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Preface | p. xxi |
Curiosity, Creativity, and Commitment | p. 1 |
Using the Resources of This Text | p. 2 |
Exploring the Student Resource Website | p. 2 |
Using SPSS for Windows | p. 4 |
Science | p. 4 |
Science Is a Way of Thinking | p. 4 |
Asking Questions | p. 5 |
Science and Art | p. 7 |
The Three Princes of Serendip | p. 7 |
Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace | p. 8 |
Leonardo da Vinci | p. 9 |
Acquiring Knowledge | p. 10 |
Tenacity | p. 10 |
Intuition | p. 11 |
Authority | p. 11 |
Rationalism | p. 12 |
Empiricism | p. 12 |
Science | p. 13 |
Emergence of Science | p. 14 |
Early Civilization | p. 14 |
Greek Science | p. 15 |
Medieval Science | p. 16 |
The Scientific Revolution | p. 17 |
Ethical Concerns | p. 18 |
Psychology | p. 19 |
The History of Psychology | p. 19 |
Women and Minorities in Psychology | p. 22 |
Modern Psychology | p. 24 |
The Science of Psychology | p. 25 |
Science and Pseudoscience | p. 27 |
Putting It into Practice | p. 28 |
Chapter Summary | p. 28 |
Chapter Exercises | p. 29 |
Research Is a Process of Inquiry | p. 30 |
The Scientific Process | p. 31 |
Basic Assumptions of Science | p. 31 |
Observation and Inference: Facts and Constructs | p. 32 |
Inductive and Deductive Thinking | p. 34 |
Models and Theories in Science | p. 36 |
The Wright Brothers as Scientists | p. 38 |
A Model of the Research Process | p. 41 |
Phases of Research | p. 42 |
Levels of Constraint | p. 47 |
Putting It into Practice | p. 53 |
Chapter Summary | p. 53 |
Chapter Exercises | p. 54 |
The Starting Point: Asking Questions | p. 55 |
Asking and Refining Questions | p. 56 |
Pursuing Your Personal Interests | p. 56 |
Following Up on the Work of Others | p. 56 |
Applied and Basic Research | p. 57 |
Refining Questions for Research | p. 58 |
Types of Variables in Research | p. 60 |
Classifying Variables Based on Their Nature | p. 60 |
Classifying Variables Based on Their Use in Research | p. 62 |
Validity and the Control of Extraneous Variables | p. 64 |
Research Ethics | p. 65 |
Ethical Principles for Human Research | p. 65 |
Never Let Technology Outrun Ethics | p. 69 |
Ethics and Diversity Issues in Research | p. 70 |
Ethical Principles for Animal Research | p. 70 |
Putting It into Practice | p. 73 |
Chapter Summary | p. 73 |
Chapter Exercises | p. 74 |
Data and the Nature of Measurement | p. 75 |
Measurement | p. 76 |
Missing Mars | p. 78 |
Misconduct in Science | p. 78 |
Scales of Measurement | p. 79 |
Nominal Scales | p. 80 |
Ordinal Scales | p. 80 |
Interval Scales | p. 81 |
Ratio Scales | p. 81 |
Measuring and Controlling Variables | p. 82 |
Measurement Error | p. 82 |
Operational Definitions | p. 83 |
Evaluating Measures | p. 86 |
Reliability | p. 87 |
Effective Range | p. 88 |
Validity | p. 90 |
The Need for Objective Measurement | p. 90 |
Putting It into Practice | p. 92 |
Chapter Summary | p. 92 |
Chapter Exercises | p. 93 |
Statistical Analysis of Data | p. 94 |
Individual Differences | p. 95 |
Organizing Data | p. 97 |
Frequency Distributions | p. 97 |
Graphical Representation of Data | p. 100 |
Descriptive Statistics | p. 103 |
Measures of Central Tendency | p. 104 |
Lies, Damn Lies, and Statistics: A Matter of Ethics | p. 105 |
Measures of Variability | p. 106 |
Measures of Relationship | p. 110 |
Standard Scores | p. 113 |
Statistical Inference | p. 114 |
Populations and Samples | p. 114 |
The Null Hypothesis | p. 115 |
Statistical Decisions and Alpha Levels | p. 115 |
Type I and Type II Errors | p. 116 |
Inferential Statistics | p. 117 |
Testing for Mean Differences | p. 117 |
The Power of a Statistical Test | p. 118 |
Effect Size | p. 118 |
Statistical versus Practical Significance | p. 119 |
Meta-analysis | p. 119 |
Putting It into Practice | p. 120 |
Chapter Summary | p. 120 |
Chapter Exercises | p. 121 |
Field Research: Naturalistic and Case-Study Research | p. 122 |
The Challenge of Low-Constraint Research | p. 123 |
Examples of Naturalistic Observation | p. 124 |
Naturalistic Research and Evolution | p. 125 |
Examples of Case-Study Research | p. 127 |
The Value of Low-Constraint Methods | p. 129 |
Conditions for Using Low-Constraint Research | p. 129 |
Information Gained from Low-Constraint Research | p. 130 |
The Therapist as Scientist | p. 131 |
Using Low-Constraint Methods | p. 133 |
Problem Statements and Research Hypotheses | p. 133 |
Making Observations | p. 134 |
Sampling of Participants | p. 137 |
Sampling of Situations | p. 138 |
Sampling of Behaviors | p. 138 |
Evaluating and Interpreting Data | p. 138 |
Limitations of Low-Constraint Methods | p. 139 |
Poor Representativeness | p. 140 |
Poor Replicability | p. 140 |
Causal Inference and Low-Constraint Research | p. 140 |
Limitations of the Observer | p. 142 |
Going Beyond the Data | p. 142 |
Putting It into Practice | p. 143 |
Chapter Summary | p. 143 |
Chapter Exercises | p. 144 |
Correlational and Differential Methods of Research | p. 145 |
Correlational Research Methods | p. 146 |
Differential Research Methods | p. 147 |
Cross-Sectional versus Longitudinal Research | p. 148 |
Artifacts and Confounding | p. 149 |
Understanding Correlational and Differential Methods | p. 150 |
Comparing These Methods | p. 151 |
When to Use These Methods | p. 151 |
Conducting Correlational Research | p. 153 |
Problem Statements | p. 153 |
Detecting Demographic, Gender, or Cultural Effects | p. 153 |
Measuring the Variables | p. 153 |
Sampling | p. 154 |
Analyzing the Data | p. 155 |
Interpreting the Correlation | p. 156 |
Conducting Differential Research | p. 156 |
Problem Statements | p. 157 |
Measuring the Variables | p. 158 |
Selecting Appropriate Control Groups | p. 158 |
Sampling | p. 161 |
Analyzing the Data | p. 163 |
Interpreting the Data | p. 163 |
Limitations of Correlational and Differential Research | p. 164 |
Problems in Determining Causation | p. 164 |
Confounding Variables | p. 166 |
Putting It into Practice | p. 167 |
Chapter Summary | p. 167 |
Chapter Exercises | p. 168 |
Hypothesis Testing, Validity, and Threats to Validity | p. 169 |
Hypothesis Testing | p. 170 |
Starting Research with an Initial Idea | p. 171 |
Statement of the Problem | p. 172 |
Operational Definitions | p. 174 |
Research Hypothesis | p. 174 |
The Contribution of Theory to the Research Hypothesis | p. 175 |
Testing the Research Hypothesis | p. 176 |
Validity and Threats to Validity | p. 181 |
Statistical Validity | p. 181 |
Construct Validity | p. 182 |
External Validity | p. 182 |
Internal Validity | p. 183 |
Major Confounding Variables | p. 185 |
Maturation | p. 185 |
History | p. 185 |
Testing | p. 186 |
Instrumentation | p. 186 |
Regression to the Mean | p. 187 |
Selection | p. 188 |
Attrition | p. 188 |
Diffusion of Treatment | p. 188 |
Sequence Effects | p. 189 |
Subject and Experimenter Effects | p. 189 |
Subject Effects | p. 190 |
Experimenter Effects | p. 190 |
Putting It into Practice | p. 192 |
Chapter Summary | p. 192 |
Chapter Exercises | p. 193 |
Controls to Reduce Threats to Validity | p. 194 |
General Control Procedures | p. 195 |
Preparation of the Setting | p. 195 |
Response Measurement | p. 196 |
Replication | p. 196 |
Control over Subject and Experimenter Effects | p. 197 |
Single- and Double-Blind Procedures | p. 197 |
Automation | p. 199 |
Using Objective Measures | p. 199 |
Multiple Observers | p. 200 |
Reliable Reliability | p. 201 |
Using Deception | p. 202 |
Control Through Participant Selection and Assignment | p. 203 |
Participant Selection | p. 203 |
Participant Assignment | p. 207 |
Control Through Experimental Design | p. 212 |
Putting It into Practice | p. 214 |
Chapter Summary | p. 215 |
Chapter Exercises | p. 215 |
Single-Variable, Independent-Groups Designs | p. 216 |
Variance | p. 217 |
Sources of Variance | p. 218 |
Controlling Variance in Research | p. 221 |
Nonexperimental Approaches | p. 226 |
Ex Post Facto Studies | p. 226 |
Seeing All Sides | p. 227 |
Single-Group, Posttest-Only Studies | p. 229 |
Single-Group, Pretest-Posttest Studies | p. 230 |
Pretest-Posttest, Natural Control-Group Studies | p. 231 |
Experimental Designs | p. 232 |
Randomized, Posttest-Only, Control-Group Design | p. 233 |
Randomized, Pretest-Posttest, Control-Group Design | p. 235 |
Multilevel, Completely Randomized, Between-Subjects Design | p. 235 |
Solomon's Four-Group Design | p. 237 |
Statistical Analyses | p. 239 |
t-Test | p. 239 |
Analysis of Variance | p. 239 |
Specific Means Comparisons in ANOVA | p. 244 |
Putting It into Practice | p. 246 |
Chapter Summary | p. 247 |
Chapter Exercises | p. 247 |
Correlated-Groups and Single-Subject Designs | p. 249 |
Within-Subjects Designs | p. 250 |
Using Within-Subjects Designs | p. 250 |
Analyzing Within-Subjects Designs | p. 252 |
Strengths and Weaknesses of Within-Subjects Designs | p. 253 |
Matched-Subjects Designs | p. 257 |
Using Matched-Subjects Designs | p. 258 |
Analyzing Matched-Subjects Designs | p. 261 |
Strengths and Weaknesses of Matched-Subjects Designs | p. 261 |
Single-Subject Experimental Designs | p. 263 |
Historical Lesson 11.1: Neuropsychology Cases | p. 263 |
ABA Reversal Designs | p. 266 |
Multiple-Baseline Designs | p. 268 |
Putting It into Practice | p. 274 |
Chapter Summary | p. 274 |
Chapter Exercises | p. 275 |
Factorial Designs | p. 276 |
Factorial Designs | p. 277 |
Main Effects and Interactions | p. 280 |
Possible Outcomes of Factorial Designs | p. 282 |
An Example: Children's Dark-Fears Study | p. 285 |
Analysis of Variance in Factorial Designs | p. 289 |
Variations of Basic Factorial Design | p. 291 |
Within-Subjects or Repeated-Measures Factorial | p. 291 |
Mixed Designs | p. 291 |
Solomon's Four-Group Design | p. 294 |
ANOVA: A Postscript | p. 296 |
Analysis of Covariance | p. 297 |
Multivariate Analysis of Variance | p. 298 |
Putting It into Practice | p. 299 |
Chapter Summary | p. 299 |
Chapter Exercises | p. 300 |
A Second Look at Field Research: Field Experiments, Program Evaluation, and Survey Research | p. 301 |
Conducting Field Research | p. 302 |
Reasons for Doing Field Experiments | p. 302 |
Difficulties in Field Research | p. 304 |
Flexibility in Research | p. 305 |
Quasi-Experimental Designs | p. 306 |
Nonequivalent Control-Group Designs | p. 307 |
Interrupted Time-Series Design | p. 310 |
Program Evaluation Research | p. 315 |
Practical Problems in Program Evaluation Research | p. 315 |
Historical Lesson 13.1: From Head Start to Heads Up | p. 316 |
Issues of Control | p. 317 |
Typical Program Evaluation Designs | p. 318 |
Program Evaluation Research: An Example | p. 319 |
Surveys | p. 321 |
Types of Surveys | p. 321 |
Steps in Survey Research | p. 321 |
Types of Survey Instruments | p. 322 |
Developing the Survey Instrument | p. 323 |
Sampling Participants | p. 324 |
Political Polling and Sampling | p. 326 |
Survey Research Designs | p. 328 |
Putting It into Practice | p. 329 |
Chapter Summary | p. 329 |
Chapter Exercises | p. 329 |
Final Preparations Before Data Collection | p. 331 |
Selecting Appropriate Statistical Procedures | p. 332 |
An Initial Example | p. 332 |
A Decision-Tree Model | p. 333 |
Secondary Analyses | p. 341 |
Caveats and Disclaimers | p. 342 |
Historical Lesson 14.1: The Robust Nature of Parametric Statistics | p. 343 |
Pre-Data Check | p. 344 |
Initial Problem Definition | p. 345 |
Clarity of the Research Hypotheses | p. 346 |
Statistical Analysis Procedures | p. 346 |
Theoretical Basis and Operational Definitions | p. 346 |
Adequacy of the Independent Variable Manipulation | p. 346 |
Adequacy of Dependent Measures | p. 346 |
Are All Controls in Place? | p. 347 |
Participants | p. 347 |
Preparation of the Setting | p. 348 |
Adequacy of Participant Preparation, Instruction, and Procedures | p. 348 |
Putting It into Practice | p. 349 |
Chapter Summary | p. 349 |
Chapter Exercises | p. 349 |
Research Methodology: An Evolving Discipline | p. 351 |
New Directions in Research Methodology | p. 352 |
The Evolution of Research Questions and Methods | p. 352 |
New Statistical Methods | p. 353 |
Meta-analysis and Cumulative Knowledge | p. 354 |
The Impact of Other Disciplines | p. 356 |
Interdisciplinary Research | p. 357 |
Moving Research Out of the Laboratory | p. 357 |
The Impact of Computers | p. 358 |
Scientific Research and Society | p. 360 |
Science: An Interaction of Empiricism and Rationalism | p. 361 |
The Growth of Science | p. 361 |
Ethical Conduct in Research | p. 362 |
The Essence of Science: A Reminder | p. 362 |
Putting It into Practice | p. 363 |
Chapter Summary | p. 363 |
Chapter Exercises | p. 363 |
Using the Student Resource Website | p. 364 |
Resources Available | p. 364 |
What to Do If You Have Problems | p. 365 |
Getting Help | p. 368 |
Appendix Summary | p. 368 |
Writing a Research Report in APA Publication Style | p. 369 |
Structure of a Research Article | p. 370 |
Writing the Research Report | p. 370 |
Using Levels of Headings to Organize | p. 370 |
Sections of a Research Report | p. 371 |
Writing Style | p. 374 |
Appendix Summary | p. 375 |
Conducting Library Research | p. 377 |
Using the Library | p. 377 |
Library Resources | p. 378 |
The Reference Librarian | p. 378 |
How Research Materials Are Organized | p. 378 |
Primary Sources | p. 378 |
Secondary Sources | p. 379 |
Finding the Relevant Research | p. 379 |
Abstracting Services | p. 379 |
Subject or Keyword Services | p. 380 |
Literature Citation Indexes | p. 380 |
Search Strategies | p. 380 |
Searching by Topic | p. 380 |
Searching Backward | p. 382 |
Searching Forward | p. 383 |
Appendix Summary | p. 383 |
Random Numbers | p. 384 |
Answers to Quick-Check Review Questions | p. 389 |
Glossary | p. 402 |
References | p. 424 |
Author Index | p. 434 |
Subject Index | p. 437 |
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