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Seawater : Its Composition, Properties and Behaviour,9780750637152

Seawater : Its Composition, Properties and Behaviour

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780750637152

ISBN10:
0750637153
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/1995
Publisher(s):
Elsevier Science
List Price: $72.95

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Summary

'seawater' has been substantially updated in this second edition to take account of recent developments in marine science. Sections dealing with difficult physical and chemical concepts have been developed on the basis of feedback from the first edition, making this an ideal learning tool for oceanography students. Chapter 1 summarizes the special properties of water and the role of the oceans in the hydraulic cycle. The distribution of temperature and salinity in the oceans and how they influence water density and movements is then discussed. Light and sound in seawater are considered next, along with some uses of acoustics. These are followed by an examination of the composition and behaviour of dissolved constituents, including such topics as residence times, the control of pH, and redox relationships. Finally, the history of seawater and its role in global cycles is reviewed, with special reference to climatic change and the CO2 problem.

Table of Contents

About This Volume 3(1)
About This Series 3(1)
Water, Air And Ice
The Special Properties Of Water
4(3)
The effect of dissolved salts
5(2)
The Hydrological Cycle
7(6)
Water in the atmosphere
8(1)
Ice in the Oceans
8(5)
Summary of Chapter 1
13(1)
Temperature In The Oceans
Solar Radiation
14(1)
Distribution Of Surface Temperatures
15(4)
The transfer of heat and water across the air-sea interface
17(2)
Distribution Of Temperature With Depth
19(4)
Energy From The Thermocline-A Brief Digression
23(2)
Temperature Distribution And Water Movement
25(2)
Summary Of Chapter 2
27(3)
Salinity In The Oceans
Constancy Of Composition
30(3)
Changes due to local conditions
31(1)
Salts from seawater
31(2)
Variations In Salinity
33(2)
Distribution of salinity with depth
33(1)
Distribution of surface salinity
34(1)
The Measurement Of Salinity
35(2)
Chemical methods of salinity measurement
35(1)
Physical methods of salinity measurement
36(1)
The formal definition of salinity
36(1)
Summary Of Chapter 3
37(2)
Density And Pressure In The Oceans
Water Masses
39(1)
Depth (Pressure), Density And Temperature
40(2)
Adiabatic temperature changes
41(1)
T-S Diagrams
42(7)
Using σt
42(3)
σ&thetas; and vertical stability
45(1)
The use of T-S diagrams
46(2)
Conservative and non-conservative properties
48(1)
Mixing Processes In The Oceans
49(8)
Molecular and turbulent diffusion
49(1)
Stratification and microstructure
50(2)
Fronts
52(4)
Eddies
56(1)
Summary Of Chapter 4
57(4)
Light And Sound In Seawater
Underwater Light
61(11)
Illumination and vision
63(2)
Underwater visibility: seeing and being seen
65(2)
Measurement
67(2)
Colour in the sea
69(2)
Electromagnetic radiation and remote sensing of the oceans
71(1)
Underwater Sound
72(10)
The main characteristics of sound waves in the oceans
73(1)
The speed of sound: refraction and sound channels
74(3)
Uses of acoustic energy in the oceans
77(5)
Summary Of Chapter 5
82(3)
The Seawater Solution
The Gross Chemical Composition Of Seawater
85(15)
Classification of dissolved constituents
89(1)
The nutrients
89(3)
Dissolved gases
92(6)
Dissolved gases as tracers
98(2)
Sources And Sinks, Or Why The Sea Is Salt
100(8)
Comparison of seawater with other natural waters
100(1)
Seawater and river water
101(1)
Origin of the chloride
102(1)
The sodium balance
103(2)
Chemical fluxes and residence times
105(3)
Chemical And Biological Reactions In Seawater
108(16)
Interactions between dissolved species
109(2)
The carbonate system, alkalinity and control of pH
111(9)
Non-biological controls on minor and trace element concentrations
120(1)
Biological controls on minor and trace element concentrations
121(2)
Biological activity as a sink for trace elements
123(1)
Summary Of Chapter 6
124(5)
Seawater And The Global Cycle
A Short History of Seawater
129(6)
The special case of CO2
130(2)
Climate and the Earth's orbit
132(3)
A Look Ahead
135(4)
Summary of Chapter 7
139
Appendix: Conversions Between pH And [H+]
Suggested Further Reading
Answers And Comments To Questions
Acknowledgements
Index


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