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Seeing Through Statistics (with CD-ROM and InfoTrac),9780534394028

Seeing Through Statistics (with CD-ROM and InfoTrac)

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780534394028

ISBN10:
0534394027
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
6/23/2004
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning
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Summary

This third edition of Jessica Utts' popular book develops statistical literacy and critical thinking through real-world applications, with an emphasis on ideas, not calculations. This text focuses on the key concepts that educated citizens need to know about statistics. These ideas are introduced in interesting applied and real contexts, without using an abundance of technicalities and calculations that only serve to confuse students.

Table of Contents

PART 1 Finding Data in Life
1(120)
The Benefits and Risks of Using Statistics
3(12)
Statistics
4(1)
Heart or Hypothalamus?
4(1)
Detecting Patterns and Relationships
5(3)
Does Aspirin Prevent Heart Attacks?
7(1)
Don't Be Deceived by Improper Use of Statistics
8(2)
A Mistaken Accusation of Cheating
10(1)
Summary and Conclusions
10(5)
Exercises
10(3)
Mini-Projects
13(1)
References
14(1)
Reading the News
15(21)
The Educated Consumer of Data
16(1)
Origins of News Stories
16(2)
How to be a Statistics Sleuth: Seven Critical Components
18(3)
Four Hypothetical Examples of Bad Reports
21(9)
Who Suffers from Hangovers?
28(2)
Planning Your Own Study: Defining the Components in Advance
30(6)
Brooks Shoes Brings Flawed Study to Court
31(1)
Exercises
32(3)
Mini-Projects
35(1)
References
35(1)
Measurements, Mistakes, and Misunderstandings
36(21)
Simple Measures Don't Exist
37(1)
It's All in the Wording
37(4)
No Opinion of Your Own? Let Politics Decide
40(1)
Open or Closed Questions: Should Choices Be Given?
41(2)
Defining What Is Being Measured
43(3)
Questions in Advertising
45(1)
Defining a Common Language
46(11)
Exercises
51(4)
Mini-Projects
55(1)
References
56(1)
How to Get a Good Sample
57(24)
Common Research Strategies
58(3)
Defining a Common Language
61(1)
The Beauty of Sampling
62(2)
Simple Random Sampling
64(1)
Other Sampling Methods
65(4)
Difficulties and Disasters in Sampling
69(12)
The Infamous Literary Digest Poll of 1936
73(1)
Exercises
73(6)
Mini-Projects
79(1)
References
80(1)
Experiments and Observational Studies
81(26)
Defining a Common Language
82(3)
Designing a Good Experiment
85(5)
Quitting Smoking with Nicotine Patches
89(1)
Difficulties and Disasters in Experiments
90(3)
Exercise Yourself to Sleep
93(1)
Designing a Good Observational Experiment
93(3)
Baldness and Heart Attacks
94(2)
Difficulties and Disasters in Observational Studies
96(2)
Random Sample versus Random Assignment
98(9)
Exercises
100(5)
Mini-Projects
105(1)
References
106(1)
Getting the Big Picture
107(14)
Final Questions
107(14)
Mozart, Relaxation, and Performance on Spatial Tasks
108(2)
Meditation and Aging
110(3)
Drinking, Driving, and the Supreme Court
113(3)
Smoking During Pregnancy and Child's IQ
116(2)
For Class Discussion: Guns and Homicides at Home
118(1)
Mini-Projects
119(1)
References
119(2)
PART 2 Finding Life in Data
121(174)
Summarizing and Displaying Measurement Data
123(24)
Turning Data into Information
124(1)
Picturing Data: Stemplots and Histograms
125(7)
Five Useful Numbers: A Summary
132(2)
Boxplots
134(2)
Traditional Measures: Mean, Variance, and Standard Deviation
136(2)
Caution: Being Average Isn't Normal
138(9)
Detecting Exam Cheating with a Histogram
139(1)
For Those Who Like Formulas
140(1)
Exercises
141(4)
Mini-Projects
145(1)
References
146(1)
Bell-Shaped Curves and Other Shapes
147(15)
Populations, Frequency Curves, and Proportions
148(2)
The Pervasiveness of Normal Curves
150(1)
Percentiles and Standardized Scores
150(4)
z-Scores and Familiar Intervals
154(8)
For Those Who Like Formulas
156(1)
Exercises
156(5)
References
161(1)
Plots, Graphs, and Pictures
162(18)
Well-Designed Statistical Pictures
163(1)
Pictures of Categorical Data
163(3)
Pictures of Measurement Variables
166(1)
Difficulties and Disasters in Plots, Graphs, and Pictures
167(6)
A Checklist for Statistical Pictures
173(7)
Time to Panic about Illicit Drug Use?
173(1)
Exercises
174(4)
Mini-Projects
178(1)
References
179(1)
Relationships Between Measurement Variables
180(20)
Statistical Relationships
181(1)
Strength versus Statistical Significance
182(2)
Measuring Strength Through Correlation
184(4)
Specifying Linear Relationships with Regression
188(12)
Are Attitudes about Love and Romance Hereditary?
191(2)
A Weighty Issue: Women Want Less, Men Want More
193(2)
For Those Who Like Formulas
195(1)
Exercises
195(4)
Mini-Projects
199(1)
References
199(1)
Relationships Can Be Deceiving
200(18)
Illegitimate Correlations
201(5)
Legitimate Correlation Does Not Imply Causation
206(1)
Some Reasons for Relationships Between Variables
207(4)
Confirming Causation
211(7)
Exercises
213(3)
Mini-Projects
216(1)
References
217(1)
Relationships Between Categorical Variables
218(24)
Displaying Relationships Between Categorical Variables: Contingency Tables
219(3)
Relative Risk, Increased Risk, and Odds
222(5)
Misleading Statistics about Risk
227(2)
Simpson's Paradox: The Missing Third Variable
229(13)
Assessing Discrimination in Hiring and Firing
231(2)
For Those Who Like Formulas
233(1)
Exercises
233(7)
Mini-Projects
240(1)
References
240(2)
Statistical Significance for 2 x 2 Tables
242(24)
Measuring the Strength of the Relationship
243(2)
Steps for Assessing Statistical Significance
245(2)
The Chi-Square Test
247(7)
Practical versus Statistical Significance
254(12)
Extrasensory Perception Works Best with Movies
256(1)
For Those Who Like Formulas
257(1)
Exercises
258(6)
Mini-Projects
264(1)
References
265(1)
Reading the Economic News
266(16)
Cost of Living: The Consumer Price Index
267(3)
Uses of the Consumer Price Index
270(2)
Criticisms of the Consumer Price Index
272(1)
Economic Indicators
273(9)
Did Wages Really Go Up in the Reagan--Bush Years?
276(1)
Exercises
276(4)
Mini-Projects
280(1)
References
280(2)
Understanding and Reporting Trends over Time
282(13)
Time Series
283(1)
Components of Time Series
284(3)
Seasonal Adjustments: Reporting the Consumer Price Index
287(1)
Cautions and Checklist
288(7)
If You're Looking for a Job, Try May and October
289(2)
Exercises
291(2)
Mini-Projects
293(1)
References
294(1)
PART 3 Understanding Uncertainty in Life
295(58)
Understanding Probability and Long-Term Expectations
297(22)
Probability
298(1)
The Relative-Frequency Interpretation
298(2)
The Personal-Probability Interpretation
300(2)
Applying Some Simple Probability Rules
302(2)
When Will It Happen?
304(3)
Long-Term Gains, Losses, and Expectations
307(12)
Birthdays and Death Days---Is There a Connection?
310(1)
For Those Who Like Formulas
311(1)
Exercises
311(6)
Mini-Projects
317(1)
References
317(2)
Psychological Influences on Personal Probability
319(16)
Revisiting Personal Probability
320(1)
Equivalent Probabilities; Different Decisions
320(2)
How Personal Probabilities can Be Distorted
322(4)
Optimism, Reluctance to Change, and Overconfidence
326(2)
Calibrating Personal Probabilities of Experts
328(1)
Calibrating Weather Forecasters and Physicians
328(1)
Tips for Improving Your Personal Probabilities and Judgments
329(6)
Exercises
330(3)
Mini-Projects
333(1)
References
333(2)
When Intuition Differs from Relative Frequency
335(18)
Revisiting Relative Frequency
336(1)
Coincidences
336(3)
The Gambler's Fallacy
339(1)
Confusion of the Inverse
340(4)
Streak Shooting in Basketball: Reality or Illusion?
342(2)
Using Expected Values to Make Wise Decisions
344(9)
How Bad Is a Bet on the British Open?
345(2)
For Those Who Like Formulas
347(1)
Exercises
347(4)
Mini-Projects
351(1)
References
351(2)
PART 4 Making Judgments from Surveys and Experiments
353(168)
The Diversity of Samples from the Same Population
355(18)
Setting the Stage
356(1)
What to Expect of Sample Proportions
356(4)
What to Expect of Sample Means
360(4)
What to Expect in Other Situations
364(9)
Do Americans Really Vote When They Say They Do?
365(1)
For Those Who Like Formulas
366(1)
Exercises
367(4)
Mini-Projects
371(1)
References
372(1)
Estimating Proportions with Confidence
373(16)
Confidence Intervals
374(1)
Three Examples of Confidence Intervals from the Media
374(3)
Constructing a Confidence Interval for a Proportion
377(12)
A Winning Confidence Interval Loses in Court
380(1)
For Those Who Like Formulas
381(1)
Exercises
382(5)
Mini-Projects
387(1)
References
388(1)
The Role of Confidence Intervals in Research
389(22)
Confidence Intervals for Population Means
390(3)
Confidence Intervals for the Difference Between Two Means
393(2)
Revisiting Case Studies: How Journals Present Confidence Intervals
395(4)
Understanding Any Confidence Interval
399(12)
Premenstrual Syndrome? Try Calcium
400(2)
For Those Who Like Formulas
402(1)
Exercises
402(7)
Mini-Projects
409(1)
References
409(2)
Rejecting Chance---Testing Hypotheses in Research
411(22)
Using Data to Make Decisions
412(2)
The Basic Steps for Testing Hypotheses
414(3)
Testing Hypotheses for Proportions
417(4)
What Can Go Wrong: The Two Types of Errors
421(12)
Testing for the Existence of Extrasensory Perception
425(2)
For Those Who Like Formulas
427(1)
Exercises
427(5)
Mini-Projects
432(1)
References
432(1)
Hypothesis Testing---Examples and Case Studies
433(19)
How Hypothesis Tests are Reported in the News
434(1)
Testing Hypotheses about Proportions and Means
435(5)
Revisiting Case Studies: How Journals Present Hypothesis Tests
440(12)
An Interpretation of a p-Value Not Fit to Print
442(2)
For Those Who Like Formulas
444(1)
Exercises
445(6)
Mini-Projects
451(1)
References
451(1)
Significance, Importance, and Undetected Differences
452(15)
Real Importance versus Statistical Significance
453(1)
The Role of Sample Size in Statistical Significance
454(1)
No Difference versus No Statistically Significant Difference
455(3)
Seen a UFO? You May Be Healthier Than Your Friends
457(1)
A Summary of Warnings
458(9)
Finding Loneliness on the Internet
459(1)
Exercises
460(5)
Mini-Projects
465(1)
References
466(1)
Meta-Analysis: Resolving Inconsistencies across Studies
467(17)
The Need for Meta-Analysis
468(1)
Two Important Decisions for the Analyst
469(4)
Smoking and Reduced Fertility
472(1)
Some Benefits of Meta-Analysis
473(2)
Criticisms of Meta-Analysis
475(9)
Controversy over Mammograms
477(2)
Exercises
479(3)
Mini-Projects
482(1)
References
482(2)
Ethics in Statistical Studies
484(22)
Ethical Treatment of Human and Animal Participants
484(7)
Assurance of Data Quality
491(5)
Appropriate Statistical Analyses
496(2)
Fair Reporting of Results
498(8)
Science Fair Project or Fair Science Project?
500(2)
Exercises
502(2)
References
504(2)
Putting What You Have Learned to the Test
506(15)
Cranberry Juice and Bladder Infections
507(1)
Children on the Go
508(1)
It Really Is True about Aspirin
509(2)
You Can Work and Get Your Exercise at the Same Time
511(1)
Sex, Alcohol, and the First Date
511(1)
Unpalatable Pate
512(1)
Nursing Moms Can Exercise, Too
513(1)
So You Thought Spinach Was Good For You?
514(1)
Chill Out---Move to Honolulu
515(2)
So You Thought Hot Dogs Were Bad For You?
517(2)
References
519(2)
Contents of the Appendix and Accompanying CD 521(4)
Appendix of News Stories 525(16)
Solutions to Selected Exercises 541(6)
Index 547(12)
Credits 559


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