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Religions of the World,9780130282545

Religions of the World

by ;
Edition:
8th
ISBN13:

9780130282545

ISBN10:
0130282545
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/1/2000
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $57.00
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Summary

For introductory courses in World Religions. Widely adopted for its accessible style and comprehensive, yet concise, presentation, this best-selling introduction to world religions is ideal for students with no previous exposure to the subject. It offers accurate, comparative descriptions of a broad range of religions. In addition to background material on religious theory and study, this text explores living religions in terms of the historical and cultural factors that produced them, the lives of their founders, their basic teachings, and their historical development and current status in the world. Primary source readings with specific representative samples are provided in each chapter.

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
Introduction Overview 1(4)
A Definition of Religion
5(1)
The Universality of Religion
6(1)
Theories of the Origin of Religions
6(5)
Animistic Theories
7(1)
The Nature-Worship Theory
8(1)
The Theory of Original Monotheism
9(1)
The Magic Theory
9(1)
Theories of Religion as Projections of Human Needs
10(1)
Types of Religions
11(1)
Basic Religions
11(1)
Religions Originating in India
12(1)
Religions Originating in China and Japan
12(1)
Religions Originating in the Middle East
12(1)
Study Questions
12(1)
Basic Religions 13(57)
Characteristics of Basic Religions
14(15)
Sources of Information Concerning Basic Religions
15(1)
Prehistoric Beginnings of Basic Religions
16(3)
Neanderthal Religion
16(1)
Cro-Magnon Religion
16(1)
Neolithic Religion
17(2)
Common Features of Basic Religions
19(8)
Animism
19(2)
Magic
21(1)
Divination
22(1)
Taboo
22(1)
Totems
23(1)
Sacrifice
24(1)
Myth
25(1)
Rituals
25(1)
Rites of Passage
26(1)
Ancestor Veneration
27(1)
Study Questions
27(1)
Suggested Reading
28(1)
Native American Religions
29(20)
The Spirit World
30(1)
Animism
31(3)
Contacts with the Spirit World
34(7)
Sacrifice
34(1)
Taboos
34(2)
Ceremonies and Rituals
36(1)
The Vision Quest
37(1)
Religious Leadership
38(1)
Other Means of Contact with the Spirit World
39(2)
Death and Life After Death
41(1)
Native American Religions Today
42(2)
Study Questions
44(1)
Suggested Reading
45(1)
Source Material
45(4)
Native American Myths
45(1)
Sioux Legend of the Buffalo Maiden
45(2)
Wooing Wohpe
47(2)
African Religions
49(21)
Native Religions
50(13)
The High God
51(1)
The Lesser Spirits
52(2)
Ancestors
54(1)
Sacrific
55(2)
Rites of Passage
57(4)
Religious Leaders
61(2)
Non-native African Religions
63(1)
African Religions Today
64(1)
Study Questions
65(1)
Suggested Reading
65(1)
Source Material
65(5)
An African Divine King
65(3)
An African Creation Story
68(2)
Religions Originating in India 70(97)
Hinduism
71(44)
The Origins of Hinduism
72(5)
Pre-Aryan India
72(2)
The Coming of the Aryans
74(2)
Aryan Religion
76(1)
The Vedic Era
77(13)
The Vedas
77(4)
The Upanishads
81(3)
The Law of Manu
84(3)
Jainism and Buddhism
87(1)
Bhagavad Gita
88(2)
Postclassical Hinduism
90(9)
Devotion to Three Major Gods
91(4)
Devotion to Knowledge
95(4)
Muslim Influences in India
99(1)
Modern Hinduism
100(4)
Hindu Holy Days
104(1)
Holi
104(1)
Divali
105(1)
Dasehra
105(1)
Hinduism Today
105(1)
Study Questions
106(1)
Suggested Reading
106(1)
Source Material
107(8)
Selections from the Rig-Veda
107(1)
Varunda and Indra
107(1)
``What God Shall We Adore with Our Oblation?''
108(1)
Selections from Upanishads
108(1)
Selections from the Law of Manu
109(1)
Selections from the Bhagavad Gita
110(2)
Shankara on the Nature of the Brahman
112(3)
Jainism
115(11)
The Life of Mahavira
115(1)
The Teachings of Jainism
116(4)
Jain Sects
120(1)
Jain Festivals
120(1)
Paijusana
121(1)
Divali
121(1)
Jainism Today
121(1)
Study Questions
122(1)
Suggested Reading
122(1)
Source Material
122(4)
A Jain Parable: The Man in the Well
122(2)
Jain Respect for Life
124(2)
Buddhism
126(29)
The Life of Gautama
126(5)
The Teachings of the Buddha
131(1)
The Development of Buddhism
132(1)
Theravada Buddhism
133(2)
Mahayana Buddhism
135(10)
The Principles of Mahayana
135(2)
The Spread of Mahayana Buddhism
137(1)
Mahayanist Sects
137(5)
Tibetan Buddhism
142(3)
Buddhist Festivals and Holy Days
145(1)
New Year
146(1)
Buddha's Birthday
146(1)
The Festival of Souls (Ullambana)
146(1)
The Robe Offering
146(1)
Buddhism Today
146(2)
Study Questions
148(1)
Suggested Reading
148(1)
Source Material
149(6)
Gautama Speaks of His Ascetic Practices
149(2)
The Buddha Explains the Eightfold Path
151(1)
The Infinite Compassion of the Bodhisattva
152(1)
The Importance of Sitting
153(2)
Sikhism
155(12)
The Life of Nanak
155(2)
The Teachings of Nanak
157(1)
The Historical Development of Sikhism
158(1)
Divisions Within Sikhism
159(1)
Sikh Religious Life
160(1)
Sikh Holy Days
161(1)
Sikhism Today
161(1)
Study Questions
162(1)
Suggested Reading
162(1)
Source Material
162(5)
The Japji
162(5)
Religions Originating in China and Japan 167(52)
Chinese Religions
168(34)
Basic Chinese Religious Concepts
170(4)
Recongnition of Multiple Gods and Spirits
170(1)
Yin and Yang
171(1)
Filial Piety and Ancestor Worship
171(1)
Divination
172(1)
Development of Belief in the Shang Ti
172(1)
Decline of the Feudal System
173(1)
Taoism
174(8)
The Life of Lao-tzu
174(1)
The Tao Te Ching
175(1)
Teachings of the Taoist Philosophers
175(4)
Schools that Rivaled the Early Taoists
179(1)
Later Development of Taoism
180(2)
Confucianism
182(8)
The Life of Confucius
183(1)
The Teachings of Confucius
184(3)
The Development of Confucianism
187(3)
Traditional Chinese Holidays
190(1)
Chinese New Year
190(1)
Pure and Bright Festival
190(1)
The Dragon Boat Festival
191(1)
All Soul's Day
191(1)
Autumn Harvest Festival
191(1)
Winter Holidays
191(1)
Taoism and Confucianism Today
191(2)
Study Questions
193(1)
Suggested Reading
193(1)
Source Material
193(9)
Selections from Sacred Chinese Literature
193(1)
Tao Te Ching
193(3)
The Analects of Confucious
196(3)
The Meaning and Value of Rituals
199(3)
Shinto
202(17)
Japanese Mythology
203(1)
The History of Shinto
204(5)
Shinto Prior to 300 C.E.
204(1)
Chinese Influence on Shinto
204(2)
The Revival of Shinto
206(3)
The Modern Era
209(1)
Three Forms of Shinto
209(4)
State Shinto
209(2)
Sectarian Shinto
211(1)
Domestic Shinto
212(1)
Japanese Festivals
213(1)
New Year (Shogatsu)
213(1)
Buddha's Birthday
214(1)
All Soul's Day (Ullambana)
214(1)
Autumn Festival (Niiname-sai)
214(1)
Shinto Today
214(1)
Study Questions
215(1)
Suggested Reading
215(1)
Source Material
215(4)
Shinto Myths
215(1)
Myths Regarding the Plain of High Heaven
216(3)
Religions Originationg in the Middle East 219(160)
Zoroastrianism
220(20)
Pre-Zoroastrian Persian Religion
220(2)
The Life of Zoroaster
222(1)
The Teachings of Zoroaster
223(8)
The Nature of God
223(2)
The God of Evil
225(1)
The Nature of Humankind
226(1)
The Destiny of Humankind
227(2)
Zoroastrian Ethics
229(1)
Zoroastrian Worship
229(2)
Historical Development of Zoroastrianism
231(3)
Zoroastrian Holy Days
234(1)
The Jasans
234(1)
New Year's Day (No Ruz)
234(1)
Seasonal Feasts (Gahambars)
234(1)
All Souls' Day (Muktad)
234(1)
Zoroastrianism Today
235(1)
Study Questions
235(1)
Suggested Reading
235(1)
Source Material
236(4)
Zoroastrian Eschatology
236(2)
Zoroastrian Dualism
238(2)
Judaism
240(38)
Biblical Patriarchs
241(2)
Exodus
243(2)
Sinai and the Law
245(1)
Post-Sinai Religious Institutions
245(1)
Religion in the Time of the Hebrew Monarchy
246(2)
The Temple
246(1)
The Prophetic Movement
247(1)
Exile and Return
248(2)
Diaspora
250(5)
The Synagogue
250(2)
The Mishnah
252(1)
The Talmud
253(2)
Medieval Judaism
255(4)
Judaism and Islam
255(1)
Judaism in Spain
256(1)
Judaism in Other European Nations
257(1)
The Crusades
257(1)
The Kabbalah
257(2)
Judaism and the Modern World
259(1)
Responses to Modernity
260(8)
Shabbatai Zevi
260(1)
Mendelssohn
260(1)
Baal Shem Tov
260(1)
Reform Judaism
261(1)
Zionism
262(1)
The Holocaust
263(2)
The State of Israel
265(1)
Current Variations in Judaism
265(3)
Jewish Festivals and Holy Days
268(2)
Sabbath (Shabbat)
268(1)
Passover (Pesach)
268(1)
The Feast of Weeks (Shavuot)
269(1)
New Year (Rosh Hashanah)
269(1)
The Day of Atonement (Yom KIppur)
269(1)
The Feast of Tabernacles (Sukkot)
269(1)
The Feast of Dedication (Chanukah)
269(1)
The Feast of Lots (Purim)
270(1)
The Son of the Commandment (Bar Mitzvah)
270(1)
Judaism Today
270(1)
Study Questions
271(1)
Suggested Reading
272(1)
Source Material
272(6)
Selections from Hebrew Scriptures
272(1)
Deuteronomy
273(1)
The Psalms, Book 1
274(1)
Micah
275(1)
The Mishnah: Pesahim (The Feast of Passover)
276(2)
Christianity
278(51)
The World of the First Century C.E.
278(2)
The Life and Teachings of Jesus
280(8)
Early Christianity
288(8)
The Jerusalem Church
288(1)
The Life of Paul
289(1)
The Worship of the Early Church
290(1)
Leadership in the Early Church
291(2)
The Production of the New Testament
293(1)
Early Theological Controversies
294(2)
Growth of the Church of Rome
296(3)
Emergence of Christianity as the Religion of the Roman Empire
296(1)
Augustine
297(1)
The Monastic Movement
298(1)
Medieval Christianity
299(3)
Division Between Eastern and Western Christianity
299(2)
The Medieval Papacy
301(1)
Thomas Aquinas
302(1)
The Protestant Reformation
302(6)
Early Reform Movements
303(1)
Martin Luther
303(2)
Ulrich Zwingli
305(1)
John Calvin
305(1)
Other Reformation Leaders and Movements
306(2)
Modern Christianity
308(3)
The Catholic Counter-Reformation
308(2)
Catholic Dogmas Since the Counter-Reformation
310(1)
Vatican II
311(1)
Modern Movements
311(3)
Modern Protestant Movements
311(2)
The Missionary Movement
313(1)
The Ecumenical Movement
313(1)
The Christian Calendar and Holy Days
314(2)
Sunday
314(1)
Advent, Christmas, and Epiphany
315(1)
Easter
315(1)
Pentecost
316(1)
Christianity Today
316(2)
Study Questions
318(1)
Suggested Reading
318(1)
Source Material
318(11)
Selections from the new Testament
318(1)
Sermon on the Mount
319(3)
Romans
322(2)
I Corinthians
324(2)
Revelations
326(1)
The Martydom of Perpetua and Felicitas
326(3)
Islam
329(38)
Pre-Islamic Arab Religion
329(2)
The Life of Muhammad
331(4)
The Qur'an
335(4)
The Nature of God
336(2)
Predestination
338(1)
Eschatology
339(1)
Religious Institutions
339(6)
The Mosque
339(1)
The Five Pillars
340(3)
Islam and Women
343(1)
Islamic Taboos
344(1)
Jihad
345(1)
The Spread of Islam
345(2)
The Caliphate
347(1)
Variations Within Islam
348(4)
The Sunnis
348(1)
The Shiites
349(1)
The Mystical Element
350(2)
Islam in the Modern World
352(3)
Muslim Calendar and Holy Days
355(1)
Feast of Fast-Breaking (`Id al-Fitr)
355(1)
Feast of Sacrifice (`Id al-Adha)
355(1)
New Year
355(1)
Birthday of the Prophet Muhammad (Mawlid an-Nabi)
356(1)
Islam Today
356(1)
Study Questions
357(1)
Suggested Reading
357(1)
Source Material
358(9)
The Muslim Vision of Allah
358(3)
The Prescriptions of Islam
361(3)
On the Day of Judgement
364(3)
Baha'i
367(12)
Origin and Development of Baha'i
367(1)
The Teachings of Baha'i
368(4)
Baha'i Practices
372(2)
Baha'i Calendar and Holy Days
374(1)
Baha'i Today
375(1)
Study Questions
375(1)
Suggested Reading
376(1)
Source Material
376(1)
Selections from the Writings of Bahaullah
376(3)
Glossary 379(10)
Credits 389(2)
Index 391


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