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A Research Primer for Communication Sciences and Disorders

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ISBN13:

9780137015979

ISBN10:
0137015976
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Pub. Date:
9/1/2009
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Pearson
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Summary

Addresses the most current topics in research, presents them clearly for students and practitioners, focuses on getting research evidence into practice, directs students and instructors to additional resources, and provides many case examples and study questions. Scientific Inquiry in Communication Disorders Research, Ethics, Evidence-Based Practice in Communication Disorders, Measurement in Communication Disorders Research, Group Designs, Qualitative Research, Single Case Designs, Non-experimental research designs, hypothesis testing, Quantitative analysis, synthesizing research, evaluating research for practice, writing for research. Communication Sciences students & practitioners

Table of Contents

Research Primer for Communication Sciences and Disorders

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Preface   Introduction and Orientation

 

Dedication

Section I

Foundations of Science and Research in Communication Disorders

 

Chapter 1 Scientific Inquiry in Communication Disorders

          Research

 

A.              The Scientific Method

a. Scientific principles: Order, determinism, and

   discoverability

b. Scientific observations

c. Cause and effect

d. Steps in the scientific method

     1. Stating the problem

     2. Formulating the research hypothesis

     3. Developing the research method

     4. The analyzing results

     5. Interpreting results

 

B.  Types of Research in Communication Disorders

a. Basic and applied research types

b. Laboratory and field studies

c. Experimental vs. quasi-experimental research types

d. Research designs in communication disorders

 

C.  Types of Variables in Communication Disorders Research

     a. Independent and dependent variables

     b. Active and attribute variables

     c. Continuous and categorical variables

     d. Extraneous variables in communication

        disorders research

 

D. Operational Definitions in Communication Disorders   Research

     a. Two types of operational definitions

     b. The limits of operational definitions

 

E. Data Collection in Communication Disorders Research

 

F. The Reliability of Collected Data

     a. Blinding procedures

     b. Interobserver reliability measures

 

G. Internal Validity in Communication Disorders

  Research

 

H. Eight Common Threats to internal Validity

     a. Ambiguous temporal precedence effects

     b. Controlling ATP effects

     c. Differential selection effects

     d. Controlling selection effects

     e. History effects

     f. Controlling history effects

     g. Maturation effects

     h. Controlling maturation effects

     i. Statistical regression effects

     j. Controlling regression effects

     k. Attrition effects

     l. Controlling attrition effects

     m. Multiple-tests effects

     n. Controlling testing effects

     o. Instrumentation effects

     p. Controlling instrument effects

     q. Additive and interactive effects

 

I. External Validity in Communication Disorders

  Research

     a. Seven threats to external validity

1. Accessible population versus target population

2. Describing the independent variable explicitly

3. Multiple-treatment interference effects

4. Novelty and disruption effects

5. Experimenter effects

6. Pretest and posttest sensitization

   effects

7. Measurement of the dependent variable

 

J. Conclusion: Scientific Inquiry in Communication   Disorders Research

 

K. Case Studies: Scientific Inquiry in Communication Disorders Research

a.  Case 1.10 Snooping for Unusual Data

b.  Case 1.20 Nuisance Variables for Professor Ross?

c.  Case 1.30 A Question of Time

d.  Case 1.40 Solving the Conflict Between Internal Validity and External Validity

e.  Case 1.50 Is Replication a Legitimate Scientific Pursuit?

 

L. Student Exercises: Scientific Inquiry in Communication

   Disorders Research

 

Chapter 2 Ethics in Communication Disorders Research

 

A.  A Short History of Human Rights

     a. The monster study

     b. What is moral conduct?

     c. What are the rights of research participants?

     d. The Belmont Report

 

B. Animals in Research

     a. What separates animals from humans?

     b. Why are animals used in research?

     c. Protections for animals in research

     d. Abuse and misuse of animals in research

 

C. Professional Codes of Ethics in Research

     a. Ethical principle one: Respect for persons

     b. Ethical principle two: Beneficence

     c. Ethical principle three: Justice

     d. Statements of ethics in research

 

D. Issues in Research Ethics

a. Research participants

b. Informed consent

c. Privacy and confidentiality

d. Withholding treatments

e. Collecting data, describing procedures, and

   reporting results

f. Conflicts of interest in research

g. Honoring promises and commitments to participants

 

          E. Evidence-Based Practice and Ethics in Research

 

          F. Conclusion: Ethics in Communication Disorders Research

 

          G. Case Studies: Evaluating Ethics in Communication

             Disorders Research

              a. Case 2.10 Mrs. Tollers’s Dilemma

              b. Case 2.20 Authorship for Professor Baker

              c. Case 2.30 Deception in the Classroom

              d. Case 2.40 Students for Ethics in Animal

                 Research

              e. Case 2.50 Appointment to the Institutional

                 Review Board

 

H. Student Exercises: Ethics in Communication Disorders Research

 

Chapter 3 Evidence-Based Practice in Communication Disorders

 

     A. What is evidence-based practice?

 

     B. A Short History of Evidence-Based Practice

          a. The earliest systematic clinical trial

          b. The evidence-based practice movement

 

     C. What are the ethics in evidence-based practice?

          a. Evidence-based practice benefits

          b. Evidence-based practice risks

 

     D. A Simple Model for Evidence-Based Practice

 

     E. Implementation Issues for Evidence-Based Practice

          a. What are clinical practice guidelines?

          b. What are the acceptance and adherence issues?

          c. Resistance to change in clinical practices

 

     F. Common Misperceptions about Evidence-Based Practice

          a. Misconception: EBP is a cookbook approach to

             clinical practice

          b. Misconception: EBP is solely a matter of science

          c. Misconception: Textbooks are good sources for

             answering specific clinical questions

          d. Misconception: Reading journals and attending

             conferences are sufficient for EBP

          e. Misconception: EBP is useless when there is no

             good evidence

          f. Misconception: EBP is just numbers and statistics

          g. Misconception: EBP is ineffective without

             randomized controlled trials

 

     G. Evaluating Research for Evidence-Based Practice

 

     H. What is the Future of Evidence-Based Practice?

 

     I. Conclusion: Evidence-Based Practice in Communication

        Disorders

 

     J. Case Studies: Evidence-Based Practice in Communication

        Disorders

          a. Case 3.10 Should I change interventions?

          b. Case 3.20 Smallville Schools need guidance

          c. Case 3.30 A revolutionary new device

          d. Case 3.50 Samuel's private practice

 

     K. Student Exercises: Evidence-Based Practice in

        Communication Disorders

 

Chapter 4 Measurement in Communication Disorders Research

 

A. Characteristics of Data

     a. Ordinal level of data

     b. Interval level of data

     c. Ratio level of data

     d. Nominal level data

 

B. The Limitations of Stevens' Taxonomy

 

C. Data Transformation in Communication Disorders

 

D. Multiple Measures in Communication Disorders

 

E. Descriptive Statistics in Communication Disorders

a.  Measures of location

b.  Measures of individual location

c.  Measures of variability

d.  Counting numbers of different categories

e.  The range

f.  The variance

g.  Standard deviation

h.  The coefficient of variation

 

F. Statistical Graphics in Communication Disorders

a. Univariate statistical graphics

b. Bivariate statistical graphics

c. Comparing two or more samples

d. Graphing individual observations

 

G. Conclusion: Measurement in Communication Disorders

   Research

 

H. Case Studies: Measurement in Communication Disorders

   Research

a. Case 4.10 Collaboration and Consultation

b. Case 4.20 Challenge for Clinician-Researchers in

   Schools

c. Case 4.30 Controlled Experimentation at General

   Hospital

d. Case 4.40 Zach and Britney's Dilemma

e. Case 4.50 Sarah's Argument

 

I. Student Exercises: Measurement in Communication

   Disorders Research

 


Section II

Research Designs for Scientists/Practitioners in Communication Disorders

 

Chapter 5 Group Designs in Communication Disorders Research

 

A.  What is a Good Hypothesis?

 

B.  What Determines the Quality of a Research Design?

 

C.  Sampling Protocols in Communication Disorders

     a. Sampling Methods in Communication Disorders

     b. Selecting Participants for Research Studies

     c. What is a Representative Sample?

     d. Sample Size and Power

     e. Computer-Generated Power Analysis

          1. The choice of effect size

          2. A case example for power analysis

 

D. Evaluating Selection Procedures in Communication

   Disorders

 

E. Single-Group Designs in Communication Disorders

 

F. Shortcomings in Single-Group Research Designs

 

G. Two-Group Designs in Communication Disorders

 

H. Parallel versus Crossover Research Designs

 

I. Independent versus Related Research Designs

     a. Why is randomization important?

 

J. Simple Randomization and Alternative Balancing Procedures

     a. Block randomization

     b. Stratified randomization

     c. Minimization procedures

     d. Why is allocation concealment important?

 

K. Experimental versus Quasi-Experimental Designs

 

L. Group Equivalence in Quasi-Experimental Designs

 

M. More Complex Designs in Communication Disorders

     a. Multivalent Research Designs

     b. Factorial Research Designs

 

N. Multiple-Group Designs in Communication Disorders

 

O. Variations in the Three-Group Design in Communication

   Disorders

 

P. Conclusion: Group Designs in Communication Disorders

   Research

 

Q. Case Studies: Group Designs in Communication Disorders

a.  Case 5.10 Weak or Strong Design

b.  Case 5.20 Do Thickened Liquids Work?

c.  Case 5.30 Problem of Matching Participants

d.  Case 5.40 How Many Subjects?

e.  Case 5.50 Let's Be More Sensitive

 

R. Student Exercises: Group Designs in Communication

   Disorders Research

 

Chapter 6 Qualitative Research in Communication Disorders

 

A. Introduction to Qualitative Research

a. Definition

b. Ten themes

 

B. Foundations of Qualitative Research

     a. Introduction to general approaches

     b. Ethnography

     c. Phenomenology

     d. Field research

     e. Grounded theory

 

C. Qualitative Research Designs and Methods

     a. The case study method

     b. Case examples: The case study method

     c. The discourse analysis method

     d. Case examples: The discourse analysis method

     e. The kinesic analysis method

     f. The direct observation method

     g. Case example: The direct observation method

     h. The participant observation method

     i. The unstructured in-depth interview method

     j. Case examples: The unstructured in-depth interview

 

D. Credibility and Transferability in Qualitative Research

 

E. Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Methods

     a. Case examples: Combining qualitative and

        quantitative methods

 

F. Conclusion: Qualitative Research in Communication

   Disorders

 

G. Case Studies: Qualitative Research in Communication

  Disorders

     a. Case 6.10 Why Speech-Language Pathology?

     b. Case 6.20 Let's Focus on AAC

     c. Case 6.30 Email or Not to Email

     d. Case 6.40 What's With Triangulation?

     e. Case 6.50 Contemplating a Qualitative Thesis

 

H. Student Exercises: Qualitative Research in Communication Disorders

 

Chapter 7 Single Case Designs in Communication Disorders Research

 

A.  Introduction to Single Case Designs

 

B.  Single Case Designs vs. Group Designs

 

C.  The Baseline Phase in Single Case Designs

 

D.  The A-B-A Single Case Design

 

E.  Replication in Single Case Designs

 

F. Case Example: The A-B-A-B Single Case Design

 

G. Case Example: The A-B-A-B Alternating Treatments Single

   Case Design

 

H. Visual Inspection vs. Statistical Tests

 

I. The Multiple-Baseline Single Case Design

     a. Case examples: The multiple-baseline single case

        design

 

J. The Changing-Criterion Single Case Design

 

K. The Simultaneous-Treatments Single Case Design

 

L. Case Example: The Simultaneous-Treatment Single Case

   Design

 

M. Conclusion: Single Case Designs in Communication

   Disorders Research

 

N. Case Studies: Single Case Designs in Communication

   Disorders

a.  Case 7.10 Problem of Limited Resources

b.  Case 7.20 Quest for Evidence of Maintenance

c.  Case 7.30 Balancing Ethics with Scientific Inquiry

d.  Case 7.40 The Difficulty of Choosing a Design

e.  Case 7.50 making Sense of Single Case Results

 

O. Student Exercises: Single Case Designs in Communication

   Disorders Research

 

Chapter 8 Non-Experimental Research Designs in Communication Disorders

 

A.  Introduction to Non-Experimental Research Designs

 

B. Distinctive Features of Non-Experimental Approaches

     a. The case study and ethnographic Approaches

     b. The historical approach

     c. The correlation method

     d. The developmental approach

     e. The survey method

 

C. Correlational Research in Communication Disorders

a.  Direction and degree of relationship

b.  Correlation coefficients

c.  The index of determination

d.  Case example: Correlational research

 

D. Developmental Research in Communication Disorders

a. Longitudinal research designs

1. Limitations in longitudinal designs

2. Case example: Longitudinal research in

   communication disorders

b. Cross-sectional research designs

1. Limitations in cross-sectional designs

2. Case example: Cross-sectional research in

   communication disorders

c. Semi-longitudinal research designs

1. Limitations in semi-longitudinal designs

2. Case example: Semi-longitudinal research in

   communication disorders

 

 

E. Survey Research in Communication Disorders

     a. Sampling issues in survey designs

     b. Minimizing sampling error

     c. Types of survey research designs

     d. Types of survey response formats

          1. Filter questions

          2. The structured response format

          3. The unstructured response format

 

F. Case Examples: Survey Research in Communication

   Disorders

     a. Case one: A mail survey

     b. Case two: A telephone survey

     c. Case three: A web-based survey

 

G. Conclusion: Non-Experimental Designs in Communication  Disorders Research

 

H. Case Studies: Non-Experimental Research Designs in

   Communicative Disorders

a. Case 8.10 A Case of Too Little Too Late

b. Case 8.20 Case of the Chicken and Egg

c. Case 8.30 The Long and the Short of It

d. Case 8.40 The Problem with Spam Filters

e. Case 8.50 How Many Participants are Needed?

 

I. Student Exercises: Non-Experimental Research Designs in

   Communication Disorders

 


Section III

Testing hypotheses in Communication Sciences and

Disorders Research

 

Chapter 9 Hypothesis Testing in Communication Disorders Research

 

          A. The Hypothesis Testing Process

              a. Step One: State the Hypothesis

                   1. The null hypothesis

                   2. The alternative hypothesis

              b. Step Two: Set an Acceptable Level of Risk

               c. Step Three: Choose the Sample Size

              d. Step Four: Determine the Critical Value

                   1. Alternative hypotheses

                   2. The rejection region

              e. Step Five: Compute the Test Statistic

              f. Step Six: Make a Decision about Ho

 

B. The Normal Distribution

 

C. The Standard Normal Distribution

     a. Standard units

     b. Transformed standard scores

     c. Shapes of frequency distributions

     d. Skewed distributions

     e. Other common shapes for frequency distributions

 

D. The Distribution of a Sample Statistic

     a. The distribution of sample means

     b. The standard error of the mean

 

E. The Central Limit Theorem

     a. Estimating population parameters

     b. Point estimates vs. interval estimates

 

F. Student’s t Distributions

 

G. Conclusion: Hypothesis Testing in Communication

   Disorders

 

H. Case Studies: Hypotheses Testing in Communication

   Disorders Research

     a. Case 9.10 Adam’s Dilemma

     b. Case 9.20 A Clinical Case for Priscilla

     c. Case 9.30 Question of Parameters

     d. Case 9.40 The Importance of Interval Estimates

     e. Case 9.50 Carl's Sampling Distribution

 

I. Student Exercises: Hypothesis Testing in Communication

   Disorders Research

 

Chapter 10 Quantitative Analysis in Communication Disorders Research

 

     A. Introduction to Quantitative Analysis

 

     B. Testing Hypotheses with Inferential Statistics

          a. What are inferential statistics?

          b. How do I choose a statistical test?

 

     C. Tests of Differences between Two Groups/Conditions

          a. Independent-samples designs

          b. Related-samples designs

 

     D. Tests for Differences between Multiple Groups/Conditions

          a. Simple analysis of variance (ANOVA)

          b. Complex analysis of variance

          c. Post hoc comparisons

 

     E. Tests for Analyzing Categorical Data

 

     F. Effect Size Statistics

          a. The family of effect-size statistics

          b. The simple effect size

          c. The effect size correlation

          d. The standardized effect size

          e. How should we interpret effect sizes?

 

     G. The Problem of Unequal Sample Sizes

 

     H. Conclusion: Quantitative Analysis in Communication

        Disorders Research

 

I. Case Studies: Quantitative Analysis in Communication   Disorders Research

     a. Case 10.10 A Quandary for Klein and Brown

     b. Case 10.20 Inequality Dilemma for the Chavez              School Research Team

     c. Case 10.30 Student Researchers Maria and Stephen    Seek Advice

     d. Case 10.40 Judging the Importance of Research

        Results

     e. Beth's Dilemma

 

     J. Student Exercises: Quantitative Analysis in Communication

        Disorders Research

 

Chapter 11 Synthesizing Research in Communication Disorders

 

A.  Introduction to Synthesizing Research in Communication

  Disorders

 

B.  A Model for Clinical-Outcome Research

a.  Phase I clinical-outcome research

b.  Phase II clinical-outcome research

c.  Phase III clinical-outcome research

d.  Phase IV clinical-outcome research

e.  Phase V clinical-outcome research

 

C.  The Narrative Approach to Systematic Reviews

 

D.  The Quantitative Approach to Systematic Reviews

a.  Modern meta-analysis

b.  An early review with meta-analysis

 

E. The Best Evidence Approach to Systematic Reviews

 

F. Steps in the Systematic Review Process

a. Step one: Develop a research hypothesis and

   eligibility criteria

     1. Case example

     2. Eligibility criteria

b. Step two: Develop a search strategy and select

   studies for inclusion

c. Step three: Assess study quality

     1. The threshold approach

     2. The quality-weighting approach

d. Step four: Collect data and convert study

   statistics to a common metric

e. Step five: Analyze and present results

     1. Measuring heterogeneity

          2. Statistical models

     f. Step six: Interpret the results

 

G. The Epidemiology of Systematic Reviews

 

H. When is a Systematic Review Out-of-Date?

 

I. The Realist Review Method

 

J. Conclusion: Synthesizing Research in Communication

   Disorders

 

K. Case Studies: Synthesizing Research in Communication

   Disorders

a. Case 11.10 Database Dilemmas

b. Case 11.20 More or Less for Professor Moore and

   Associates

c. Case 11.30 A Problem of Incompatibility

d. Case 11.40 A Question of Need

e. Case 11.50 A Stodgy Professor

 

L. Student Exercises: Synthesizing Research in

   Communication Disorders

 


Section IV

Applied Research for audiologists AND

Speech-Language Pathologists

 

Chapter 12 Evaluating Research for Practice in Communication

           Disorders

 

A.  Introduction to Evaluating Research

 

B.  What is the Report About?

 

C.  How Does the Study Fit into What is Already Known?

 

D.  How Was the Study Done?

a.  Description of participants or subjects

b.  Description of the apparatus and material

c.  Description of the procedure

 

E.  What Was Found?

a.  Do results address practical significance and clinical importance?

b.  Case example

c.  How is the confidence interval interpreted?

d.  Case example with a small sample

 

F.  What Do the Results Mean?

 

G.  Conclusion: Evaluating Research for Practice in Communication Disorders

 

H.  Case Studies: Evaluating Research for Practice in Communication Disorders

a.  Case 12.10 Professor Matlin’s Dilemma

b.  Case 12.20 Collaborating for Reading Fluency

c.  Case 12.30 Implications for Evidence-Based Practice?

d.  Case 12.40 Clinically Significant?

e.  Case 12.50 Efrain's Dilemma

 

I. Student Exercises: Evaluating Research for Practice

   in Communication Disorders

 

Chapter 13 Writing for Research in Communication Disorders

 

A.  Introduction to Writing for Research

 

B. Planning, Executing, and Writing in Research

 

C. Models of the Writing Process

 

D. The Importance of Reader Expectations

 

E. The Prewriting and Planning Stage

 

F. The Writing and Drafting Stage

     a. The possibility of plagiarism

b. Writing the introduction

c. Writing the research method

d. Writing the research results

e. Writing the discussion

f. Writing the title and abstract

g. Writing references and appendixes

 

G. The Rewriting and Revision Stage

 

H. The Editing Stage

 

I. The Publication and Presentation Stage

 

J. Writing the Thesis

 

K. Conclusion: Writing for Research in Communication

   Disorders

 

L. Case Studies: Writing for Research in Communication

   Disorders

a. Case 13.10 Plan for Collaborative Writing

b. Case 13.20 Will Julie and Eddie Avoid Plagiarism?

c. Case 13.30 Ana and Jose Need Advice

d. Case 13.40 Writing Cramps

e. Case 13.50 Clarissa is Reluctant

 

M. Student Exercises: Writing for Research in

   Communication Disorders

 

References

 

Author Index

 

Subject Index


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