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Driven from Yunnan at the close of China#x19;s civil war, Chiang Kai-shek#x19;s Nationalist Chinese armies forcibly occupied much of northeastern Burma in early 1950.#xA0; With support from the American CIA and Thailand#x19;s military government, General Li Mi led those armies into Yunnan the next year.#xA0; They were pushed back into Burma.#xA0; Thereafter, Li Mi built a major base and settled in Burma#x19;s Shan State.#xA0; His meddling in Burma#x19;s ethnic insurgencies destabilized that new nation.#xA0; Moreover, recruiting unsavory armed border groups, Li Mi#x19;s army, known as the Kuomintang, or KMT, soon dominated the Golden Triangle opium trade.#xA0; Only when pressured by Washington and the United Nations did Taipei remove several thousand of its troops in 1953-54.#xA0; Several thousand chose to remain. In the late 1950s, amidst popular discontent on the Mainland, reinforcements from Taiwan prepared its army in Burma for another invasion of Yunnan.#xA0; That plan was derailed in late 1960 when, at Rangoon#x19;s invitation, the PLA entered Burma and drove the KMT into Thailand and Laos.#xA0; An international outcry over Taiwan#x19;s no-longer-secret army and intense US pressure forced Chiang to remove all but 3,000-4,000 troops.#xA0; Several hundred remained to fight as mercenaries for the Lao government but most that did not evacuate continued their drug trafficking from bases on the Thai-Burma border Separately, Taiwan#x19;s Intelligence Bureau of the Ministry of National Defense (IBMND) built a large intelligence-gathering and paramilitary force in Northeast Burma.#xA0; Allied with anti-Rangoon insurgent drug trafficking groups, the IBMND fought both the Burmese government and Burma#x19;s communist insurgents while launching ineffectual forays into Yunnan.#xA0; Mostly, however, it trafficked in drugs. Beginning in the 1970s, aging KMT units helped the Thai defeat communist guerrillas in North Thailand.#xA0; In return, most of the Nationalist Chinese remnants were given right of residence and, eventually, citizenship.#xA0; With international assistance, Thailand#x19;s new residents and their children prospered, largely weaning themselves from the narcotics trade in favor of agriculture and other lawful livelihoods.#xA0; Today#x19;s KMT villages in North Thailand are prosperous settlements with little of the drug trafficking for which their inhabitants were once notorious.
Table of Contents
|Introduction: Two Young Chinese Soldiers||p. vii|
|Glossary of Key Players||p. xiii|
|List of Abbreviations||p. xvii|
|Retreat from Yunnan||p. 1|
|Sorting Things Out in Tachilek||p. 15|
|Lieutenant General Li Mi||p. 29|
|Li Mi and His American Friends||p. 45|
|Li Mi's Yunnan Anticommunist National Salvation Army||p. 57|
|Attacking Yunnan||p. 69|
|Washington Opts Out||p. 87|
|Li Mi's Army Settles into Burma||p. 97|
|Washington Cuts Its Losses||p. 113|
|Southern Strategy and Karen Allies||p. 121|
|The Road to the United Nations||p. 131|
|The United Nations vs. KMT Duplicity||p. 139|
|First Evacuation from Burma||p. 153|
|Liu Yuan-lin's Yunnan Anticommunist Volunteer Army||p. 165|
|A Resurgent KMT||p. 181|
|Operation Mekong: Sino- Burmese Forces Rout the KMT||p. 191|
|Air Battle Over Burma and American Weapons||p. 205|
|The Second KMT Evacuation||p. 213|
|Removing KMT Remnants from Laos||p. 225|
|Nationalist Chinese Armies in Thailand||p. 235|
|Thailand's Troublesome Guests||p. 251|
|Intelligence Bureau of the Ministry of National Defense||p. 265|
|Resettlement in Thailand||p. 281|
|Soldiering on for Thailand||p. 293|
|Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.|