Foreword | p. xi |
Preface | p. xiii |
Acknowledgments | p. xix |
List of Figures | p. xxi |
List of Text Boxes | p. xxiii |
List of Tables | p. xxiv |
List of Acronyms and Abbreviations | p. xxv |
Fundamentals for Discerning Consumers | p. 1 |
Understanding the Nature of Research | p. 3 |
Introduction | p. 3 |
What Is All This Research About? | p. 3 |
Who Is All This Research For? | p. 4 |
Is All of this Research Really That Important? | p. 4 |
If Applied Linguistics Research Is So Important, How Can We Understand It Better? | p. 4 |
Overview | p. 5 |
Why Be a Consumer of Research? | p. 6 |
The Motivation Behind Research | p. 7 |
Demythologizing Research | p. 7 |
The Meaning of True Research | p. 8 |
Identifying Important Questions | p. 9 |
Where Are the Answers? | p. 12 |
Key Terms and Concepts | p. 19 |
Additional Recommended Reading | p. 20 |
How to Locate Research | p. 21 |
Chapter Overview | p. 21 |
Where to Look and What to Look For | p. 21 |
Preliminary Sources | p. 22 |
Secondary Sources | p. 27 |
Tables of References/Bibliographies | p. 30 |
Is All Primary Research of Equal Weight? | p. 30 |
Differentiating Primary From Secondary | p. 33 |
How to Obtain Research Articles | p. 35 |
What Journals Are Related to Applied Linguistics? | p. 36 |
Key Terms and Concepts | p. 36 |
Additional Recommended Reading | p. 37 |
The Major Components of Published Research | p. 39 |
Understanding the Framework of a Primary Research Article | p. 41 |
Chapter Overview | p. 41 |
The Framework of a Research Article | p. 41 |
The Title | p. 41 |
The Abstract | p. 43 |
The Introduction of a Study | p. 45 |
Method | p. 48 |
Results | p. 54 |
Discussion/Conclusion | p. 54 |
Key Terms and Concepts | p. 55 |
Additional Recommended Reading | p. 55 |
Understanding Where Data Come From: The Sample | p. 56 |
Chapter Overview | p. 56 |
Sampling Terminology | p. 56 |
Sampling Paradigms | p. 57 |
The Representative Sampling Paradigm | p. 59 |
The Purposeful Sampling Paradigm: Sample Strategies for Maximizing Information | p. 65 |
Ethics in Sampling of Human Participants | p. 71 |
Key Terms and Concepts | p. 72 |
Additional Recommended Reading | p. 73 |
Understanding Research Designs | p. 75 |
Chapter Overview | p. 75 |
Classifying Research Designs | p. 75 |
The BasicùApplied Continuum | p. 76 |
The QualitativeùQuantitative Continuum | p. 78 |
The ExploratoryùConfirmatory Continuum | p. 85 |
Questions and Designs | p. 87 |
The What Questions | p. 88 |
The Why Questions | p. 91 |
Internal Validity | p. 96 |
Key Terms and- Concepts | p. 111 |
Additional Recommended Reading | p. 112 |
Understanding Data Gathering | p. 115 |
Chapter Overview | p. 115 |
Collecting and Evaluating VerbalData | p. 116 |
Observational Procedures | p. 116 |
Evaluating the Dependability of Verbal Data Procedures | p. 126 |
Collecting and Evaluating Numerical Data | p. 131 |
Procedures for Gathering Numerical Data | p. 132 |
Evaluating the Qualities of Numerical Data Gathering Procedures | p. 142 |
Reliability | p. 142 |
Validity | p. 149 |
Key Terms and Concepts | p. 157 |
Additional Recommended Reading | p. 158 |
Understanding Research Results | p. 159 |
Chapter Overview | p. 159 |
Introduction to Data Analysis | p. 159 |
Numerical Versus Verbal Data | p. 159 |
Common Practice | p. 160 |
Analysis of Verbal Data | p. 160 |
Evaluating Patterns and Themes | p. 163 |
Evaluating Explanations and Conclusions | p. 165 |
Analysis of Numerical Data | p. 170 |
Overview of Statistics | p. 171 |
Understanding Descriptive Statistics | p. 172 |
Understanding Inferential Statistics | p. 174 |
Statistical Procedures | p. 178 |
Key Terms and Concepts | p. 198 |
Additional Recommended Reading | p. 198 |
Discerning Discussions and Conclusions: Completing the Picture | p. 199 |
Chapter Overview | p. 199 |
The Needed Ingredients | p. 200 |
Questions Every Consumer Should Ask | p. 200 |
Summarizing Research | p. 207 |
Review of Research | p. 207 |
Where to Begin | p. 209 |
Abstracting Primary Literature | p. 211 |
Writing a Review of Research | p. 212 |
eta-Analysis | p. 214 |
Going to the Next Level of Statistics | p. 216 |
More About Descriptive Statistics | p. 216 |
Types of Scales | p. 216 |
Shape of the Data Distribution | p. 219 |
The Average | p. 222 |
Data Variance | p. 224 |
More About Inferential Statistics | p. 225 |
Univariate Versus Multivariate Procedures | p. 225 |
More on Univariate ANOVAs | p. 226 |
Multivariate ANOVAs | p. 228 |
Degrees of Freedom | p. 230 |
Type II Error and Power | p. 231 |
Effect Size | p. 233 |
More on the Null Hypothesis | p. 234 |
The Logic of Testing the Null Hypothesis | p. 234 |
Key Terms and Concepts | p. 236 |
Journals Related to Applied Linguistics | p. 237 |
Glossary | p. 250 |
Notes | p. 260 |
References | p. 263 |
Website Reference | p. 276 |
Author Index | p. 277 |
Subject Index | p. 282 |
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