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Shooting Up: A Short History of Drugs and War examines how intoxicants have been put to the service of states, empires and their armies throughout history. Since the beginning of organized combat, armed forces have prescribed drugs to their members for two general purposes: to enhance performance during combat and to counter the trauma of killing and witnessing violence after it is over. Stimulants (e.g. alcohol, cocaine, and amphetamines) have been used to temporarily create better soldiers by that improving stamina, overcoming sleeplessness, eliminating fatigue, and increasing fighting spirit. Downers (e.g. alcohol, opiates, morphine, heroin, marijuana, barbiturates) have also been useful in dealing with the soldier's greatest enemy - shattered nerves. Kamienski's focuses on drugs "prescribed" by military authorities, but also documents the widespread unauthorised consumption by soldiers themselves. Combatants have always treated with various drugs and alcohol, mainly for recreational use and as a reward to themselves for enduring the constant tension of preparing for. Although not officially approved, such "self-medication" is often been quietly tolerated by commanders in so far as it did not affect combat effectiveness. This volume spans the history of combat from the use of opium, coca, and mushrooms in pre-modern warfare to the efforts of modern militaries, during the Cold War in particular, to design psychochemical offensive weapons that can be used to incapacitate rather than to kill the enemy. Along the way, Kamienski provides fascinating coverage of on the European adoption of hashish during Napolean's invasion of Egypt, opium use during the American Civil War, amphetamines in the Third Reich, and the use of narcotics to control child soldiers in the rebel militias of contemporary Africa.
Lukasz Kamienski is Lecturer in Political Science at the Institute of American Studies and Polish Diaspora at Jagiellonian University, Poland.
Table of Contents
List of Tables Preface Concepts and Definitions: Drugs and Addiction The Argument The Approach Research Questions The Structure of This Book Acknowledgments
Prologue Pharmacologically Enhanced Militaries Alcohol An Empire Built On Rum The Vodka Ethos Total War in the Fog of Prohibition, Rum, and Wine The Second World War Alcohol and Soldiering Since 1945 Conclusion
PART ONE: FROM PREMODERN TIMES TO THE END OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR
1. Premodern Times: Opium, Hashish, Mushrooms, and Coca Homer and a Miracle Drink Of Oblivion The Assassins and the Archetype of the Non-Western Intoxicated Warrior and Terrorist The Mushroom-Eaters The Incas and Their Invigorating Coca Coca and the Siege of La Paz
2. Napoleon in Egypt and the Adventures of Europeans with Hashish
3. The Opium Wars A "Free Trade in Poison" The Opium Armies
4. The American Civil War, Opium, Morphine, and the "Soldiers' Disease" Medicine, Opium, and Morphine The Soldier's Wounded Body Deadly Diseases The Salutary Opium and Morphine The Myth of the "Soldiers' Disease"?
5. The Colonial Wars and the Terrifying "Barbarians" The Zulus The Moros
6. From Coca to Cocaine: The First World War The Early Experiments with Coca and Cocaine in Europe The Wartime Cocaine Boom The Great War and the Cocaine Panic in Britain
7. The Second World War The Speed The Nazis High Hitler The Wehrmacht on Meth The British The Americans The Japanese The Shift in Japan's Drug Policy The Imperial Army on Meth The Finns: A Special Case The Russians Conclusion
PART TWO: THE COLD WAR
8. From the Korean War to the War Over Mind Control The Korean War The Controversial Korean P.O.W. Episode
9. In Search of Wonderful New Techniques and Weapons Early American Military Experiments with Psychoactive Substances on Humans Edgewood Arsenal: The Army's "Alchemical" Factory of Psychochemical Dreams The Hallucinogenic Arsenal of the "Anchor of Democracy": In Search of Nonlethal Psychochemical Weapons The Hallucinogenic Arsenal of the "Empire of Freedom": In Search of a Truth Serum
10. Vietnam: The First True Pharmacological War Drugs "Prescribed" By the Military Drugs "Self-Prescribed" By Soldiers Why? The Government Steps In The Myth of The Addicted Army A Painful Homecoming and "Othering" of Veterans
11. The Red Army in Afghanistan and the Problem of Drug Addiction Soviet Vietnam The 40th Army Heavy on Drugs Drugs as a Weapon and Source of Funding For Military Activities
PART THREE: TOWARD THE PRESENT
12. Contemporary Irregular Armies Empowered by Drugs
13. Intoxicated Child Soldiers The Old-New Phenomenon The Triad of New Wars, Smaller and Lighter Arms, and Drugs Advantages of Using Child Soldiers and the Role of Drugs Recruitment, Training, and Building Loyalty Enhancing Morale, Bravery, and Cruelty Rewarding Addiction as an Obstacle to Demobilization and Reintegration A Challenge to Regular Armed Forces
14. Drugs in the Contemporary American Armed Forces Speedy War and the "Violence of Speed" Risky Combat Fatigue and Operational Sleep Deprivation "Go Pills" And Pharmacological Management of Fatigue Dextroamphetamine Modafinil Toward a New Generation of No-Go Pills?