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Research Methods : A Process of Inquiry,9780205484751
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Research Methods : A Process of Inquiry

by ;
Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780205484751

ISBN10:
0205484751
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2010
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $135.60
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Summary

This comprehensive book explores the entire range of research methodologies in psychology, using a programmatic approach to introduce topics and build on earlier presentations to increase understanding. It includes the most extensive package of web-based features of any book in this market.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xxi
Curiosity, Creativity, and Commitmentp. 1
Using the Resources of This Textp. 2
Exploring the Student Resource Websitep. 2
Using SPSS for Windowsp. 4
Sciencep. 4
Science Is a Way of Thinkingp. 4
Asking Questionsp. 5
Science and Artp. 7
The Three Princes of Serendipp. 7
Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallacep. 8
Leonardo da Vincip. 9
Acquiring Knowledgep. 10
Tenacityp. 10
Intuitionp. 11
Authorityp. 11
Rationalismp. 12
Empiricismp. 12
Sciencep. 13
Emergence of Sciencep. 14
Early Civilizationp. 14
Greek Sciencep. 15
Medieval Sciencep. 16
The Scientific Revolutionp. 17
Ethical Concernsp. 18
Psychologyp. 19
The History of Psychologyp. 19
Women and Minorities in Psychologyp. 22
Modern Psychologyp. 24
The Science of Psychologyp. 25
Science and Pseudosciencep. 27
Putting It into Practicep. 28
Chapter Summaryp. 28
Chapter Exercisesp. 29
Research Is a Process of Inquiryp. 30
The Scientific Processp. 31
Basic Assumptions of Sciencep. 31
Observation and Inference: Facts and Constructsp. 32
Inductive and Deductive Thinkingp. 34
Models and Theories in Sciencep. 36
The Wright Brothers as Scientistsp. 38
A Model of the Research Processp. 41
Phases of Researchp. 42
Levels of Constraintp. 47
Putting It into Practicep. 53
Chapter Summaryp. 53
Chapter Exercisesp. 54
The Starting Point: Asking Questionsp. 55
Asking and Refining Questionsp. 56
Pursuing Your Personal Interestsp. 56
Following Up on the Work of Othersp. 56
Applied and Basic Researchp. 57
Refining Questions for Researchp. 58
Types of Variables in Researchp. 60
Classifying Variables Based on Their Naturep. 60
Classifying Variables Based on Their Use in Researchp. 62
Validity and the Control of Extraneous Variablesp. 64
Research Ethicsp. 65
Ethical Principles for Human Researchp. 65
Never Let Technology Outrun Ethicsp. 69
Ethics and Diversity Issues in Researchp. 70
Ethical Principles for Animal Researchp. 70
Putting It into Practicep. 73
Chapter Summaryp. 73
Chapter Exercisesp. 74
Data and the Nature of Measurementp. 75
Measurementp. 76
Missing Marsp. 78
Misconduct in Sciencep. 78
Scales of Measurementp. 79
Nominal Scalesp. 80
Ordinal Scalesp. 80
Interval Scalesp. 81
Ratio Scalesp. 81
Measuring and Controlling Variablesp. 82
Measurement Errorp. 82
Operational Definitionsp. 83
Evaluating Measuresp. 86
Reliabilityp. 87
Effective Rangep. 88
Validityp. 90
The Need for Objective Measurementp. 90
Putting It into Practicep. 92
Chapter Summaryp. 92
Chapter Exercisesp. 93
Statistical Analysis of Datap. 94
Individual Differencesp. 95
Organizing Datap. 97
Frequency Distributionsp. 97
Graphical Representation of Datap. 100
Descriptive Statisticsp. 103
Measures of Central Tendencyp. 104
Lies, Damn Lies, and Statistics: A Matter of Ethicsp. 105
Measures of Variabilityp. 106
Measures of Relationshipp. 110
Standard Scoresp. 113
Statistical Inferencep. 114
Populations and Samplesp. 114
The Null Hypothesisp. 115
Statistical Decisions and Alpha Levelsp. 115
Type I and Type II Errorsp. 116
Inferential Statisticsp. 117
Testing for Mean Differencesp. 117
The Power of a Statistical Testp. 118
Effect Sizep. 118
Statistical versus Practical Significancep. 119
Meta-analysisp. 119
Putting It into Practicep. 120
Chapter Summaryp. 120
Chapter Exercisesp. 121
Field Research: Naturalistic and Case-Study Researchp. 122
The Challenge of Low-Constraint Researchp. 123
Examples of Naturalistic Observationp. 124
Naturalistic Research and Evolutionp. 125
Examples of Case-Study Researchp. 127
The Value of Low-Constraint Methodsp. 129
Conditions for Using Low-Constraint Researchp. 129
Information Gained from Low-Constraint Researchp. 130
The Therapist as Scientistp. 131
Using Low-Constraint Methodsp. 133
Problem Statements and Research Hypothesesp. 133
Making Observationsp. 134
Sampling of Participantsp. 137
Sampling of Situationsp. 138
Sampling of Behaviorsp. 138
Evaluating and Interpreting Datap. 138
Limitations of Low-Constraint Methodsp. 139
Poor Representativenessp. 140
Poor Replicabilityp. 140
Causal Inference and Low-Constraint Researchp. 140
Limitations of the Observerp. 142
Going Beyond the Datap. 142
Putting It into Practicep. 143
Chapter Summaryp. 143
Chapter Exercisesp. 144
Correlational and Differential Methods of Researchp. 145
Correlational Research Methodsp. 146
Differential Research Methodsp. 147
Cross-Sectional versus Longitudinal Researchp. 148
Artifacts and Confoundingp. 149
Understanding Correlational and Differential Methodsp. 150
Comparing These Methodsp. 151
When to Use These Methodsp. 151
Conducting Correlational Researchp. 153
Problem Statementsp. 153
Detecting Demographic, Gender, or Cultural Effectsp. 153
Measuring the Variablesp. 153
Samplingp. 154
Analyzing the Datap. 155
Interpreting the Correlationp. 156
Conducting Differential Researchp. 156
Problem Statementsp. 157
Measuring the Variablesp. 158
Selecting Appropriate Control Groupsp. 158
Samplingp. 161
Analyzing the Datap. 163
Interpreting the Datap. 163
Limitations of Correlational and Differential Researchp. 164
Problems in Determining Causationp. 164
Confounding Variablesp. 166
Putting It into Practicep. 167
Chapter Summaryp. 167
Chapter Exercisesp. 168
Hypothesis Testing, Validity, and Threats to Validityp. 169
Hypothesis Testingp. 170
Starting Research with an Initial Ideap. 171
Statement of the Problemp. 172
Operational Definitionsp. 174
Research Hypothesisp. 174
The Contribution of Theory to the Research Hypothesisp. 175
Testing the Research Hypothesisp. 176
Validity and Threats to Validityp. 181
Statistical Validityp. 181
Construct Validityp. 182
External Validityp. 182
Internal Validityp. 183
Major Confounding Variablesp. 185
Maturationp. 185
Historyp. 185
Testingp. 186
Instrumentationp. 186
Regression to the Meanp. 187
Selectionp. 188
Attritionp. 188
Diffusion of Treatmentp. 188
Sequence Effectsp. 189
Subject and Experimenter Effectsp. 189
Subject Effectsp. 190
Experimenter Effectsp. 190
Putting It into Practicep. 192
Chapter Summaryp. 192
Chapter Exercisesp. 193
Controls to Reduce Threats to Validityp. 194
General Control Proceduresp. 195
Preparation of the Settingp. 195
Response Measurementp. 196
Replicationp. 196
Control over Subject and Experimenter Effectsp. 197
Single- and Double-Blind Proceduresp. 197
Automationp. 199
Using Objective Measuresp. 199
Multiple Observersp. 200
Reliable Reliabilityp. 201
Using Deceptionp. 202
Control Through Participant Selection and Assignmentp. 203
Participant Selectionp. 203
Participant Assignmentp. 207
Control Through Experimental Designp. 212
Putting It into Practicep. 214
Chapter Summaryp. 215
Chapter Exercisesp. 215
Single-Variable, Independent-Groups Designsp. 216
Variancep. 217
Sources of Variancep. 218
Controlling Variance in Researchp. 221
Nonexperimental Approachesp. 226
Ex Post Facto Studiesp. 226
Seeing All Sidesp. 227
Single-Group, Posttest-Only Studiesp. 229
Single-Group, Pretest-Posttest Studiesp. 230
Pretest-Posttest, Natural Control-Group Studiesp. 231
Experimental Designsp. 232
Randomized, Posttest-Only, Control-Group Designp. 233
Randomized, Pretest-Posttest, Control-Group Designp. 235
Multilevel, Completely Randomized, Between-Subjects Designp. 235
Solomon's Four-Group Designp. 237
Statistical Analysesp. 239
t-Testp. 239
Analysis of Variancep. 239
Specific Means Comparisons in ANOVAp. 244
Putting It into Practicep. 246
Chapter Summaryp. 247
Chapter Exercisesp. 247
Correlated-Groups and Single-Subject Designsp. 249
Within-Subjects Designsp. 250
Using Within-Subjects Designsp. 250
Analyzing Within-Subjects Designsp. 252
Strengths and Weaknesses of Within-Subjects Designsp. 253
Matched-Subjects Designsp. 257
Using Matched-Subjects Designsp. 258
Analyzing Matched-Subjects Designsp. 261
Strengths and Weaknesses of Matched-Subjects Designsp. 261
Single-Subject Experimental Designsp. 263
Historical Lesson 11.1: Neuropsychology Casesp. 263
ABA Reversal Designsp. 266
Multiple-Baseline Designsp. 268
Putting It into Practicep. 274
Chapter Summaryp. 274
Chapter Exercisesp. 275
Factorial Designsp. 276
Factorial Designsp. 277
Main Effects and Interactionsp. 280
Possible Outcomes of Factorial Designsp. 282
An Example: Children's Dark-Fears Studyp. 285
Analysis of Variance in Factorial Designsp. 289
Variations of Basic Factorial Designp. 291
Within-Subjects or Repeated-Measures Factorialp. 291
Mixed Designsp. 291
Solomon's Four-Group Designp. 294
ANOVA: A Postscriptp. 296
Analysis of Covariancep. 297
Multivariate Analysis of Variancep. 298
Putting It into Practicep. 299
Chapter Summaryp. 299
Chapter Exercisesp. 300
A Second Look at Field Research: Field Experiments, Program Evaluation, and Survey Researchp. 301
Conducting Field Researchp. 302
Reasons for Doing Field Experimentsp. 302
Difficulties in Field Researchp. 304
Flexibility in Researchp. 305
Quasi-Experimental Designsp. 306
Nonequivalent Control-Group Designsp. 307
Interrupted Time-Series Designp. 310
Program Evaluation Researchp. 315
Practical Problems in Program Evaluation Researchp. 315
Historical Lesson 13.1: From Head Start to Heads Upp. 316
Issues of Controlp. 317
Typical Program Evaluation Designsp. 318
Program Evaluation Research: An Examplep. 319
Surveysp. 321
Types of Surveysp. 321
Steps in Survey Researchp. 321
Types of Survey Instrumentsp. 322
Developing the Survey Instrumentp. 323
Sampling Participantsp. 324
Political Polling and Samplingp. 326
Survey Research Designsp. 328
Putting It into Practicep. 329
Chapter Summaryp. 329
Chapter Exercisesp. 329
Final Preparations Before Data Collectionp. 331
Selecting Appropriate Statistical Proceduresp. 332
An Initial Examplep. 332
A Decision-Tree Modelp. 333
Secondary Analysesp. 341
Caveats and Disclaimersp. 342
Historical Lesson 14.1: The Robust Nature of Parametric Statisticsp. 343
Pre-Data Checkp. 344
Initial Problem Definitionp. 345
Clarity of the Research Hypothesesp. 346
Statistical Analysis Proceduresp. 346
Theoretical Basis and Operational Definitionsp. 346
Adequacy of the Independent Variable Manipulationp. 346
Adequacy of Dependent Measuresp. 346
Are All Controls in Place?p. 347
Participantsp. 347
Preparation of the Settingp. 348
Adequacy of Participant Preparation, Instruction, and Proceduresp. 348
Putting It into Practicep. 349
Chapter Summaryp. 349
Chapter Exercisesp. 349
Research Methodology: An Evolving Disciplinep. 351
New Directions in Research Methodologyp. 352
The Evolution of Research Questions and Methodsp. 352
New Statistical Methodsp. 353
Meta-analysis and Cumulative Knowledgep. 354
The Impact of Other Disciplinesp. 356
Interdisciplinary Researchp. 357
Moving Research Out of the Laboratoryp. 357
The Impact of Computersp. 358
Scientific Research and Societyp. 360
Science: An Interaction of Empiricism and Rationalismp. 361
The Growth of Sciencep. 361
Ethical Conduct in Researchp. 362
The Essence of Science: A Reminderp. 362
Putting It into Practicep. 363
Chapter Summaryp. 363
Chapter Exercisesp. 363
Using the Student Resource Websitep. 364
Resources Availablep. 364
What to Do If You Have Problemsp. 365
Getting Helpp. 368
Appendix Summaryp. 368
Writing a Research Report in APA Publication Stylep. 369
Structure of a Research Articlep. 370
Writing the Research Reportp. 370
Using Levels of Headings to Organizep. 370
Sections of a Research Reportp. 371
Writing Stylep. 374
Appendix Summaryp. 375
Conducting Library Researchp. 377
Using the Libraryp. 377
Library Resourcesp. 378
The Reference Librarianp. 378
How Research Materials Are Organizedp. 378
Primary Sourcesp. 378
Secondary Sourcesp. 379
Finding the Relevant Researchp. 379
Abstracting Servicesp. 379
Subject or Keyword Servicesp. 380
Literature Citation Indexesp. 380
Search Strategiesp. 380
Searching by Topicp. 380
Searching Backwardp. 382
Searching Forwardp. 383
Appendix Summaryp. 383
Random Numbersp. 384
Answers to Quick-Check Review Questionsp. 389
Glossaryp. 402
Referencesp. 424
Author Indexp. 434
Subject Indexp. 437
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