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A Short History of Renaissance and Reformation Europe: Dances over Fire and Water

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780139593628

ISBN10:
0139593624
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/1999
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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Summary

This concise survey is designed to make the exciting history of Europe in the age of the Renaissance and Reformation come alive to readers. It is the first textbook on Europe between 1300 and 1700 to focus on gender as a significant issue for historical analysis. Author Jonathan W. Zophy introduces major events and personalities of the period as well as its cultural, economic, religious, political, and social developments. Taking a biographical approach, the book discusses ideas and artistic creations in their human and societal contexts. Reflects the latest in cross-disciplinary scholarship Written in a lively, student-friendly style Handsomely illustrated with masterpieces of art and useful maps Each chapter concludes with a chronology and up-to-date reading lists NEW Revised bibliographies NEW Additional material on Savonarola and Philip Melanchthon

Table of Contents

Preface xv
1 Introduction: The Best and Worst of Times
1(8)
The Problem of the Renaissance
1(3)
The Reformation
4(1)
Dances over Fire and Water?
4(1)
General Chronology
5(2)
Further Reading
7(1)
Note
8(1)
2 The Peoples of Europe
9(21)
The Peasantry
9(3)
A Culture of Poverty: Village Life
9(2)
The Continuities of Life for Men, Women, and Children
11(1)
Town Dwellers
12(10)
Daily Life
15(1)
Urban Women
15(1)
Social Tensions
16(1)
The Rise of the Capitalists
17(1)
Jacob Fugger the Rich (1459-1525)
18(1)
Muslims
19(2)
Slaves from Africa and the Levant
21(1)
Jews
21(1)
The Nobility
22(3)
Mercenary and Robber Nobles
23(1)
The Refinement of Manners
23(2)
The Clergy
25(2)
Further Reading
27(2)
Notes
29(1)
3 An Age of Disasters
30(18)
The Black Death, 1347-1350
30(2)
Peasant and Artisan Revolts
32(1)
Troubles in the Church
33(6)
The Babylonian Captivity, 1305-1376
33(2)
The Western Schism of 1378-1417
35(2)
The Burning of Jan Hus (c. 1372-1415)
37(1)
The Hussite Revolt
38(1)
The Hundred Years' War
39(4)
Joan of Arc (1412-1431)
42(1)
The War of the Roses, 1455-1485
43(2)
Chronology
45(1)
Further Reading
45(1)
Notes
46(2)
4 Italy: Home of the Renaissance
48(21)
Rome and the Papal States
49(3)
Cola di Rienzo (1313-1354)
50(1)
Renaissance Popes
50(2)
Naples and Sicily
52(1)
The Reigns of Joanna II (1414-1435), Alfonso V (1416-1458), and Ferrante I (1458-1494)
53(1)
The Power of Milan
53(2)
The Rise and Fall of the Sforza, 1450-1499
54(1)
The Mantua of Isabella d'Este
55(1)
Duke Federigo's Urbino
56(1)
Venice: The Queen of the Adriatic
57(2)
Venetian Politics and Society
57(2)
Venice and the Arts
59(1)
Florence: "The Most Beautiful of Cities"
59(7)
The Medici in Florence
62(1)
The Rise of the Medici Banking Empire
62(1)
Cosimo de' Medici as a Patron
63(1)
The Magnificent Lorenzo (1449-1492)
64(1)
The Pazzi Plot of 1478
64(1)
The Fall of the Medici
65(1)
Chronology
66(1)
Further Reading
66(2)
Notes
68(1)
5 The Culture of Renaissance Humanism in Italy
69(16)
Setting the Agenda: Early Renaissance Humanists
69(3)
Francesco Petrarca (1304-1374)
70(1)
Giovanni Boccaccio (1313-1375)
71(1)
Civic Humanists
72(1)
Coluccio Salutati (1331-1406)
72(1)
Leonardo Bruni (1370-1444)
72(1)
The Illustrious Lorenzo Valla (c. 1407-1457)
73(1)
Women Humanists
74(2)
Isotta Nogarola (1418-1466)
74(1)
Laura Cereta (1469-1499)
75(1)
Humanists as Philosophers, Historians, and Social Theorists
76(4)
Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494)
76(1)
Lions and Foxes: Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527)
77(1)
Machiavelli's Writings
78(1)
Francesco Guicciardini (1483-1540)
79(1)
Baldassare Castiglione (1478-1529)
79(1)
The Flowering of Italian Literature
80(2)
Ludovico Ariosto (1474-1533)
80(1)
The Poet as Blackmailer: Pietro Aretino (1492-1556)
81(1)
The Honest Courtesan: Veronica Franco (1546-1591)
81(1)
Vittoria Colonna
82(1)
Chronology
82(1)
Further Reading
82(1)
Notes
83(2)
6 Painting in Renaissance Italy
85(24)
Early Renaissance Painting: Giotto
85(4)
Masaccio (1401-1428)
87(2)
A Distinctive Style: Sandro Botticelli (c. 1444-1510)
89(2)
The High Renaissance
91(15)
Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)
92(4)
Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564) as a Painter
96(2)
Raphael Sanzio (1483-1520)
98(2)
The Prolific Titian (c. 1488-1576)
100(2)
Sofonisba Anguissola (c. 1532-1625)
102(1)
Artemisia Gentileschi (1593-c. 1632)
103(3)
Chronology
106(1)
Further Reading
106(2)
Notes
108(1)
7 Renaissance Sculpture, Architecture, and Music
109(14)
The Fatiguing Art: Sculpture
109(6)
Lorenzo Ghiberti (c. 1381-1455)
109(1)
Donatello (1386-1466)
110(2)
Michelangelo as a Sculptor
112(3)
Architecture
115(4)
Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446)
116(1)
Michelozzo Michelozzi (1396-1472)
117(1)
Bramante (1444-1514)
118(1)
Women in Sculpture and Architecture
118(1)
The Sounds of the Universe: Music
119(2)
Giovanni Palestrina (c. 1525-1594)
120(1)
Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643)
120(1)
Chronology
121(1)
Further Reading
121(1)
Notes
122(1)
8 The Northern Monarchies and Their Expansion
123(21)
The Economic Background
123(2)
The Political World
125(8)
The Disappearance of Burgundy
125(1)
France under Francois I (r. 1515-1547)
125(2)
England under the Early Tudors
127(1)
Spain under Isabella and Ferdinand
128(2)
The Holy Roman Empire
130(1)
Scandinavia and Margaret of Denmark
131(1)
Eastern Europe
131(2)
Russia
133(1)
The Expansion of Europe
133(4)
Henry the Navigator and Portuguese Exploration
133(1)
Christopher Columbus (1451-1506)
134(2)
Other European Explorers
136(1)
The Spanish Conquest of the Americas: Cortes
137(3)
Francisco Pizarro (c. 1475-1541)
139(1)
Chronology
140(1)
Further Reading
141(2)
Notes
143(1)
9 The Renaissance in the North
144(23)
The Literary Culture of the North
144(2)
Christine de Pizan (1365-c. 1429)
144(2)
Later French Writers
146(2)
Francois Villon (1431-c. 1464)
146(1)
Louise Labe (c. 1520-1566)
147(1)
Marguerite of Navarre (1492-1549)
147(1)
Francois Rabelais (1483-1553)
147(1)
The Emergence of the Vernacular in England
148(2)
William Shakespeare: The Bard of Avon
148(1)
Other Writers of the Elizabethan Renaissance
149(1)
The Golden Age of Spanish Literature
150(1)
The Fine Arts in the North
151(2)
Jan van Eyck
151(1)
Later Flemish Painting
152(1)
Renaissance Art in Germany
153(2)
Albrecht Durer (1471-1528)
153(2)
Lucas Cranach (1472-1553) and Hans Holbein (1497-1543)
155(1)
The Sculptor Tilman Riemenschneider (c. 1460-1531)
155(1)
Northern Renaissance Humanism
155(1)
The Brothers and Sisters of the Common Life
156(1)
German Humanism
156(3)
Conrad Celtis (1459-1508)
156(1)
Caritas and Willibald Pirckheimer
157(1)
Johann Reuchlin (1455-1522)
158(1)
English Humanism
159(2)
The Man for all Seasons: Thomas More (1478-1535)
159(2)
Erasmus (c. 1466-1536), Prince of the Humanists
161(2)
The Printing Press and Its Impact
163(1)
Chronology
164(1)
Further Reading
164(2)
Notes
166(1)
10 Martin Luther's Revolt
167(17)
The Man with Seven Heads
167(6)
Martin Luther's Background
167(2)
The Indulgence Controversy
169(2)
The Rebel
171(1)
Choosing a New Caesar
172(1)
Luther's Rebellion Intensifies
173(6)
Luther versus Charles V: The 1521 Diet of Worms
176(2)
Anticlericalism
178(1)
Luther at the Wartburg Castle, May 1521 to March 1522
178(1)
The Knights' Revolt of 1522 to 1524
179(2)
Franz von Sickingen (1481-1523)
180(1)
Chronology
181(1)
Further Reading
182(1)
Notes
182(2)
11 The Spread of Lutheranism
184(19)
A New Pope and New Hope, 1522-1524
184(2)
The Diets of Nuremberg, 1522-1524
184(1)
The Spread of Lutheranism: The Case of Nuremberg
185(1)
The German Peasants' War, 1524-1526
186(4)
The Outbreak of the Revolt, May 1524
187(1)
Thomas Muntzer (c. 1490-1525)
188(1)
The End of the 1524-1526 Peasants' War
189(1)
Martin Luther and the Peasants' War
190(1)
Katherine von Bora (1499-1550)
190(2)
The Emergence of Evangelical Politics
192(1)
The Diets of Speyer, 1526 and 1529
192(2)
The Augsburg Confession of 1530
194(2)
Philip Melanchthon (1497-1560)
194(1)
The Formation of the Schmalkaldic League
195(1)
Luther's Declining Years, 1530-1546
196(2)
The Bigamy of Philip of Hesse
197(1)
Luther and the Jews
197(1)
Lutheranism in Scandinavia
198(2)
Chronology
200(1)
Further Reading
200(2)
Notes
202(1)
12 Zwingli, Swiss Reform, and Anabaptism
203(14)
Huldrych Zwingli (1484-1531)
203(4)
Early Years
203(1)
Not a Frivolous Musician: Zwingli in Zurich
204(1)
The Adoption of the Reform by Zurich
205(1)
The Marburg Colloquy
206(1)
Zwingli's Last Years
206(1)
Heinrich Bullinger (1504-1575)
207(1)
Big Names in the Reform of Basel
208(1)
The Rise of Anabaptism
209(2)
Conrad Grebel (1498-1526)
209(1)
Michael Sattler (c. 1490-1527) and the Schleitheim Statement
210(1)
Balthasar Hubmaier (c. 1480-1528)
211(1)
Charisma and Fanaticism at Munster
211(2)
The Fall of "King" Jan
212(1)
Menno Simons (1496-1561)
213(1)
The Hutterites and the Community of Goods
214(1)
Chronology
215(1)
Further Reading
215(1)
Notes
216(1)
13 John Calvin and Calvinism
217(15)
Calvin's Early Years
217(1)
The Flight from Paris
218(1)
Calvin's Theology
218(2)
The Call to Geneva
219(1)
The Reform in Strasbourg
220(1)
Martin Bucer (1491-1551)
220(1)
Katherine Zell (c. 1497-1562)
221(1)
Calvin's Return to Geneva
221(4)
The Michael Servetus Case
222(1)
The Threat of the Libertines
223(1)
Discipline in Calvin's Geneva
223(1)
Calvin and Women
224(1)
Calvin the Man
224(1)
Theodore Beza (1516-1605) and the Genevan Academy
225(1)
The Spread of Calvinism
226(3)
A Failed Calvinist Reformation in Brandenburg
227(2)
Calvinism Triumphant
229(1)
Chronology
229(1)
Further Reading
230(1)
Notes
231(1)
14 The Reformation in England to 1558
232(14)
King Harry's Trouble with Women
232(3)
Cardinal Thomas Wolsey (1471-1530)
233(1)
"Breaking Up Is Hard to Do": The Problem of the Divorce
234(1)
Replacements for Wolsey
235(2)
Thomas Cromwell (1485-1540)
235(1)
Exploiting Anticlericalism
236(1)
The Legal Reformation
237(2)
Unlucky in Love: Henry's Matrimonial Difficulties
238(1)
The Reformation under Edward VI (1537-1553)
239(3)
The Tyndale Bible
240(1)
The Fall of Edward Seymour
240(1)
The Rise and Fall of John Dudley (c. 1502-1553) and Lady Jane Grey (1537-1554)
241(1)
The Reign of Mary I, Tudor, 1553-1558
242(1)
Chronology
243(1)
Further Reading
244(1)
Notes
245(1)
15 A Tale of Two Queens: Elizabeth I of England and Mary of Scotland
246(11)
The Young Queen Elizabeth
246(4)
The Elizabethan Religious Settlement
247(1)
Gloriana: The Successful Queen
248(2)
Mary Stuart and the Reformation in Scotland
250(4)
The Spread of Protestant Ideas
250(1)
The Rise of Knox, the "Thundering Scot"
251(1)
Mary, Queen of Scots
251(2)
Mary's Life and Death in England, 1568-1587
253(1)
Chronology
254(1)
Further Reading
255(1)
Notes
256(1)
16 The Catholic Reformation
257(15)
Reform in Spain
257(1)
Efforts at Reform in Italy
258(2)
New Reform Orders: Capuchins, Theatines, and Ursulines
259(1)
Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556) and the Society of Jesus
260(3)
The Founding of the Society of Jesus
261(1)
The Organization of the Jesuits
261(2)
The Jesuit Legacy
263(1)
Teresa of Avila (1515-1582)
263(2)
Pope Paul III and Reform
265(1)
An Irenic Reformer: Gasparo Contarini (1483-1542)
265(1)
The Council of Trent 1545-1563
266(3)
The Conclusion of the Council of Trent and Its Impact
267(2)
Chronology
269(1)
Further Reading
270(1)
Notes
271(1)
17 An Age of Religious Warfare, 1546-1660
272(27)
The Empire Strikes Back: The Schmalkaldic War, 1546-1548
273(4)
The Defection of Nuremberg and Brandenburg-Ansbach
273(1)
A Truce with the Ottomans
273(1)
Imperial Initiatives
274(1)
The Battle of Muhlberg, 1547
275(1)
The Augsburg and Leipzig Interims
275(1)
Splits in Lutheranism
276(1)
The Religious Peace of Augsburg of 1555
276(1)
The Religious Wars in France
277(7)
The Reign of Henri II (r. 1547-1559)
277(1)
The Power of Catherine de' Medici (1519-1589)
278(1)
The Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre
278(2)
The Reign of Henri III (r. 1574-1589)
280(1)
Political Theorists
280(1)
The War of the Three Henries, 1587-1589
281(1)
Henri of Navarre as King of France, 1589-1610
282(2)
Philip II's Crusades
284(6)
The Character of the King
284(1)
War against Islam
285(1)
The Revolt of the Low Countries
285(2)
The Spanish Armada of 1588
287(3)
The Thirty Years' War, 1618-1648
290(4)
Danish Intervention, 1623-1630
291(1)
Swedish Intervention, 1630-1635
291(2)
The Franco-Swedish Phase (1635-1648) and Aftermath
293(1)
Chronology
294(1)
Further Reading
295(3)
Notes
298(1)
18 The Legacy
299(24)
Religious Life
299(4)
Theological Divisions and Social Discipline
299(2)
Marriage in Protestant Europe
301(1)
Margaret Fell (1614-1702) and Women as Preachers
301(2)
Roman Catholicism Revived
303(1)
Witchcraft and Its Suppression
303(2)
Critics of the Witch Craze
305(1)
The Rise of Western Science
305(10)
Astrology, Alchemy, and Magic
305(2)
Nicholas Copernicus (1473-1543)
307(1)
Brahe and Kepler
307(1)
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
308(3)
Medicine and Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564)
311(1)
The Scientific Method and Francis Bacon (1561-1626)
312(2)
Women Scientists
314(1)
Rene Descartes (1595-1650)
314(1)
Political Changes
315(4)
The Constitutional Struggle in England, 1642-1688
315(2)
The Rise of Absolutism
317(1)
French-style Absolutism
317(2)
Chronology
319(1)
Further Reading
319(3)
Notes
322(1)
Index 323


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