for estimation of direction of

5.11.1 Theoretical considerations for the estimation of direction of arrival

arrival

5.11.2 Spectral based array processing techniques

5.11.3 Parametric methods

5.11.4 Joint Parametric Techniques

5.12 Practical considerations of DOA estimation

5.12.1 Choice of antenna array

5.12.2 Array calibration

5.12.3 Estimation of direction of arrival

5.12.4 Estimation of direction of arrival/direction of departure

5.13 Estimation of MIMO capacity

References

6 Radio link performance prediction

6.1 Radio link simulators

6.2 Narrowband stochastic radio channel simulator

6.2.1 Quadrature amplitude modulation simulator

6.2.2 Filtered noise metho

6.2.3 Sum of sinusoids method (Jakes method)

6.2.4 Frequency Domain Method

6.2.5 Reverberation chambers (or mode-stirred chambers)

6.3 Wideband stochastic channel simulator

6.3.1 Time domain channel simulators

6.3.2 Frequency domain simulators

6.4 Frequency domain implementation using fast convolution

6.5 Channel block realisation from measured data

6.6 Theoretical prediction of system performance in Additive White Gaussian Noise

6.6.1 Matched filter and correlation detector

6.6.2 Bit error rate of the matched filter detector in AWGN

6.6.3 Bit error rate with non-coherent detectors

6.6.4 Comparison of BER of coherent and non-coherent detectors

6.6.5 Higher order modulation

6.7 Prediction of system performance in fading channels

6.7.1 Narrowband signals

6.7.2 Wideband signals

6.8 Bit error rate prediction for wireless standards

6.8.1 IEEE802.16-d standard

6.8.2 IEEE802.11a standard

6.8.3 Third generation WCDMA standard

6.9 Enhancement of performance using diversity gain

6.9.1 Diversity combining methods

6.9.2 Diversity gain prediction of Rayleigh fading channels from measurements  n a reverberation chamber

References



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