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Social Problems and the Quality of Life,9780078026867
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Social Problems and the Quality of Life

by ;
Edition:
13th
ISBN13:

9780078026867

ISBN10:
0078026865
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/30/2013
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages
List Price: $167.06

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Summary

Social Problems and the Quality of Life is a thought-provoking text providing thorough coverage of the social problems that most acutely impact the quality of our lives. Chapters define what a social problem is, and address a number of questions crucial to understanding social problems. Learning is supported through several pedagogical features such as Global Comparison boxes and public policy sections, as well as study questions, internet resources, and ample review materials.

Table of Contents

List of Figures xii

List of Tables xiii

Preface xiv

Foundations 1

1 Understanding Social

Problems 2

Objectives 2

“Why Is It My Fault?” 3

Introduction 3

Personal versus SocialProblems 4

The Causes of Problems 5
The Consequences of Problems 5

A Model for Understanding 7

A Theory-Based Model 8
Quality of Life 10
Multiple Levels of Social Problems 11
Social Action for Resolution 12
The Changing Nature of Social Problems 13
Analyzing Social Problems 14

Critical Thinking: Recognizing Fallacies 15

Fallacy of Dramatic Instance 15
Fallacy of Retrospective Determinism 16
Fallacy of Misplaced Concreteness 17
Fallacy of Personal Attack 18
Fallacy of Appeal to Prejudice 18
Fallacy of Circular Reasoning 19
Fallacy of Authority 19
Fallacy of Composition 21
Fallacy of Non Sequitur 21

Involvement: How, and How Not,to Think 22

Fallacies and the Mass Media 22

The Sources of Data: Social Research 23

Survey Research 24
Statistical Analysis of Offi cial Records 25
Experiments 28
Participant Observation 29

Summary 31

Key Terms 31

Study Questions 31

Internet Resources/Exercises 32

For Further Reading 32

Problems of Behavioral Deviance 33

2 Alcohol and Other Drugs 34

Objectives 34

Despair and Hope 35

Introduction 36

Alcohol 37

Effects 37
Patterns of Use 38
Alcohol and the Quality of Life 39

Global Comparison: Alcoholism in Eastern Europe 41

Involvement: “I’d Kill Before I’d Drink” 42

Contributing Factors 43
Public Policy and Private Action 45

Other Drugs 47

Types and Effects 47
Patterns of Use 53
Drugs and the Quality of Life 55
Contributing Factors 59
Public Policy and Private Action 64

Summary 69

Key Terms 69

Study Questions 69

Internet Resources/Exercises 70

For Further Reading 70

3 Crime and Delinquency 72

Objectives 72

A Victim Recovers 73

Introduction 74

The Varieties of Crime 75

Predatory Crime 75
Illegal Service Crimes 76
Public Disorder Crimes 76
Crimes of Negligence 76
Cyber Crime 76
White-Collar Crime 77
Organized Crime 79
Juvenile Delinquency 80
Juvenile Violence and Juvenile Gangs 80

The Extent of Crime and Delinquency 82

Sources of Data 82
Problems with Offi cial Records 83
The Amount of Crime and Delinquency 84

The Distribution of Crime 86

The Criminal Justice Process 86

Crime, Delinquency, and the Qualityof Life 88

Physical and Psychological Costs of Crime 88
Economic Costs of Crime 89

Contributing Factors 89

Social Structural Factors 89

Global Comparison: Alternatives to Imprisonment: Germany and Israel 92

Involvement: Coddling Criminals 93

Social Psychological Factors 96

Public Policy and Private Action 97

Punishment or Rehabilitation? 97
Capital Punishment 98
Innovative Alternatives 99
Community Action and Involvement 100
Aid to Victims 100

Summary 101

Key Terms 101

Study Questions 101

Internet Resources/Exercises 102

For Further Reading 102

4 Violence 104

Objectives 104

“I Felt Guilty” 105

Introduction 106

What Is Violence? 107

How Much Violence IsThere? 107
Interpersonal Violence 108
Intergroup Violence 109

Violence and the Quality of Life 110

Human Injury and Destruction 110
Psychological Disruption and Dehumanization 111
Violence as Seductive Self-Destruction 112
Economic Costs 112

Contributing Factors 113

Social Structural Factors 113

Involvement: Violently Opposedto Violence 116

Social Psychological Factors 120

Public Policy and Private Action 122

The Violence of Rape 123

Rape and the Quality of Life 124

Emotional and Physical Trauma 124
Physical Abuse 126

Contributing Factors 126

Social Structural Factors 126
Social Psychological Factors 127

Global Comparison: Attitudes of TurkishStudents Toward Rape 128

Public Policy and Private Action 130

Summary 132

Key Terms 132

Study Questions 132

Internet Resources/Exercises 133

For Further Reading 133

5 Sexual Deviance 134

Objectives 134

“My Husband Is a Porn Addict” 135

Introduction 136

Examples of Sexual Deviance 136

Prostitution 138

Prostitution and the Quality of Life 140

Global Comparison: Child Prostitutes 143

Contributing Factors 144
Public Policy and Private Action 147

Pornography, Erotica, and Obscenity 148

Nature and Extent of the Problem 148
Pornography, Erotica, Obscenity, and the Qualityof Life 150

Involvement: Sexy or Disgusting? 152

Contributing Factors 152
Public Policy and Private Action 154

Summary 155

Key Terms 155

Study Questions 155

Internet Resources/Exercises 155

For Further Reading 155

Problems of Inequality 157

6 Poverty 158

Objectives 158

“We Feel Like Deadbeats” 159

Introduction 160

What Is Poverty? 160

Extent of Poverty 162
Who Are the Poor? 163
The Changing Nature of Poverty 166

Poverty and the Quality of Life 167

The Right to Life and Happiness 168

Global Comparison: Poverty in the World System 169

The Right to Dignity as a Human Being 170
Poverty and Health 173

Involvement: From Riches to Rags 173

Dilemmas of Poverty 174

Contributing Factors 175

Social Structural Factors 176
Social Psychological Factors 183

Public Policy and Private Action 184

Summary 187

Key Terms 187

Study Questions 187

Internet Resources/Exercises 188

For Further Reading 188

7 Gender and Sexual Orientation 190

Objectives 190

“I Didn’t Need the Extra Hassles” 191

Introduction 192

Gender Inequality 192

Biology or Society? 193
Gender Inequality and the Quality of Life 195

Global Comparison: Occupational Sex Segregation in Developing Countries 200

Contributing Factors 201

Involvement: You Are What You Read 205

Public Policy and Private Action 208

Homosexuality and Homophobia 210

Homosexuality: Defi nitions and Numbers 210
Why Are Some People Homosexual? 212
Homosexuality and the Quality of Life 214
Contributing Factors 217
Public Policy and Private Action 220

Summary 221

Key Terms 221

Study Questions 221

Internet Resources/Exercises 221

For Further Reading 222

8 Race, Ethnic Groups,and Racism 224

Objectives 224

Will It Ever End? 225

Introduction 226

The Meaning of Race, Ethnic Groups, and Racism 226

Extent and Origin of Races and Racism in America 227

Racism in American History 229

Immigration 230

Race, Ethnicity, and the Quality of Life 231

The Rights of Citizenship 232
The Right to Equal Economic Opportunities 234
The Right to Life and Happiness 238
The Right to Dignity as a Human Being 241

Contributing Factors 242

Involvement: Becoming Color Blind 243

Social Structural Factors 243
Social Psychological Factors 247

Global Comparison: Prejudice in Europe 250

Public Policy and Private Action 251

Summary 253

Key Terms 253

Study Questions 253

Internet Resources/Exercises 253

For Further Reading 254

PART 4Problems of Social Institutions 255

9 Government and Politics 256

Objectives 256

“Why Isn’t There Help for People Like Me?” 257

Introduction 258

Why Government? 258

Protect the Citizenry 259
Secure Order 260
Distribute Power Equitably 260
Provide a Safety Net 260

Problems of Government and Politics 261

Inequalities in Power 261
The Failure of Trust 262

Involvement: Why Don’t People Trust the Government? 266

Waste, Corruption, and Scandals 266
Gridlock 269

Government, Politics, and the Quality of Life 269

Unequal Opportunities for a High Quality of Life 269
Inadequate Protection of Individual Rights 270
Lack of Responsiveness to Needs 271

Contributing Factors 272

Social Structural Factors 273

Global Comparison: Bureaucracy in Indonesia 278

Social Psychological Factors 281

Public Policy and Private Action 283

Summary 285

Key Terms 285

Study Questions 285

Internet Resources/Exercises 286

For Further Reading 286

10 Work and the Economy 288

Objectives 288

“I’m Not a Worrier. But . . .” 289

Introduction 290

The Economy, Work, and the Workforce in America 290

The Changing Economy 290
The Changing Workforce 293
The Changing Composition of the Labor Force 294
The Changing Meaning of Work 295

Work as a Social Problem 297

Unemployment and Underemployment 297
Dissatisfaction and Alienation 299
Work Hazards and Stress 299

Global Comparison: Unemployment Rates in Industrial Nations 300

Work and the Quality of Life 301

Work, Unemployment, and Health 301
Interpersonal Relationships 303

Contributing Factors 304

Social Structural Factors 304
Social Psychological Factors 309

Involvement: Fun and Games at Work 310

Public Policy and Private Action 311

Summary 314

Key Terms 314

Study Questions 314

Internet Resources/Exercises 314

For Further Reading 315

11 Education 316

Objectives 316

“I Kept My Mouth Shut” 317

Introduction 318

Why Education? 318

Educational Attainment and Payoff 319

Levels of Attainment 319
Attainment and Payoff 321

Global Comparison: Educational Attainment, by Country 322

Education and the Quality of Life 324

Inequality of Opportunity and Attainment 324
The Atmosphere: Learning or Surviving? 327
The Payoff: A Great Training Robbery? 329
American Education: A Tide of Mediocrity? 330

Contributing Factors 331

Social Structural Factors 331

Involvement: What Is the Purpose of Education? 333

Social Psychological Factors 336
A Concluding Note on Inequality in Education 337

Public Policy and Private Action 339

Use of Vouchers 339
Quality Enhancement Measures 340
Reducing Racial and Ethnic Inequality 342
Compensatory and Other Innovative Programs 342
The Deschooling Movement 343

Summary 344

Key Terms 344

Study Questions 344

Internet Resources/Exercises 345

For Further Reading 345

12 Family Problems 346

Objectives 346

“I Survived the Abuse” 347

Introduction 348

Is the Family Doomed? 348

Alternative Forms of the Family 349
The Changing American Family 350
Functions of the Family 351

The Extent of Family Problems 352

Disrupted and Reconstituted Families 352
Family Violence 354

Global Comparison: Marital Quality and Well-Being of Children 355

Family Problems and the Quality of Life 357

Physical and Emotional Diffi culties 358
Poverty 361
Deviant Behavior 362
Maladjustment 362

Contributing Factors 363

Social Structural Factors 363
Social Psychological Factors 367

Involvement: One Big Happy Family 370

Public Policy and Private Action 372

Summary 374

Key Terms 374

Study Questions 374

Internet Resources/Exercises 375

For Further Reading 375

13 Health Care and Illness:

Physical and Mental 376

Objectives 376

“If You Want to Live a Long Life” 377

Introduction 378

Nature of the Problem: Health Care and Illness 379

Physical Illness 379

Global Comparison: The Worldwide Challenge of

Infectious Diseases 382
Mental Illness 383

Involvement: Except Me and Thee? 385

Health Care, Illness, and the Quality of Life 386

Stress and Suffering 386
Interpersonal Relationships 387
Inadequate Care 388
Deinstitutionalization 390
Individual Freedom 392
Economic Costs 392

Contributing Factors 393

Social Structural Factors 393
Social Psychological Factors 399

Public Policy and Private Action 402

Health Care Reform 403
Innovations in the Delivery of Health Care 403
Innovations in Treatment 404
Prevention 405

Summary 406

Key Terms 406

Study Questions 406

Internet Resources/Exercises 407

For Further Reading 407

PART 5 Global Social Problems 409

14 War and Terrorism 410

Objectives 410

“I Didn’t Want to See It” 411

Introduction 412

War, Civil War, and Terrorism 412

The New Face of War 412
The Extent of the Problem 413

War, Terrorism, and the Quality of Life 414

Human Destruction and Injury 414
Psychological and Interpersonal Disruption and
Dehumanization 419
Environmental Destruction 423
The Economic Costs 424
War, Terrorism, and Civil Liberties 426

Global Comparison: Militarism: “A World Gone Insane” 428

Contributing Factors 429

Social Structural Factors 430
Social Psychological Factors 433

Involvement: “What a Great War That Was” 434

Public Policy and Private Action 436

Summary 439

Key Terms 439

Study Questions 439

Internet Resources/Exercises 439

For Further Reading 440

Endnotes 440

15 The Environment 442

Objectives 442

“We’re Not Safe Here Anymore” 443

Introduction 444

The Ecosystem 444

Types of Environmental Problems 445

Environmental Pollution 445
Environmental Depletion 449

How Big Are These Environmental Problems? 450

Environmental Pollution 451
Environmental Depletion 453

Global Comparison: World Energy Consumption and

Production 454

Environmental Problems and the Quality of Life 456

The Environmental Threat to Life and Health 456
Threat to the Ecological Balance 458
The Economic Costs 459
Threat to World Peace 460

Contributing Factors 461

Social Structural Factors 461

Involvement: Nature Bats Last 465

Social Psychological Factors 465

Public Policy and Private Action 467

What Can Individuals Do? 467
What Can Business and Industry Do? 468
What Can the Government Do? 468

Summary 470

Key Terms 470

Study Questions 470

Internet Resources/Exercises 470

For Further Reading 471

Glossary 472
References 477
Credits 538
Name Index 539
Subject Index 550


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