For courses in Freshman composition/English, or other courses where writing is a focus. This bestselling rhetoric/handbook serves simultaneously as a classroom text, as a source for self-instruction, and as a comprehensive reference volume. It begins with coverage of the writing process, giving extensive attention to critical thinking and writing argument, followed by treatment of all aspects of style, grammar, punctuation, and mechanics. It offers complete coverage of research (electronic and traditional), research writing, writing across the disciplines, and ESL. The text is designed and written so students can find information easily and quickly, and be encouraged and supported in the learning process with clear examples and explanations. The information is chunked into small pieces which are easily accessed and digested, making both teaching and learning easier and more effective.
Table of Contents
CONTENTS I. WRITING AN ESSAY. 1. Thinking about Purposes and Audiences. Why bother to write? How is writing defined? What are the major purposes for writing? What does "audience" mean for writing? What is tone in writing? What does "sources for writing" mean? What tools can help me as a writer? 2. Planning and Shaping. What is the writing process? What terms describe different kinds of writing? What is a "writing situation"? How can I think through a writing topic? What can I do if no ideas occur to me? How do I use an idea book and a journal? What is freewriting? What is brainstorming? What are "journalist's questions"? What is mapping? How can "talking it over" help? How can an Internet search help? How can incubation help me? How can shaping help me? How can looking for "levels of generality" help me? How can a subject tree help me? What is a thesis statement? What is outlining? 3. Drafting and Revising. What can help me write a first draft? How can I overcome writer's block? How do I revise? How do I edit? How do I proofread? What is collaborative writing? An essay in three drafts, by Carol Moreno. 4. Writing Paragraphs. What is a paragraph? How can I write effective introductory paragraphs? What are body paragraphs? How can I create unity in paragraphs? How do topic sentences help create paragraph unity? How can I develop my body paragraphs? How can I write coherent paragraphs? In what different ways can I arrange a paragraph? What rhetorical strategies can I use to write my paragraphs? What is a transitional paragraph? How can I write effective concluding paragraphs? 5. Critical Thinking, Reading, and Writing. What is critical writing? How do I engage in critical thinking? What is the reading process? How do I engage in critical reading? How do I tell the difference between summary and synthesis? How do I write a critical response? How do I assess evidence critically? How do I assess cause and effect critically? How do I assess reasoning processes critically? How can I recognize and avoid logical fallacies? 6. Writing Argument. What is a written argument? How do I choose a topic for an argument? How do I develop an assertion and a thesis statement for my argument? What part does the audience play in my argument? What is the structure of a classical argument? What is the Toulmin model for argument? How do I define key terms in an argument? How do I reason effectively in an argument? How do I establish a reasonable tone in argument? How did two students draft and revise their arguments? Final drafts of argument essays by two students. II. UNDERSTANDING GRAMMAR AND WRITING CORRECT SENTENCES. 7. Parts of Speech and Sentence Structures. Parts of Speech. Why learn the parts of speech? What is a noun? What is a pronoun? What is a verb? What is a verbal? What is an adjective? What is an adverb? What is a preposition? What is a conjunction? What is an interjection? Sentence Structures. How is a sentence defined? What is a subject and predicate in a sentence? What are direct and indirect objects? What are complements, modifiers, and appositives? What is a phrase? What is a clause? What are the four sentence types? 8. Verbs. What do verbs do? Verb Forms. What are the forms of main verbs? What are the -s forms of verbs? What is the difference between regular and irregular verbs? What are auxiliary verbs? What are intransitive and transitive verbs? Verb Tense. What is verb tense? How do I use the simple present tense? How do I form and use the perfect tenses? How do I form and progressive forms? How do I use tense sequences accurately? Mood. What is mod in verbs? What are correct subjunctive forms? Voice. What is voice in verbs? How do I write in the active, not passive, voice? What are proper uses of the passive voice? 9. Pronouns: Case and Reference. Pronoun Case. What doe case mean? What are personal pronouns? How do pronouns operate in the subjective case? How do pronouns operate in the objective case? How do pr