9780133767209

Scientific Farm Animal Production An Introduction

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780133767209

  • ISBN10:

    0133767205

  • Edition: 11th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 12/30/2014
  • Publisher: Pearson

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Summary

For the introduction to animal science course

A comprehensive, best-selling, science-based approach to building livestock and poultry management systems for food, fiber, and recreation

With Scientific Farm Animal Production , students of animal agriculture get a comprehensive, science-based approach to building livestock and poultry management systems for food, fiber, and recreation. It effectively integrates the scientific disciplines that support livestock and poultry production with detailed information about the primary livestock species, appropriate management protocols, and the market forces that impact demand across the supply chain.

As a result of a comprehensive review by nearly 20 professionals, this new edition features increased clarity, depth and accuracy, including improved end-of-chapter questions; updated and enhanced figures and color photos; the latest demographic data; an expanded discussion of social and consumer issues; and an authoritative look at the trends, issues, and opportunities for animal agriculture.

Table of Contents

1 Animal Contributions to Human Needs 1
Contributions To Food Needs 1
Contributions to Clothing and Other Nonfood
Products 12
Contributions to Work and Power Needs 13
Animals for Companionship, Recreation, and
Creativity 15
Additional Animal Contributions 15
Chapter Summary 15
Key Words 16
Review Questions 16
Selected References 16

2 An Overview of the Livestock and Poultry
Industries 17
U.S. Animal Industries: An Overview 17
Cash Receipts 17
World Trade 17
Commodity Prices 18
Biological Differences in Meeting Market Demand 20
Beef Industry 20
Global Perspective 20
United States 23
Cattle Production 23
Cattle Feeding 26
The Dairy Cattle Industry 28
Global Perspective 28
United States 30
The Horse Industry 31
Global Perspective 31
United States 32
The Poultry Industry 33
Global Perspective 33
United States 34
The Sheep and Goat Industry 38
Global Perspective 38
United States 39
Purebred Breeder 41
Commercial Market Lamb Producers 42
Commercial Feedlot Operator 42
The Swine Industry 42
Global Perspective 42
United States 42
Other Animal Industries 44
Aquaculture 44
Bison 45
Elk 46
Ostrich and Emu Farming and Ranching 46
Llama and Alpaca Production 46
Chapter Summary 47
Key Words 47
Review Questions 47
Selected References 48

3 Red Meat Products 49
Production 49
Processing 49
Kosher and Muslim Meats 52
Composition 53
Physical Composition 53
Chemical Composition 54
Nutritional Considerations 55
Nutritive Value 55
Consumption 57
Demand 59
Marketing 59
Chapter Summary 63
Key Words 63
Review Questions 64
Selected References 64

4 Poultry and Egg Products 65
Poultry Meat and Egg Production 65
Composition 66
Meat 66
Eggs 67
Poultry Products 68
Meat 68
Eggs 69
Feathers and Down 70
Other Products and By-Products 70
Nutrition Considerations 70
Nutritive Value of Poultry Meat 70
Nutritive Value of Eggs 70
Consumption 72
Meat 72
Eggs 72
Marketing 73
Chapter Summary 76
Key Words 76
Review Questions 77
Selected References 77

5 Milk and Milk Products 78
Milk Production 78
Milk Composition 79
Milk Fat 81
Carbohydrates 82
Proteins 82
Vitamins 82
Minerals 82
Milk Products in the United States 82
Fluid Milk 83
Evaporated and Condensed Milk 85
Dry Milk 85
Fermented Dairy Products 85
Cream 86
Butter 86
Cheese 87
Ice Cream 89
Eggnog 89
Imitation Dairy Products 89
Health Considerations 90
Nutritive Value of Milk 90
Wholesomeness 91
Milk Processing 91
Milk Intolerance 92
Consumption 92
Marketing 92
World 92
United States 93
Prices 93
Chapter Summary 94
Key Words 94
Review Questions 95
Selected References 95

6 Wool and Mohair 96
Growth of Hair, Wool, and Mohair 96
Factors Affecting the Value of Wool 99
Classes and Grades of Wool 101
Production of Wool and Mohair 102
Wool Marketing 106
Uses of Wool and Mohair 106
Chapter Summary 108
Key Words 108
Review Questions 108
Selected References 108

7 By-Products of Meat Animals 109
Edible By-Products 109
Inedible By-Products 110
The Rendering Industry 113
Rendering of Red Meat Animal By-Products 114
Rendering of Poultry By-Products 114
Disposing of Dead Livestock 115
Chapter Summary 117
Key Words 117
Review Questions 117
Selected References 117

8 Market Classes and Grades of Livestock,
Poultry, and Eggs 118
Market Classes and Grades of Red Meat Animals 118
Slaughter Cattle 118
Feeder Cattle 123
Slaughter Swine 124
Slaughter Sheep 126
Feeder Lamb Grades 128
Goat Grades 128
Market Classes and Grades of Poultry Products 129
Poultry Meat 129
Eggs 130
Chapter Summary 133
Key Words 133
Review Questions 133
Selected References 134

9 Visual Evaluation of Market Animals 135
External Body Parts 136
Location of the Wholesale Cuts in the Live Animal 136
Visual Assessment of Livestock Carcass
Composition 137
Chapter Summary 145
Key Words 146
Review Questions 146
Selected References 146

10 Reproduction 147
Terminology For Anatomical Positioning 147
Female Organs of Reproduction and their
Functions 147
Ovaries 149
The Oviducts 151
The Uterus 151
The Vagina 152
The Clitoris 152
Reproduction in Poultry Females 152
Male Organs of Reproduction and
Their Functions 154
Testicles 155
The Epididymis 157
The Scrotum 157
The Vas Deferens 158
The Urethra 159
Accessory Sex Glands 159
The Penis 159
Reproduction in Male Poultry 159
Hormonal Control of Testicular and Ovarian
Function 160
Testicular Function 160
Ovarian Function 160
Estrous Cycle 162
Seasonal Effects on Reproduction 163
Pregnancy 164
Parturition 166
Chapter Summary 169
Key Words 169
Review Questions 169
Selected References 170

11 Artificial Insemination, Estrous
Synchronization, and Embryo Transfer 171
Semen Collecting and Processing 172
Insemination of the Female 174
Detecting Estrus 175
Proper Insemination 176
Estrous Synchronization 177
Prostaglandin 178
MGA and Prostaglandin 179
Controlled Internal Drug Release (CIDR) 179
Synchronization with Natural Service 180
P.G. 600 180
Embryo Transfer 180
Cloning 182
Sexed Semen 184
Chapter Summary 184
Key Words 184
Review Questions 184
Selected References 185

12 Genetics 186
Mitosis and Meiosis 186
Production of Gametes 186
Spermatogenesis 188
Oogenesis 189
Fertilization 189
DNA and RNA 190
Genes and Chromosomes 192
Principles of Inheritance 192
Simple Inheritance 193
Multiple Gene Pairs 195
Gene Interactions 197
Allelic Interactions 197
Interactions Between Genes and the Environment 199
Biotechnology 200
Applications 200
Future Expectations and Concerns 202
Chapter Summary 203
Key Words 203
Review Questions 204
Selected References 204

13 Genetic Change Through Selection 205
Importance of Genetics to the Livestock Industry 205
Structure of the Breeding Industry 205
Breeds 206
Continuous Variation and Many Pairs of Genes 207
Selection 211
Selection Differential 212
Heritability 212
Generation Interval 213
Predicting Genetic Change 214
Genetic Change for Multiple Trait Selection 214
Evidence of Genetic Change 215
Selection Methods 218
Basis for Selection 220
Predicted Differences or Expected Progeny
Differences 220
Chapter Summary 221
Key Words 222
Review Questions 222
Selected References 222

14 Mating Systems 223
Inbreeding 223
Intensive Inbreeding 225
Linebreeding 227
Outbreeding 229
Species Cross 229
Crossbreeding 230
Outcrossing 232
Grading Up 233
Forming New Lines or Breeds 234
Chapter Summary 234
Key Words 234
Review Questions 235
Selected References 235

15 Nutrients and Their Functions 236
Nutrients 236
Water 236
Carbohydrates 237
Fats 238
Proteins 239
Minerals 240
Vitamins 241
Proximate Analysis of Feeds 241
Digestibility of Feeds 242
Energy Evaluation of Feeds 243
Maintenance and Production 244
Measurement of Energy 245
Feeds and Feed Composition 246
Classification of Feeds 246
Nutrient Composition of Feeds 247
By-Product Feeds 247
Chapter Summary 250
Key Words 250
Review Questions 250
Selected References 251

16 Digestion and Absorption of Feed 252
Carnivorous, Omnivorous, and Herbivorous
Animals 252
Digestive Tract of Monogastric Animals 253
Stomach Compartments of Ruminant Animals 255
Digestion in Monogastric (Nonruminant) Animals 256
Digestion in Ruminant Animals 258
Energy Pathways 259
Protein Pathways 259
Chapter Summary 261
Key Words 261
Review Questions 261
Selected References 261

17 Providing Nutrients for Body
Functions 262
Nutrient Requirements For Body Maintenance 262
Body Size and Maintenance 262
Nutrient Requirements For Growth 263
Nutrient Requirements For Finishing 265
Nutrient Requirements For Reproduction 265
Nutrient Requirements For Lactation 266
Nutrient Requirements For Egg Laying 267
Nutrient Requirements For Wool Production 267
Nutrient Requirements For Work 267
Ration Formulation 268
Nutrient Requirements of Ruminants 268
Diet Modification to Minimize Nitrogen and Phosphorus
Excretion 273
Chapter Summary 273
Key Words 274
Review Questions 274
Selected References 274

18 Growth and Development 275
Prenatal (Livestock) 275
Birth (Livestock) 276
Poultry 277
Embryonic Development 277
Basic Anatomy and Physiology 278
Skeletal System 278
Muscle System 279
Circulatory System 280
Endocrine System 283
Growth Curves 283
Carcass Composition 284
Effects of Frame Size 286
Effect of Gender 286
Effect of Muscling 288
Age and Teeth Relationship 289
Measurements of Growth 290
Chapter Summary 291
Key Words 291
Review Questions 292
Selected References 292

19 Lactation 293
Mammary Gland Structure 293
Mammary Gland Development and Function 294
Development 294
Milk Secretion 295
Maintenance of Lactation 296
Factors Affecting Milk Production 296
Milk Composition 299
Species Differences 299
Colostrum 300
Chapter Summary 300
Key Words 300
Review Questions 301
Selected References 301

20 Adaptation to the Environment 302
Relationship Between Animals and the
Environment 303
Adjusting to Environmental Changes 303
Temperature Zones of Comfort and Stress 304
Relationship of Intake and Maintenance during
Stress 307
Managing the Thermal Environment 310
Mitigating Heat Stress 311
Adjusting Rations for Weather Changes 311
Inability of Animals to Cope with Climatic Stress 312
Chapter Summary 314
Key Words 314
Review Questions 314
Selected References 314

21 Animal Health 316
Immune Function 316
Prevention 317
The Role of the Veterinarian 317
Sanitation 317
Sound Nutritional Management 318
Record Keeping 318
Facilities 318
Source of Livestock 318
Biosecurity 319
Use of Biologicals and Pharmaceuticals 319
Stress 322
Personnel Training 323
Detecting Unhealthy Animals 323
Visual Observation 323
Vital Signs 323
Major Diseases of Farm Animals 324
Quality Assurance 329
Chapter Summary 331
Key Words 331
Review Questions 332
Selected References 332

22 Animal Behavior 333
Stockmanship 333
Animal Behavior 333
Systems of Animal Behavior 334
Sexual Behavior 335
Caregiving Behavior 337
Care-Soliciting Behavior 337
Agonistic Behavior 338
Interaction with Other Animals 338
Interactions with Humans 339
Behavior during Handling and Restraint 340
Ingestive Behavior 342
Eliminative Behavior 343
Shelter-Seeking Behavior 343
Investigative Behavior 343
Allelomimetic Behavior 344
Additional Behaviors 344
Communication 344
Maladaptive or Abnormal Behavior 345
Chapter Summary 346
Key Words 346
Review Questions 346
Selected References 346

23 Issues in Animal Agriculture 347
Feeding 9 Billion People by 2050 349
Sustainability 349
Valid Comparisons and Assessing Risk 350
Environmental Management Issues 352
Land Use 353
Conversion of Agricultural Land 353
Federal Lands 354
Waste Management 356
Air Quality 357
Water Utilization and Quality 358
Animal Well-Being 359
Public Health 363
Diet and Health 363
Dietary Guidelines 367
Food Safety 369
Microorganisms 371
Residues 371
Quality Assurance 373
Production Technologies 374
Organic and Natural Products 376
Issues and Opportunities 377
Chapter Summary 377
Key Words 377
Review Questions 378
Selected References 378

24 Beef Cattle Breeds and Breeding 380
Genetic Variation 381
Major U.S. Beef Breeds 382
Improving Beef Cattle Through Breeding
Methods 386
Traits and Their Measurement 386
Reproductive Performance 386
Weaning Weight 386
Postweaning Growth 387
Feed Efficiency 387
Carcass Merit 388
Longevity 388
Conformation 388
Genetic Defects 389
Bull Selection 389
Breeding Values 389
Sire Summaries 390
Selecting Replacement Heifers 392
Cow Selection 394
Crossbreeding Programs for Commercial
Producers 396
Chapter Summary 399
Key Words 400
Review Questions 400
Selected References 400

25 Feeding and Managing Beef Cattle 401
Cow–Calf Management 401
Costs and Returns 403
Management for Optimum Calf Crop Percentages 405
Management for Optimum Weaning Weights 408
Management Of annual Cow Costs 409
Stocker-Yearling Production 413
Types of Cattle Feeding Operations 415
Feedlot Cattle Management 416
Facilities Investment 416
Cost of Feeder Cattle 417
Feed Costs 417
Nonfeed Costs 418
Marketing 418
Costs and Returns 420
Environmental Management 420
Chapter Summary 422
Key Words 422
Review Questions 423
Selected References 423

26 Dairy Cattle Breeds and Breeding 424
Characteristics of Breeds 424
Registration Numbers 424
Dairy Type 425
Improving Milk Production 428
Selection of Dairy Cows 428
Breeding Dairy Cattle 430
Sire Selection 432
Chapter Summary 433
Key Words 433
Review Questions 434
Selected References 434

27 Feeding and Managing Dairy Cattle 435
Nutrition of Lactating Cows 435
Adjusting for Heat Stress 439
Nutrition of Dry Cows 439
Nutrition of Replacement Heifers 440
Management of Bulls 440
Calving Operations 441
Milking and Housing Facilities For Dairy Cows 441
Waste Management 442
Milking Operations 443
Controlling Diseases 445
Costs And Returns 449
Chapter Summary 451
Key Words 451
Review Questions 451
Selected References 451

28 Swine Breeds and Breeding 452
Characteristics of Swine Breeds 452
Traits and Their Measurements 452
Sow Productivity 453
Growth 454
Feed Efficiency 456
Carcass Traits 457
Structural Soundness 457
Effective Use of Performance Records 458
Selecting Replacement Females 461
Boar Selection 462
Crossbreeding For Commercial Swine Producers 462
Chapter Summary 465
Key Words 465
Review Questions 466
Selected References 466

29 Feeding and Managing Swine 467
Production Management 468
Boar Management 468
Management of Breeding Females 469
Pregnancy Detection 470
Management of the Sow during Farrowing and
Lactation 471
Induced Farrowing 472
Baby Pig Management from Birth to Weaning 473
Feeding and Management from Weaning to
Market 478
Management of Purchased Feeder Pigs 482
Marketing Decisions 482
Costs and Returns 483
Environmental Management 484
Management for Swine Well-Being 486
Chapter Summary 487
Key Words 487
Review Questions 488
Selected References 488

30 Sheep and Goat Breeds and Breeding 489
Major U.S. Sheep Breeds 489
Characteristics 490
Composite Breeds 490
Major Goat Breeds 493
Breeding Sheep and Goats 494
Sheep Reproduction 497
Goat Reproduction 499
Other Factors Affecting Reproduction of Sheep 499
The Breeding Season 500
Genetic Improvement in Commercial Sheep
Production 501
Terminal Crossing 502
Three-Breed Terminal Crossbreeding 502
Chapter Summary 503
Key Words 503
Review Questions 504
Selected References 504

31 Feeding and Managing Sheep and
Goats 505
Production Requirements for Farm Flocks 505
Pastures 505
Corrals and Chutes 505
Shelters 506
Lambing Equipment 507
Feeding Equipment 507
Types of Farm Flock Producers 507
Purebred Breeder 507
Commercial Market Lamb Producers 508
Commercial Feeder Lamb Producers 509
Commercial Feedlot Operator 509
Feeding Ewes, Rams, and Lambs 510
Management of Farm Flocks 513
Handling Sheep 513
Lambing Operations 514
Castrating and Docking 514
Shearing 514
Facilities for Production of Range Sheep 515
Managing Range Sheep 516
The Winter Headquarters 516
The Spring–Fall Range 517
Summer Grazing 517
Managing Goats 518
Fencing 518
Dehorning 519
Hoof Trimming 519
Identification 519
Castration 519
Shearing 519
Milking 519
Time of Breeding 520
Time of Kidding 520
Feeding 523
Controlling Diseases and Parasites 525
Determining The Age of Sheep by Their Teeth 527
Costs and Returns 527
Chapter Summary 529
Key Words 529
Review Questions 529
Selected References 530

32 Horse Breeds and Breeding 531
Horses and Humans 531
Breeds of Horses 531
Popularity of Breeds 534
Breeding Program 534
Selection 534
Conformation of the Horse 535
Purchasing the Horse 535
Body Parts 536
Unsoundness and Blemishes of Horses 538
Gaits of Horses 540
Ease of Riding and Way of Going 541
Abnormalities in Way of Going 541
Determining The Age of a Horse by its Teeth 542
Chapter Summary 544
Key Words 544
Review Questions 544
Selected References 545

33 Feeding and Managing Horses 546
Feeds and Feeding 546
Managing Horses 552
Reproduction 552
Breeding Season 553
Foaling Time 554
Weaning the Foal 555
Castration 555
Identification 555
Care of Hardworking Animals 556
Housing and Equipment 556
Controlling Diseases and Parasites 557
Chapter Summary 561
Key Words 561
Review Questions 561
Selected References 562

34 Poultry Breeding, Feeding, and
Management 563
Breeds and Breeding 563
Characteristics of Breeds 563
Breeding Poultry 565
Feeding and Management 571
Incubation Management 571
Managing Young Poultry 575
Housing for Broilers 575
Managing 10- to 20-Week-Old Poultry 577
Management of Laying Hens 578
Housing Poultry 581
Feeds and Feeding 583
Issues Management 585
Environmental Impact 585
Animal Welfare 586
Costs and Returns 588
Chapter Summary 593
Key Words 593
Review Questions 593
Selected References 593

Glossary 595
Index 000

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