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Social Problems

by ;
Edition:
8th
ISBN13:

9780205294565

ISBN10:
0205294561
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
8/1/1999
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $80.00

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This is the 8th edition with a publication date of 8/1/1999.
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Summary

This best-selling text continues with this new edition its tradition of challenging students to become enthusiastic about exploring the intricacies and mysteries of social life using the sociological perspective. Taking a conflict approach, Eitzen and Baca Zinn focus on the social structure to determine the underlying features of the social world in an effort to help students to understand today's social problems.

Table of Contents

PART ONE THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF SOCIAL PROBLEMS 1(50)
The Sociological Approach to Social Problems
1(19)
The History of Social Problems Theory
2(2)
Toward a Definition of Social Problems
4(3)
Types of Social Problems
7(3)
Norm Violations
7(1)
Social Conditions
8(2)
Social Structure as the Basic Unit of Analysis
10(6)
Person-Blame Approach versus System-Blame Approach
11(3)
Reasons for Focusing on the System-Blame Approach
14(2)
Organization of the Book
16(1)
Chapter Review
17(1)
Key Terms
18(1)
For Further Study
19(1)
Wealth and Power: The Bias of the System
20(31)
Capitalism and Socialism
22(5)
Capitalism
22(2)
Socialism
24(3)
The U.S. Economy: The Concentration of Corporate Wealth
27(9)
Monopolistic Capitalism
27(3)
Multinational Corporations
30(1)
The Concentration of Wealth
31(5)
The Political System: The Links Between Wealth and Power
36(3)
Government by Interest Groups
36(1)
The Financing of Political Campaigns
36(2)
The Candidate Selection Process
38(1)
The Bias of the Political System
39(9)
The Consequences of Concentrated Power
41(2)
Subsidies to Big Business
43(2)
Trickle-Down Solutions
45(1)
The Powerless Bear the Burden
46(2)
Foreign Policy for Corporate Benefit
48(1)
Chapter Review
48(1)
Key Terms
49(1)
For Further Study
50(1)
PART TWO PROBLEMS OF PEOPLE, THE ENVIRONMENT, AND LOCATION 51(126)
World Population and Global Inequality
51(25)
World Population Growth
54(6)
Poverty
60(7)
Food and Hunger
61(4)
Sickness and Disease
65(1)
The Concentration of Misery in Cities
65(2)
Priorities of Third World Nations: Military Security or Economic Security?
67(1)
U.S. Relations with the Third World
67(6)
Multinational Corporations
68(4)
U.S. Government
72(1)
Chapter Review
73(1)
Key Terms
74(1)
For Further Study
75(1)
Threats to the Environment
76(30)
Worldwide Environmental Problems
77(10)
Degradation of the Land
79(1)
Environmental Pollution and Degradation
80(7)
Global Environmental Crises
87(4)
Fossil Fuel Dependence, Waste, and Environmental Degradation
87(2)
The Destruction of the Tropical Rain Forests
89(1)
Global Warming
90(1)
Sources of U.S. Environmental Problems
91(8)
Cultural Sources
92(3)
Structural Sources
95(4)
Solutions to the Environmental Crises
99(3)
The Pro-Business Voluntaristic Approach
99(1)
The Egalitarian/Authoritarian Plan
99(1)
The Control of Resource Use
100(2)
International Implications of Environmental Problems
102(2)
Chapter Review
104(1)
Key Terms
105(1)
For Further Study
105(1)
Demographic Changes in the United States: The Browning and Graying of Society
106(33)
The New Immigration and the Changing Racial Landscape
107(12)
Immigration and Increasing Diversity
110(1)
The Consequences of the New Immigration
111(6)
Immigration and Agency
117(1)
The Effects of Immigration on Immigrants: Ethnic Identity or Assimilation?
117(2)
The Aging Society
119(6)
The Demographics of an Aging Society
119(1)
A Demographic Portrait of the Current Elderly Population
120(5)
Problems of an Aging Society
125(10)
Social Security
125(5)
Paying for Health Care
130(1)
Elderly Abuse
131(4)
Responses by the Elderly: Human Agency
135(2)
Chapter Review
137(1)
Key Terms
137(1)
For Further Study
138(1)
Urban Problems in the United States
139(38)
The Mugging of U.S. Cities
140(10)
Suburbanization
140(2)
Metropolitan Deconcentration
142(2)
Other Sources of Urban Job Loss
144(2)
Disinvestment
146(3)
Federal Abandonment
149(1)
The Declining Quality of Urban Life
150(19)
Urban Poverty
150(3)
The Urban Housing Crisis
153(5)
Decaying Infrastructure
158(1)
Transportation, Pollution and the Environment
159(5)
Health and Health Care
164(2)
Urban Schools
166(1)
Crime, Drugs, and Gangs
166(3)
Urban Policy: Rebuilding U.S. Cities
169(4)
Why Save the Cities?
169(1)
Policy Alternatives
169(4)
American Cities at the Turn of the Century
173(1)
Chapter Review
174(1)
Key Terms
175(1)
For Further Study
176(1)
PART THREE PROBLEMS OF INEQUALITY 177(131)
Poverty
177(35)
The Extent of Poverty
178(8)
Racial Minorities
180(1)
Women
180(2)
Children
182(1)
Elderly
182(2)
Place
184(1)
The Poor-Poor
185(1)
Myths about Poverty
186(5)
Refusal to Work
186(1)
Welfare Dependency
186(4)
The Poor Get Special Advantages
190(1)
Welfare Is an African American and Latino Program
191(1)
The Costs of Poverty
191(3)
The Causes of Poverty
194(8)
Deficiency Theory I: Innate Inferiority
194(5)
Deficiency Theory II: Cultural Inferiority
199(1)
Structural Theories
200(2)
The Elimination of Poverty
202(7)
Chapter Review
209(1)
Key Terms
210(1)
For Further Study
210(2)
Racial and Ethnic Inequality
212(32)
How to Think About Racial and Ethnic Inequality
213(1)
Racial and Ethnic Minorities
214(9)
Racial Categories
215(2)
Differences among Ethnic Groups
217(6)
Explanations of Racial and Ethnic Inequality
223(5)
Deficiency Theories
223(1)
Bias Theories
224(1)
Structural Discrimination Theories
224(4)
Discrimination Against African Americans and Latinos: Continuity and Change
228(8)
Income
229(2)
Education
231(2)
Unemployment
233(1)
Type of Employment
234(1)
Health
235(1)
Contemporary Trends and Issues in U.S. Racial and Ethnic Relations
236(5)
Growing Racial Strife
237(2)
Economic Polarization in U.S. Inner Cities
239(2)
Racial Policies at the Turn of the Century
241(1)
Chapter Review
242(1)
Key Terms
243(1)
For Further Study
243(1)
Gender Inequality
244(38)
The Differentiation and Ranking of Women and Men
247(5)
Is Gender Based on Physiological Differences?
247(3)
Gender and Power
250(1)
What Causes Gender Inequality?
251(1)
Socialization versus Structure: Two Approaches to Gender Inequality
252(1)
Learning Gender
252(8)
Children at Home
253(1)
Children at Play
254(2)
Formal Education
256(3)
Socialization as Blaming the Victim
259(1)
Reinforcing Male Dominance
260(7)
Language
260(1)
Interpersonal Behavior
260(1)
Mass Communications Media
261(1)
Religion
262(2)
The Law
264(1)
Politics
264(3)
Structured Gender Inequality
267(10)
Occupational Distribution
267(5)
The Earnings Gap
272(1)
Race, Gender, and Workplace Segregation
273(1)
Pay Equity
274(1)
How Workplace Inequality Operates
275(2)
Women and Men in Families
277(1)
The Costs and Consequences of Sexism
277(1)
Who Benefits?
277(1)
The Social and Individual Costs
277(1)
Fighting the System
278(2)
Feminist Movements in the United States
278(1)
Women's Struggles at Century's End
279(1)
Chapter Review
280(1)
Key Terms
281(1)
For Further Study
281(1)
Sexual Orientation
282(26)
Social Deviance
283(3)
The Gay and Lesbian Community: An Overview
286(4)
Defining Homosexuality
286(1)
The Roots of Homosexuality
286(1)
Numbers: How Many Homosexuals?
287(1)
Interpersonal Relationships and Domestic Arrangements among Homosexuals
288(2)
Discrimination
290(12)
Ideological Oppression
290(5)
Legal Oppression: The Law, the Courts, and the Police
295(5)
Occupational Discrimination
300(2)
Fighting the System: Human Agency
302(3)
Chapter Review
305(1)
Key Terms
306(1)
For Further Study
307(1)
PART FOUR INSTITUTIONAL PROBLEMS 308(160)
Work
308(32)
The Problems of Work
309(13)
The Control of Workers
309(2)
Alienation
311(1)
Dangerous Working Conditions
312(3)
Sweatshops
315(1)
Unions and Their Decline
316(2)
Discrimination in the Workplace: The Perpetuation of Inequality
318(2)
Unemployment
320(2)
The Structural Transformation of the Economy
322(6)
The New Technologies Based on Microelectronics
323(1)
Globalization of the Economy
324(1)
Capital Flight
325(1)
From Manufacturing to Services
326(2)
Age of Discontinuity
328(7)
Technology and Jobs
328(4)
The Global Economy and Domestic Jobs
332(1)
Demography and Jobs
332(1)
The Changing Economy, Demography, and the Future of Work
333(2)
The Transformation of the Economy and the Bifurcation of the United States
335(2)
Chapter Review
337(1)
Key Terms
338(1)
For Further Study
339(1)
Families
340(38)
The Mythical Family in the United States
341(2)
Families in Contemporary U.S. Society: The Family in Capitalism
343(3)
Stratification and Family Life: Unequal Life Chances
346(6)
Structural Transformation and Family Life
349(2)
The Changing Composition of Households and Families
351(1)
Parents and Children
352(12)
Social Supports for Working Parents
353(5)
Single Parents and Their Children
358(3)
Children's Economic Status
361(3)
Divorce
364(5)
The Consequences of Divorce
366(2)
Children and Divorce
368(1)
Violence in U.S. Families
369(7)
Family Organization and Violence
369(1)
Spouse Abuse
369(3)
Child Abuse and Neglect
372(3)
Consequences
375(1)
Chapter Review
376(1)
Key Terms
377(1)
For Further Study
377(1)
Education
378(32)
The Characteristics of Education in the United States
379(7)
Education as a Conserving Force
379(1)
Mass Education
380(1)
Local Control of Education
381(4)
The Competitive Nature of U.S. Education
385(1)
The ``Sifting and Sorting'' Function of Schools
385(1)
The Preoccupation with Order and Control
385(1)
The Political Economy of Education in Corporate Society
386(2)
The Role of Education in Corporate Society
387(1)
Social-Class Biases of the Educational System
387(1)
Education and Inequality
388(14)
The Relation between School Success and Socioeconomic Success
388(9)
Segregation
397(1)
Tracking and Teachers' Expectations
398(4)
Possible Ways to Promote Equality of Opportunity
402(6)
Reforming the Financing of Education
402(3)
Special Programs for the Disadvantaged
405(2)
Reforming Schools to Allow Each Individual to Realize Her or His Potential
407(1)
Restructuring Society
408(1)
Chapter Review
408(1)
Key Terms
409(1)
For Further Study
409(1)
Health and Health Care Delivery
410(32)
Unequal Access to Health Care
411(12)
Social Class
412(5)
Race
417(4)
Gender
421(2)
Class, Race, and Gender: Who Wins and Who Loses in the Battle Against HIV/AIDS
423(11)
The Changing Social Organization of Health Care Delivery
427(1)
The Fee-for-Service System
427(1)
The Shift to Managed Care
428(4)
The Shift from Private to For-Profit Hospitals
432(2)
Toward a Better Health Care System: Some Alternatives
434(5)
Reforms within the Medical Community
435(1)
National Health Insurance
436(1)
Societal Changes
437(2)
Chapter Review
439(1)
Key Terms
440(1)
For Further Study
440(2)
National Security
442(26)
The U. S. Defense Establishment
445(11)
How Big Is the U.S. Military?
446(1)
What Does the End of the Cold War Mean for the Military?
446(6)
The Economic Beneficiaries of Military Spending
452
Waste in Defense Spending
450(2)
The Domestic Social Impacts of Military Spending
452(4)
The Threat of Domestic Terrorism
456(7)
The Ideology of the New Revolutionaries
457(2)
The Movement's Followers
459(3)
How Can the Threat of Domestic Terrorism Be Reduced?
462(1)
The New National Security
463(2)
Children
463(1)
Crime
464(1)
Cities
464(1)
Chapter Review
465(2)
Key Terms
467(1)
For Further Study
467(1)
PART FIVE SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND INDIVIDUAL DEVIANCE 468(69)
Crime and Justice
468(34)
Crime in Society
469(17)
What Is Crime?
469(2)
Crime Rates
471(2)
Demographic Characteristics of People Arrested for Crimes
473(4)
Categories of Crime
477(9)
The Unjust System of Justice
486(11)
The Laws
487(1)
The Police
488(1)
The Judicial Process
489(4)
The Correctional System
493(4)
The Unjust Imposition of the Label ``Criminal''
497(3)
Chapter Review
500(1)
Key Terms
500(1)
For Further Study
501(1)
Drugs
502(35)
Drugs in Society
504(15)
Types and Effects of Psychoactive Drugs
504(8)
Drug Patterns by Class and Race
512(4)
The Impact of Social Factors on Drug Use
516(1)
Medical and Social Pressures to Use Drugs
517(2)
The Politics of Drugs
519(9)
The Historical Legality of Drugs
520(1)
Factors Influencing Drug Laws and Enforcement
521(5)
The Consequences of Official Drug Policies
526(2)
Alternatives
528(6)
Prohibition Through Criminal Laws and Police Enforcement
529(1)
Regulation of Trade or Use Through Licensing and Taxation
529(3)
Noninterference
532(2)
Chapter Review
534(1)
Key Terms
535(1)
For Further Study
536(1)
PART SIX SOLUTIONS 537(24)
A Progressive Plan to Solve Society's Social Problems
537(24)
Social Problems and Social Policy
538(1)
Sociology, Social Problems, and Social Change
539(3)
The Sociological Paradox: Structure and Agency
540(1)
The Sociological Dilemma: Recognition and Rejection
540(2)
Progressive Principles to Guide Public Policy
542(7)
Is a Progressive Social Policy Possible?
549(5)
Should a Progressive Plan Be Adopted by U.S. Society?
549(1)
Financing the Progressive Agenda
550(1)
Is There any Hope of Instituting a Social Agenda Based on Progressive Principles?
550(4)
Human Agency: Social Change from the Bottom Up
554(5)
Individuals Protesting and Organizing for Change
554(5)
Chapter Review
559(1)
Key Terms
559(1)
For Further Study
560(1)
Bibliography 561(21)
Name Index 582(5)
Subject Index 587


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