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Second Generation Biofuels and Biomass : Essential Guide for Investors, Scientists and Decision Makers,9783527332908
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Second Generation Biofuels and Biomass : Essential Guide for Investors, Scientists and Decision Makers

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Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9783527332908

ISBN10:
3527332901
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/29/2013
Publisher(s):
Wiley-VCH
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Summary

Essential guide to investing in bioenergy commodities, detailing second generation biofuels from a scientific, technical and economic perpective and discussing their global environmental, political and financial impact.

Author Biography

Roland A. Jansen, from The Netherlands, holds a degree in Business Administration (lic.oec.HSG) from the University of St. Gallen, Switzerland.
Mr. Jansen is CEO of Mother Earth Investments AG (Switzerland) and Biomass Partners Ltd. in Hong Kong. Mother Earth Investments AG manages assets in natural resources for banks, private clients, pension funds and family offices. He publishes his research bi-monthly in the Mother Earth Commodity Analysis Report.
Biomass Partners in Hong Kong Ltd. trades second generation biofuels and biomass on behalf of mines, powerplants and refineries.
He is the author of ?Profits from Natural Resources?, John Wiley & Sons, New York, (1998).
Mr Jansen has appeared regularly on Bloomberg Television to give his views on commodity trends. He is also a regular guest speaker at conferences and universities around the world and serves as a honorary consul for The Netherlands in Liechtenstein.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments xv

Abbreviations xix

1 The Commodity Case – Introduction 1

1.1 Commodity Cycles – Past and Present 1

1.2 The Most Precious Commodity: Energy 3

1.3 Cheap and Expensive 5

1.4 Federal Reserve 7

1.5 Transformation to a Low-Carbon Society 8

1.6 Commodity Costs 9

1.7 The “Per Capita” Factor 10

1.8 Demographics: India and China 12

1.9 Oil, and First- and Second-Generation Biofuels 13

1.10 Nuclear Energy 14

1.11 Eleven Megaforces 15

1.12 Resource Wars 17

1.13 Geopolitical Shift in Oil Production 18

1.14 Oil Companies, Production, and Transportation 18

2 First- and Second-Generation Biofuels 21

2.1 Second-Generation Requirements 21

2.2 Applications 22

2.3 First-Generation Feedstock: What Speaks against Biofuels of the First Generation? 22

2.4 Second-Generation Feedstock 24

2.5 Biomass 24

2.6 Bioethanol and Biodiesel Production 26

2.7 Biodiesel Refining 26

2.8 Benefits of Biodiesel 27

2.9 The Big Biofuel Inventors 28

2.9.1 Rudolf Diesel 28

2.9.2 Henry Ford 29

3 Biofuels Feedstock: Jatropha curcas 31

3.1 Characteristics 31

3.1.1 Plants in Marginal Growing Conditions 31

3.1.2 Nature Around the Equator 32

3.1.3 Plant Description 33

3.1.4 Where Does Jatropha Originate? 34

3.1.5 Properties 34

3.1.6 Toxicology 34

3.1.7 Whole Plant and Food/Fodder 35

3.1.8 Light in the Dark 35

3.1.9 Medicine 36

3.1.10 Pressing the Oil 36

3.1.11 Biokerosene 37

3.1.12 Breeding Objectives 37

3.1.13 Survival in Harsh Conditions 38

3.1.14 Breeding Method 38

3.1.15 Ecological Aspects 39

3.1.16 Agronomy 39

3.1.17 Harvesting and Man-Hours 40

3.1.18 Mechanical Harvesting 40

3.1.19 Managed and Contract Farming 40

3.1.20 Storage 41

3.1.21 Yield Comparisons and Research 41

3.1.22 Propagation Methods 42

3.1.23 Pricing 43

3.1.24 Jatropha Facts Related to Biodiesel 43

3.1.25 Pests and Diseases 44

3.1.26 Limitations of the Crop 44

3.1.27 Prospects 45

3.1.28 Research Needs 45

3.1.29 Cracking the Nut 45

3.2 Jatropha Products 46

3.2.1 Main Products 46

3.2.1.1 Glycerin 46

3.2.1.2 Medical Applications 46

3.2.1.3 Organic Fertilizer and Animal Feed 47

3.2.1.4 Insecticides and Pesticides 47

3.2.2 Byproducts 48

3.2.2.1 Active Carbon 48

3.2.2.2 Biochar 49

3.2.2.3 Woodpellets 49

3.2.2.4 Polyol 49

3.2.2.5 Paint 49

3.2.2.6 Electricity 49

3.2.2.7 Carbon Dioxide Collection 50

3.2.2.8 Smog Reduction in Chimneys 50

3.3 Advantages and Risks of Jatropha 51

3.3.1 Overview 51

3.3.2 Domestication 51

3.3.3 Potential Negative Effects 52

3.3.4 Variable Yields 53

3.3.5 Diesel Demand, Diesel Cars, and Demography 53

3.3.6 Jatropha Jet Fuel Demand 55

3.3.7 Significant Events 56

3.3.8 Yield Comparisons 56

3.3.9 Global Jatropha Demand 56

3.3.10 How Large is the Biokerosene Market? 57

3.3.11 Energy Security, US Military, and Fuel Costs 58

3.4 Negative Aspects and Risks 58

3.4.1 Jatropha in Ghana 58

3.4.2 Africa’s “Land Grab” 59

3.4.3 More Examples of Land Grab Attempts [2] 60

3.5 Water Use 62

3.6 Invasiveness 63

3.7 Opinion of the UN FAO 64

3.8 Opinion of the World Bank 64

3.9 Code of Conduct 65

3.10 Summary of Jatropha 66

3.11 Where Does Jatropha Grow? 67

3.12 Genetic Improvement of J. curcas 68

References 69

4 Other Biofuel Feedstocks 71

4.1 Pongamia pinatta 71

4.2 Algae 72

4.2.1 Introduction 72

4.2.2 Yield 75

4.2.3 Benefits of Algae 76

4.2.4 Navy Orders 76

4.3 Palm Oil 77

4.3.1 Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil 77

4.3.2 Controversy 77

4.3.3 The Other Oil Spill 78

4.3.4 Clean Start 79

4.3.5 Threat from Facebook 81

4.3.6 Rainforests and Palm Oil 81

4.3.7 Sustainable Palm Oil [12] 83

4.4 Camelina 83

4.4.1 The Basics 83

4.4.2 Rotation with Wheat 84

4.4.3 Camelina as a Biofuel 84

4.4.4 Camelina Agronomy 85

4.4.5 Crop Potential 86

4.4.6 Shock Wave! 87

4.5 Crambe 88

4.5.1 Basics 88

4.5.2 EMPRAPA 89

4.6 Cheers! 90

4.7 Pennycress 90

4.8 Moringa 91

4.8.1 Planting: Seeds and Cuttings 92

4.8.2 Medicinal Applications 92

4.8.3 Biogas 93

4.9 Castor 93

4.10 Halophytes 93

4.11 Sugarcane 94

4.12 Miscanthus 94

4.13 Grass to Ethanol: Napier Grass 94

5 Cropping Methods 97

5.1 Intercropping and Double Cropping 97

5.2 Reliance Life Sciences 99

5.3 Nestle 99

6 Socially Responsible Investing 101

6.1 Principles 101

6.2 Practice: Jatropha curcas 101

6.3 Breaking the Cycle of Poverty 102

6.4 Food First 103

6.5 A Wider Context 104

6.6 Guatemala 104

6.7 Corporate Governance 105

6.7.1 Business 105

6.7.2 Bee Hives/Honey Harvesting 106

6.7.3 Company–Community Committees 106

6.7.4 Education 106

6.7.5 Employment Opportunities 107

6.7.6 Farmland Preservation 107

6.7.7 Fire Control and Prevention 107

6.7.8 Healthcare 108

6.7.9 Hiring Women 108

6.7.10 Outgrower Program 108

6.7.11 Safe Drinking Water and Sanitation 109

6.7.12 Soil Fertility 109

7 Sustainability 111

8 Biomass 113

8.1 What Is Biomass? 113

8.2 Five Basic Categories 114

8.3 Benefits of Biomass 114

8.4 Feedstock of Biomass 115

8.4.1 Trees and Woodpellets 115

8.4.2 Woodchips 115

8.4.3 Palm Kernel Shells 116

8.4.4 Miscanthus Pellets 116

8.4.5 Agripellets 117

8.5 Biomass Potential in Brazil 118

8.6 Sustainability of Agripellets 119

8.7 Agripellets versus Coal and Lignite 120

8.8 Energy Density: Gigajoules per Tonne 120

8.9 Why Is Biomass in High Demand? 121

8.10 EU Environmental Regulations: Poland 124

8.11 The Challenges 125

9 Carbon Credits 127

9.1 Carbon is the Enemy 127

9.2 Jatropha Kerosene: A Monster Market Emerges 128

9.3 Carbon Reductions 130

9.4 Global Warming Around Us 130

9.5 Extreme Weather Patterns 131

10 Biofuels in Europe – EU Policies 133

10.1 EU Policy in 2008 133

10.2 Heated Debates 133

10.3 National Policies 134

10.4 EU Rift in Biofuel Policy 135

10.5 Indirect Land-Use Change 136

10.6 Where Do We Stand Now? 136

11 Biofuels in the United States 137

11.1 Biomass Demand in the United States 137

11.2 Second-Generation Biofuels for the United States 138

11.3 A Growing Shortage of Domestic Oil Production 139

11.4 Fuel Use at the USDA 140

11.5 Partnership with the FAA 140

12 Biofuels in China 141

12.1 Clean Energy? Go to China 141

12.2 China is Going Green 142

12.3 China’s 12th 5-Year Plan 143

12.4 Inclusive Growth 143

12.5 The Beneficiaries 144

12.6 China’s Energy Consumption 145

12.7 Staggering Car Sales Numbers 146

12.8 China’s Diesel Pricing Mechanism 149

12.9 China–United States Biofuel Pact 150

12.10 China’s Biofuels Expansion 151

12.10.1 2007 151

12.10.2 2010 151

12.10.3 An Area of 13 Million Hectares 152

12.10.4 Barren Lands in Southwest China 154

12.10.5 Hainan 154

12.10.6 Biodiesel Refineries 155

12.10.7 Poverty and Jatropha 156

12.10.8 Subsidies 157

12.10.9 Tax Exemptions for Biodiesel 158

13 Biofuels in Brazil 159

13.1 Introduction: Biofuel Industry Leader 159

13.2 Comparison with the United States 160

13.3 What is Driving the Urgency in Renewable Jet Fuel? 160

13.4 Biofuels from Sugarcane 160

13.5 Sugar Production 161

13.6 Ethanol Production and Flex-Fuel Cars 162

13.7 Bagasse, Bioelectricity, and Biofuels 162

13.8 Flex-Fuel¼Biofuel 163

13.9 Fuel Consumption 163

13.10 Greenhouse Gas Reductions 164

13.11 Energy Balance 165

13.12 Sugarcane for Biofuels 165

13.13 Sugarcane Straw: A Growth Opportunity 166

13.14 Bioplastics 166

13.15 Biofuels and Public Health 167

13.16 Cautionary Notes 167

13.17 The Bottom Line 168

14 Biofuels and Biomass in Africa 169

14.1 Dependency on Fossil Fuels 169

14.2 Africa’s Potential 170

14.3 Three African Examples 171

14.3.1 Ghana 171

14.3.2 Ethiopia 171

14.3.3 Nigeria 172

15 General Aviation and Biofuels 173

15.1 Important Aviation Facts 173

15.2 Carbon Reduction of Carbon Dioxide Emissions 173

15.3 Biofuels – Providing Diversified Supply 174

15.4 Lifecycle of Carbon Dioxide 174

15.5 Green Aviation 175

15.6 Why Use Biokerosene? 176

15.7 Global Emissions of Carbon Dioxide 176

15.8 Sustainable Aviation Fuel Users Group 178

16 Aviation and Carbon Credits 179

16.1 Greenhouse Gases 179

16.2 EU Emission Trading Scheme 179

16.3 Cap and Trade 180

16.4 Carbon in Chains 180

16.5 Biokerosene Targets 181

17 Biokerosene 183

17.1 Airline Industry Lifts Biofuel Development 183

17.2 Safety 184

17.3 Ready for Take-Off – A Monster Market in the Making: Aviation Biofuels 184

17.4 Refining 185

17.4.1 Biodiesel 186

17.4.2 Biokerosene 186

17.4.2.1 Hydrogenation 186

17.4.2.2 Fischer–Tropsch Process 187

17.4.2.3 Nanoemulsion 188

17.5 Benefits 188

17.6 Jet Fuel Standards 189

17.7 Certification of Biofuels 189

17.8 ASTM 190

17.9 Intensive Testing 190

18 Fermenting Fuels 193

18.1 New Generation 193

18.2 What are Hydrocarbons? 193

18.3 What are Enzymes? 193

18.4 What are “Drop-In Fuels”? 194

18.5 Converting Feedstock into Fuels 194

18.6 Cellulosic Ethanol 194

18.7 Biokerosene 196

19 Airline Test Results with Biofuels 197

19.1 Air New Zealand 197

19.2 Qatar Airways 198

19.3 Japan Airlines Test Flight – Biofuels Tested: Jatropha, Camelina, and Algae 198

19.4 KLM – Biofuel Tested: Camelina 199

19.5 Continental Airlines 199

19.6 TAM 200

19.7 British Airways 201

19.8 The Milestone: Lufthansa’s Daily Flights 202

19.9 Cathay Pacific 203

19.10 Air China 205

19.11 Alaska Airlines 205

19.12 Aeromexico: First Transatlantic Biofuel Flight 206

20 Investment Opportunities 207

20.1 The Opportunity of a Lifetime 207

20.2 Eight Ways to Invest in Biofuels and Biomass 208

20.2.1 Agricultural Land 208

20.2.2 Invest in Trees 209

20.2.3 Start Your Own Plantation 209

20.2.4 Your own Biofuel/Biomass Production Company 210

20.2.5 Invest in Private Equity Funds 211

20.2.6 Biofuel Companies 211

20.2.6.1 Introduction 212

20.2.6.2 Company List 212

20.2.7 Mother Earth Biokersene Index 220

20.2.8 Managed Account 221

20.3 Investments Check-Up 221

21 Jatropha Projects, Research, and Joint Ventures 223

21.1 Waterland 223

21.2 KUOSOL: Repsol and KUO 224

21.3 SG Biofuels and Bunge 224

21.4 Shell and Brazil’s Cosan 225

21.5 JOil 225

21.6 Others 226

22 The Future 227

22.1 Conclusions 227

22.2 From Nuclear to Renewable Energies 227

22.3 The Future of Waste 228

22.4 Future of Jatropha Feedstock 230

22.5 Future of Sugarcane 231

22.6 Low-Carbon Economy 232

22.7 Zero-Waste Economy 232

22.8 Our World in 2030 233

Glossary 235

Index 239



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