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# Research in Applied Linguistics : Becoming a Discerning Consumer

**by**Perry, Jr.; Fred L.

1st

### 9780415885713

041588571X

Nonspecific Binding

3/28/2011

Routledge

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## Summary

Newly updated and revised, this popular text provides a solid introduction to the foundations of research methods, with the goal of enabling students and professionals in the field of applied linguistics to become not just casual consumers of research who passively read bits and pieces of a research article, but discerning consumers able to effectively use published research for practical purposes in educational settings. All issues important for understanding and using published research for these purposes are covered. Key principles are illustrated with research studies published in refereed journals across a wide spectrum of applied linguistics. Exercises throughout the text encourage readers to engage interactively with what they are reading at the point when the information is fresh in their minds.Changes in the Second Edition:New examples in chapter 2 reflecting formatting changes made by ERICMajor reordering in chapter 4 to better represent the sample typesReorganization of chapters 6 and 7 to enhance cohesion of the themes being discussedUpdated references and recommended reading lists in all chapters

## Author Biography

Professor Fred L. Perry, Jr. has spent over half his life outside of the U.S.A., where he and his family have lived and worked in nine countries. He is Professor Emeritus at the American University in Cairo, Egypt, where he taught research methods and language assessment in the M.A. TEFL program and also headed their Testing Evaluation Service over a 19-year period.

## Table of Contents

Foreword | p. xi |

Preface | p. xiii |

Acknowledgments | p. xix |

List of Figures | p. xxi |

List of Text Boxes | p. xxiii |

List of Tables | p. xxiv |

List of Acronyms and Abbreviations | p. xxv |

Fundamentals for Discerning Consumers | p. 1 |

Understanding the Nature of Research | p. 3 |

Introduction | p. 3 |

What Is All This Research About? | p. 3 |

Who Is All This Research For? | p. 4 |

Is All of this Research Really That Important? | p. 4 |

If Applied Linguistics Research Is So Important, How Can We Understand It Better? | p. 4 |

Overview | p. 5 |

Why Be a Consumer of Research? | p. 6 |

The Motivation Behind Research | p. 7 |

Demythologizing Research | p. 7 |

The Meaning of True Research | p. 8 |

Identifying Important Questions | p. 9 |

Where Are the Answers? | p. 12 |

Key Terms and Concepts | p. 19 |

Additional Recommended Reading | p. 20 |

How to Locate Research | p. 21 |

Chapter Overview | p. 21 |

Where to Look and What to Look For | p. 21 |

Preliminary Sources | p. 22 |

Secondary Sources | p. 27 |

Tables of References/Bibliographies | p. 30 |

Is All Primary Research of Equal Weight? | p. 30 |

Differentiating Primary From Secondary | p. 33 |

How to Obtain Research Articles | p. 35 |

What Journals Are Related to Applied Linguistics? | p. 36 |

Key Terms and Concepts | p. 36 |

Additional Recommended Reading | p. 37 |

The Major Components of Published Research | p. 39 |

Understanding the Framework of a Primary Research Article | p. 41 |

Chapter Overview | p. 41 |

The Framework of a Research Article | p. 41 |

The Title | p. 41 |

The Abstract | p. 43 |

The Introduction of a Study | p. 45 |

Method | p. 48 |

Results | p. 54 |

Discussion/Conclusion | p. 54 |

Key Terms and Concepts | p. 55 |

Additional Recommended Reading | p. 55 |

Understanding Where Data Come From: The Sample | p. 56 |

Chapter Overview | p. 56 |

Sampling Terminology | p. 56 |

Sampling Paradigms | p. 57 |

The Representative Sampling Paradigm | p. 59 |

The Purposeful Sampling Paradigm: Sample Strategies for Maximizing Information | p. 65 |

Ethics in Sampling of Human Participants | p. 71 |

Key Terms and Concepts | p. 72 |

Additional Recommended Reading | p. 73 |

Understanding Research Designs | p. 75 |

Chapter Overview | p. 75 |

Classifying Research Designs | p. 75 |

The BasicùApplied Continuum | p. 76 |

The QualitativeùQuantitative Continuum | p. 78 |

The ExploratoryùConfirmatory Continuum | p. 85 |

Questions and Designs | p. 87 |

The What Questions | p. 88 |

The Why Questions | p. 91 |

Internal Validity | p. 96 |

Key Terms and- Concepts | p. 111 |

Additional Recommended Reading | p. 112 |

Understanding Data Gathering | p. 115 |

Chapter Overview | p. 115 |

Collecting and Evaluating VerbalData | p. 116 |

Observational Procedures | p. 116 |

Evaluating the Dependability of Verbal Data Procedures | p. 126 |

Collecting and Evaluating Numerical Data | p. 131 |

Procedures for Gathering Numerical Data | p. 132 |

Evaluating the Qualities of Numerical Data Gathering Procedures | p. 142 |

Reliability | p. 142 |

Validity | p. 149 |

Key Terms and Concepts | p. 157 |

Additional Recommended Reading | p. 158 |

Understanding Research Results | p. 159 |

Chapter Overview | p. 159 |

Introduction to Data Analysis | p. 159 |

Numerical Versus Verbal Data | p. 159 |

Common Practice | p. 160 |

Analysis of Verbal Data | p. 160 |

Evaluating Patterns and Themes | p. 163 |

Evaluating Explanations and Conclusions | p. 165 |

Analysis of Numerical Data | p. 170 |

Overview of Statistics | p. 171 |

Understanding Descriptive Statistics | p. 172 |

Understanding Inferential Statistics | p. 174 |

Statistical Procedures | p. 178 |

Key Terms and Concepts | p. 198 |

Additional Recommended Reading | p. 198 |

Discerning Discussions and Conclusions: Completing the Picture | p. 199 |

Chapter Overview | p. 199 |

The Needed Ingredients | p. 200 |

Questions Every Consumer Should Ask | p. 200 |

Summarizing Research | p. 207 |

Review of Research | p. 207 |

Where to Begin | p. 209 |

Abstracting Primary Literature | p. 211 |

Writing a Review of Research | p. 212 |

eta-Analysis | p. 214 |

Going to the Next Level of Statistics | p. 216 |

More About Descriptive Statistics | p. 216 |

Types of Scales | p. 216 |

Shape of the Data Distribution | p. 219 |

The Average | p. 222 |

Data Variance | p. 224 |

More About Inferential Statistics | p. 225 |

Univariate Versus Multivariate Procedures | p. 225 |

More on Univariate ANOVAs | p. 226 |

Multivariate ANOVAs | p. 228 |

Degrees of Freedom | p. 230 |

Type II Error and Power | p. 231 |

Effect Size | p. 233 |

More on the Null Hypothesis | p. 234 |

The Logic of Testing the Null Hypothesis | p. 234 |

Key Terms and Concepts | p. 236 |

Journals Related to Applied Linguistics | p. 237 |

Glossary | p. 250 |

Notes | p. 260 |

References | p. 263 |

Website Reference | p. 276 |

Author Index | p. 277 |

Subject Index | p. 282 |

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