9780195101966

A Short History of Philosophy

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780195101966

  • ISBN10:

    0195101960

  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 1996-02-01
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press

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Summary

In this accessible and comprehensive work, Robert Solomon and Kathleen Higgins cover the entire history of philosophy--ancient, medieval, and modern, from cultures both East and West--in its broader historical and cultural contexts. Major philosophers and movements are discussed along withless well-known but interesting figures. The authors examine the early Greek, Indic, and Chinese philosophers and the mythological traditions that preceded them, as well as the great religious philosophies, including Christianity, Hinduism, Judaism, and Taoism. Easily understandable to studentswithout specialized knowledge of philosophy, A Short History of Philosophy demonstrates the relevance of philosophy to our times, illuminating the impact of the revolutions wrought by science, industry, colonialism, and sectarian warfare; the two world wars and the Holocaust; and the responses ofphilosophy in the schools of existentialism, postmodernism, feminism, and multiculturalism. In addition, the authors provide their own twists and interpretations of events, resulting in a broad view of the nature of philosophy as an intellectual discipline and its sometimes odd and dramaticconsequences.

Table of Contents

Biographical Chronology xiii
The Search for World Order: Ancient Philosophy
1(78)
The ``Axial Period'' and the Origins of Philosophy
1(6)
The ``Miracle'' of Greece
7(4)
Philosophy, Myth, Religion, and Science
11(6)
Meaning and Creation: Cosmogony and the Origins of Philosophy
17(5)
Vedas and Vedanta: Early Philosophy in India
22(3)
The First (Greek) Philosopher
25(4)
The Pre-Socratic Philosophers (I): The Stuff of the World
29(3)
The Pre-Socratic Philosophers (II): The Underlying Order
32(4)
The Pre-Socratic Philosophers (III): The Pluralists
36(3)
Enter the Sophists
39(4)
Socrates
43(6)
Plato: Metaphysician or Sublime Humorist?
49(7)
The Philosopher's Philosopher: Aristotle
56(11)
A Footnote to Plato (and Aristotle)
67(1)
Tough Times: Stoicism, Skepticism, and Epicureanism
68(6)
Mysticism and Logic in Ancient India: Nagarjuna and Nyaya
74(5)
God and the Philosophers: Religious and Medieval Philosphy
79(96)
Religion and Spirituality: Three Philosophical Themes
81(3)
The Wisdom of the East (I): Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism
84(7)
The Wisdom of the East (II): Confucius and Confucianism
91(5)
The Wisdom of the East (III): Lao-tzu, Chuang-tzu, and Taoism
96(3)
Deep in the Heart of Persia: Zoroastrianism
99(1)
From Athens to Jerusalem: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
100(5)
The Hebrew People and the Origins of Judaism
105(6)
Greek Jew: Philo of Alexandria
111(3)
The Birth of Christianity
114(4)
The Opening of Christianity: St. Paul
118(3)
Neoplatonism and Christianity
121(1)
St. Augustine and the Inner Life of Spirit
122(4)
The First Great Split Within Christianity
126(3)
The Rise of Islam
129(4)
Mysticism
133(1)
Persia and the Peripatetic Tradition
134(5)
Diaspora, Dialectic, and Mysticism in Judaism
139(3)
Thinking God: Anselm, Abelard, Aquinas, and Scholasticism
142(5)
Late Scholasticism: Duns Scotus and William of Ockham
147(2)
In Search of Essences: The Alchemists
149(3)
Philosophical Syntheses Outside the West
152(2)
The Reformation: Luther and His Progeny
154(6)
The Counter-Reformation, Erasmus, and More
160(3)
After Aristotle: Bacon, Hobbes, Machiavelli, and the Renaissance
163(4)
Before the ``Discovery'': Africa and the Americas
167(8)
Between Science and Religion: Modern Philosophy and the Enlightenment
175(68)
Science, Religion, and the Meaning of Modernism
175(3)
Montaigne: The First Modern Philosopher?
178(2)
Descartes and the New Science
180(6)
Spinoza, Leibniz, Pascal, and Newton
186(6)
The Enlightenment, Colonialism, and the Eclipse of the Orient
192(2)
Locke, Hume, and Empiricism
194(5)
Adam Smith, the Moral Sentiments, and the Protestant Ethic
199(3)
Voltaire, Rousseau, and Revolution
202(3)
Immanuel Kant: Saving Science
205(5)
Kant's Moral Philosophy and the Third Critique
210(4)
The Discovery of History: Hegel
214(7)
Philosophy and Poetry: Rationalism and Romanticism
221(2)
Romantic West Meets East: Schopenhauer
223(3)
After Hegel: Kierkegaard, Feuerbach, and Marx
226(4)
Mill, Darwin, and Nietzsche: Consumerism, Energy, and Evolution
230(5)
Early Philosophy in America
235(8)
From Modernism to Postmodernism: The Twentieth Century
243(64)
The Rejection of Idealism: A Century of Horrors
243(2)
Frege, Russell, and Husserl: Arithmetic, Atomism Phenomenology
245(8)
Zarathustra in the Trenches: The Limits of Rationality
253(6)
The American Experience in Philosophy: Pragmatism
259(5)
Changing Reality: Philosophies of Process
264(2)
Unamuno, Croce, and Heidegger: The Tragic Sense of Life
266(8)
Hitler, the Holocaust, Positivism, and Existentialism
274(5)
No Exit: The Existentialism of Camus, Sartre, and Beauvior
279(3)
From Ideal to Ordinary Language: From Cambridge to Oxford
282(4)
Women and Gender: The Feminization of Philosophy
286(6)
The Return of the Oppressed: Africa, Asia, and the Americas
292(7)
From Postmodernism to the New Age
299(5)
World Philosophy: Promise or Pretense
304(3)
Notes 307(8)
Selected Bibliography 315(10)
Index 325

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