Preface | p. xxi |

Curiosity, Creativity, and Commitment | p. 1 |

Using the Resources of This Text | p. 2 |

Exploring the Student Resource Website | p. 2 |

Using SPSS for Windows | p. 4 |

Science | p. 4 |

Science Is a Way of Thinking | p. 4 |

Asking Questions | p. 5 |

Science and Art | p. 7 |

The Three Princes of Serendip | p. 7 |

Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace | p. 8 |

Leonardo da Vinci | p. 9 |

Acquiring Knowledge | p. 10 |

Tenacity | p. 10 |

Intuition | p. 11 |

Authority | p. 11 |

Rationalism | p. 12 |

Empiricism | p. 12 |

Science | p. 13 |

Emergence of Science | p. 14 |

Early Civilization | p. 14 |

Greek Science | p. 15 |

Medieval Science | p. 16 |

The Scientific Revolution | p. 17 |

Ethical Concerns | p. 18 |

Psychology | p. 19 |

The History of Psychology | p. 19 |

Women and Minorities in Psychology | p. 22 |

Modern Psychology | p. 24 |

The Science of Psychology | p. 25 |

Science and Pseudoscience | p. 27 |

Putting It into Practice | p. 28 |

Chapter Summary | p. 28 |

Chapter Exercises | p. 29 |

Research Is a Process of Inquiry | p. 30 |

The Scientific Process | p. 31 |

Basic Assumptions of Science | p. 31 |

Observation and Inference: Facts and Constructs | p. 32 |

Inductive and Deductive Thinking | p. 34 |

Models and Theories in Science | p. 36 |

The Wright Brothers as Scientists | p. 38 |

A Model of the Research Process | p. 41 |

Phases of Research | p. 42 |

Levels of Constraint | p. 47 |

Putting It into Practice | p. 53 |

Chapter Summary | p. 53 |

Chapter Exercises | p. 54 |

The Starting Point: Asking Questions | p. 55 |

Asking and Refining Questions | p. 56 |

Pursuing Your Personal Interests | p. 56 |

Following Up on the Work of Others | p. 56 |

Applied and Basic Research | p. 57 |

Refining Questions for Research | p. 58 |

Types of Variables in Research | p. 60 |

Classifying Variables Based on Their Nature | p. 60 |

Classifying Variables Based on Their Use in Research | p. 62 |

Validity and the Control of Extraneous Variables | p. 64 |

Research Ethics | p. 65 |

Ethical Principles for Human Research | p. 65 |

Never Let Technology Outrun Ethics | p. 69 |

Ethics and Diversity Issues in Research | p. 70 |

Ethical Principles for Animal Research | p. 70 |

Putting It into Practice | p. 73 |

Chapter Summary | p. 73 |

Chapter Exercises | p. 74 |

Data and the Nature of Measurement | p. 75 |

Measurement | p. 76 |

Missing Mars | p. 78 |

Misconduct in Science | p. 78 |

Scales of Measurement | p. 79 |

Nominal Scales | p. 80 |

Ordinal Scales | p. 80 |

Interval Scales | p. 81 |

Ratio Scales | p. 81 |

Measuring and Controlling Variables | p. 82 |

Measurement Error | p. 82 |

Operational Definitions | p. 83 |

Evaluating Measures | p. 86 |

Reliability | p. 87 |

Effective Range | p. 88 |

Validity | p. 90 |

The Need for Objective Measurement | p. 90 |

Putting It into Practice | p. 92 |

Chapter Summary | p. 92 |

Chapter Exercises | p. 93 |

Statistical Analysis of Data | p. 94 |

Individual Differences | p. 95 |

Organizing Data | p. 97 |

Frequency Distributions | p. 97 |

Graphical Representation of Data | p. 100 |

Descriptive Statistics | p. 103 |

Measures of Central Tendency | p. 104 |

Lies, Damn Lies, and Statistics: A Matter of Ethics | p. 105 |

Measures of Variability | p. 106 |

Measures of Relationship | p. 110 |

Standard Scores | p. 113 |

Statistical Inference | p. 114 |

Populations and Samples | p. 114 |

The Null Hypothesis | p. 115 |

Statistical Decisions and Alpha Levels | p. 115 |

Type I and Type II Errors | p. 116 |

Inferential Statistics | p. 117 |

Testing for Mean Differences | p. 117 |

The Power of a Statistical Test | p. 118 |

Effect Size | p. 118 |

Statistical versus Practical Significance | p. 119 |

Meta-analysis | p. 119 |

Putting It into Practice | p. 120 |

Chapter Summary | p. 120 |

Chapter Exercises | p. 121 |

Field Research: Naturalistic and Case-Study Research | p. 122 |

The Challenge of Low-Constraint Research | p. 123 |

Examples of Naturalistic Observation | p. 124 |

Naturalistic Research and Evolution | p. 125 |

Examples of Case-Study Research | p. 127 |

The Value of Low-Constraint Methods | p. 129 |

Conditions for Using Low-Constraint Research | p. 129 |

Information Gained from Low-Constraint Research | p. 130 |

The Therapist as Scientist | p. 131 |

Using Low-Constraint Methods | p. 133 |

Problem Statements and Research Hypotheses | p. 133 |

Making Observations | p. 134 |

Sampling of Participants | p. 137 |

Sampling of Situations | p. 138 |

Sampling of Behaviors | p. 138 |

Evaluating and Interpreting Data | p. 138 |

Limitations of Low-Constraint Methods | p. 139 |

Poor Representativeness | p. 140 |

Poor Replicability | p. 140 |

Causal Inference and Low-Constraint Research | p. 140 |

Limitations of the Observer | p. 142 |

Going Beyond the Data | p. 142 |

Putting It into Practice | p. 143 |

Chapter Summary | p. 143 |

Chapter Exercises | p. 144 |

Correlational and Differential Methods of Research | p. 145 |

Correlational Research Methods | p. 146 |

Differential Research Methods | p. 147 |

Cross-Sectional versus Longitudinal Research | p. 148 |

Artifacts and Confounding | p. 149 |

Understanding Correlational and Differential Methods | p. 150 |

Comparing These Methods | p. 151 |

When to Use These Methods | p. 151 |

Conducting Correlational Research | p. 153 |

Problem Statements | p. 153 |

Detecting Demographic, Gender, or Cultural Effects | p. 153 |

Measuring the Variables | p. 153 |

Sampling | p. 154 |

Analyzing the Data | p. 155 |

Interpreting the Correlation | p. 156 |

Conducting Differential Research | p. 156 |

Problem Statements | p. 157 |

Measuring the Variables | p. 158 |

Selecting Appropriate Control Groups | p. 158 |

Sampling | p. 161 |

Analyzing the Data | p. 163 |

Interpreting the Data | p. 163 |

Limitations of Correlational and Differential Research | p. 164 |

Problems in Determining Causation | p. 164 |

Confounding Variables | p. 166 |

Putting It into Practice | p. 167 |

Chapter Summary | p. 167 |

Chapter Exercises | p. 168 |

Hypothesis Testing, Validity, and Threats to Validity | p. 169 |

Hypothesis Testing | p. 170 |

Starting Research with an Initial Idea | p. 171 |

Statement of the Problem | p. 172 |

Operational Definitions | p. 174 |

Research Hypothesis | p. 174 |

The Contribution of Theory to the Research Hypothesis | p. 175 |

Testing the Research Hypothesis | p. 176 |

Validity and Threats to Validity | p. 181 |

Statistical Validity | p. 181 |

Construct Validity | p. 182 |

External Validity | p. 182 |

Internal Validity | p. 183 |

Major Confounding Variables | p. 185 |

Maturation | p. 185 |

History | p. 185 |

Testing | p. 186 |

Instrumentation | p. 186 |

Regression to the Mean | p. 187 |

Selection | p. 188 |

Attrition | p. 188 |

Diffusion of Treatment | p. 188 |

Sequence Effects | p. 189 |

Subject and Experimenter Effects | p. 189 |

Subject Effects | p. 190 |

Experimenter Effects | p. 190 |

Putting It into Practice | p. 192 |

Chapter Summary | p. 192 |

Chapter Exercises | p. 193 |

Controls to Reduce Threats to Validity | p. 194 |

General Control Procedures | p. 195 |

Preparation of the Setting | p. 195 |

Response Measurement | p. 196 |

Replication | p. 196 |

Control over Subject and Experimenter Effects | p. 197 |

Single- and Double-Blind Procedures | p. 197 |

Automation | p. 199 |

Using Objective Measures | p. 199 |

Multiple Observers | p. 200 |

Reliable Reliability | p. 201 |

Using Deception | p. 202 |

Control Through Participant Selection and Assignment | p. 203 |

Participant Selection | p. 203 |

Participant Assignment | p. 207 |

Control Through Experimental Design | p. 212 |

Putting It into Practice | p. 214 |

Chapter Summary | p. 215 |

Chapter Exercises | p. 215 |

Single-Variable, Independent-Groups Designs | p. 216 |

Variance | p. 217 |

Sources of Variance | p. 218 |

Controlling Variance in Research | p. 221 |

Nonexperimental Approaches | p. 226 |

Ex Post Facto Studies | p. 226 |

Seeing All Sides | p. 227 |

Single-Group, Posttest-Only Studies | p. 229 |

Single-Group, Pretest-Posttest Studies | p. 230 |

Pretest-Posttest, Natural Control-Group Studies | p. 231 |

Experimental Designs | p. 232 |

Randomized, Posttest-Only, Control-Group Design | p. 233 |

Randomized, Pretest-Posttest, Control-Group Design | p. 235 |

Multilevel, Completely Randomized, Between-Subjects Design | p. 235 |

Solomon's Four-Group Design | p. 237 |

Statistical Analyses | p. 239 |

t-Test | p. 239 |

Analysis of Variance | p. 239 |

Specific Means Comparisons in ANOVA | p. 244 |

Putting It into Practice | p. 246 |

Chapter Summary | p. 247 |

Chapter Exercises | p. 247 |

Correlated-Groups and Single-Subject Designs | p. 249 |

Within-Subjects Designs | p. 250 |

Using Within-Subjects Designs | p. 250 |

Analyzing Within-Subjects Designs | p. 252 |

Strengths and Weaknesses of Within-Subjects Designs | p. 253 |

Matched-Subjects Designs | p. 257 |

Using Matched-Subjects Designs | p. 258 |

Analyzing Matched-Subjects Designs | p. 261 |

Strengths and Weaknesses of Matched-Subjects Designs | p. 261 |

Single-Subject Experimental Designs | p. 263 |

Historical Lesson 11.1: Neuropsychology Cases | p. 263 |

ABA Reversal Designs | p. 266 |

Multiple-Baseline Designs | p. 268 |

Putting It into Practice | p. 274 |

Chapter Summary | p. 274 |

Chapter Exercises | p. 275 |

Factorial Designs | p. 276 |

Factorial Designs | p. 277 |

Main Effects and Interactions | p. 280 |

Possible Outcomes of Factorial Designs | p. 282 |

An Example: Children's Dark-Fears Study | p. 285 |

Analysis of Variance in Factorial Designs | p. 289 |

Variations of Basic Factorial Design | p. 291 |

Within-Subjects or Repeated-Measures Factorial | p. 291 |

Mixed Designs | p. 291 |

Solomon's Four-Group Design | p. 294 |

ANOVA: A Postscript | p. 296 |

Analysis of Covariance | p. 297 |

Multivariate Analysis of Variance | p. 298 |

Putting It into Practice | p. 299 |

Chapter Summary | p. 299 |

Chapter Exercises | p. 300 |

A Second Look at Field Research: Field Experiments, Program Evaluation, and Survey Research | p. 301 |

Conducting Field Research | p. 302 |

Reasons for Doing Field Experiments | p. 302 |

Difficulties in Field Research | p. 304 |

Flexibility in Research | p. 305 |

Quasi-Experimental Designs | p. 306 |

Nonequivalent Control-Group Designs | p. 307 |

Interrupted Time-Series Design | p. 310 |

Program Evaluation Research | p. 315 |

Practical Problems in Program Evaluation Research | p. 315 |

Historical Lesson 13.1: From Head Start to Heads Up | p. 316 |

Issues of Control | p. 317 |

Typical Program Evaluation Designs | p. 318 |

Program Evaluation Research: An Example | p. 319 |

Surveys | p. 321 |

Types of Surveys | p. 321 |

Steps in Survey Research | p. 321 |

Types of Survey Instruments | p. 322 |

Developing the Survey Instrument | p. 323 |

Sampling Participants | p. 324 |

Political Polling and Sampling | p. 326 |

Survey Research Designs | p. 328 |

Putting It into Practice | p. 329 |

Chapter Summary | p. 329 |

Chapter Exercises | p. 329 |

Final Preparations Before Data Collection | p. 331 |

Selecting Appropriate Statistical Procedures | p. 332 |

An Initial Example | p. 332 |

A Decision-Tree Model | p. 333 |

Secondary Analyses | p. 341 |

Caveats and Disclaimers | p. 342 |

Historical Lesson 14.1: The Robust Nature of Parametric Statistics | p. 343 |

Pre-Data Check | p. 344 |

Initial Problem Definition | p. 345 |

Clarity of the Research Hypotheses | p. 346 |

Statistical Analysis Procedures | p. 346 |

Theoretical Basis and Operational Definitions | p. 346 |

Adequacy of the Independent Variable Manipulation | p. 346 |

Adequacy of Dependent Measures | p. 346 |

Are All Controls in Place? | p. 347 |

Participants | p. 347 |

Preparation of the Setting | p. 348 |

Adequacy of Participant Preparation, Instruction, and Procedures | p. 348 |

Putting It into Practice | p. 349 |

Chapter Summary | p. 349 |

Chapter Exercises | p. 349 |

Research Methodology: An Evolving Discipline | p. 351 |

New Directions in Research Methodology | p. 352 |

The Evolution of Research Questions and Methods | p. 352 |

New Statistical Methods | p. 353 |

Meta-analysis and Cumulative Knowledge | p. 354 |

The Impact of Other Disciplines | p. 356 |

Interdisciplinary Research | p. 357 |

Moving Research Out of the Laboratory | p. 357 |

The Impact of Computers | p. 358 |

Scientific Research and Society | p. 360 |

Science: An Interaction of Empiricism and Rationalism | p. 361 |

The Growth of Science | p. 361 |

Ethical Conduct in Research | p. 362 |

The Essence of Science: A Reminder | p. 362 |

Putting It into Practice | p. 363 |

Chapter Summary | p. 363 |

Chapter Exercises | p. 363 |

Using the Student Resource Website | p. 364 |

Resources Available | p. 364 |

What to Do If You Have Problems | p. 365 |

Getting Help | p. 368 |

Appendix Summary | p. 368 |

Writing a Research Report in APA Publication Style | p. 369 |

Structure of a Research Article | p. 370 |

Writing the Research Report | p. 370 |

Using Levels of Headings to Organize | p. 370 |

Sections of a Research Report | p. 371 |

Writing Style | p. 374 |

Appendix Summary | p. 375 |

Conducting Library Research | p. 377 |

Using the Library | p. 377 |

Library Resources | p. 378 |

The Reference Librarian | p. 378 |

How Research Materials Are Organized | p. 378 |

Primary Sources | p. 378 |

Secondary Sources | p. 379 |

Finding the Relevant Research | p. 379 |

Abstracting Services | p. 379 |

Subject or Keyword Services | p. 380 |

Literature Citation Indexes | p. 380 |

Search Strategies | p. 380 |

Searching by Topic | p. 380 |

Searching Backward | p. 382 |

Searching Forward | p. 383 |

Appendix Summary | p. 383 |

Random Numbers | p. 384 |

Answers to Quick-Check Review Questions | p. 389 |

Glossary | p. 402 |

References | p. 424 |

Author Index | p. 434 |

Subject Index | p. 437 |

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