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Social Psychology

by
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780495093367

ISBN10:
049509336X
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
7/20/2006
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing
List Price: $164.33

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This is the 6th edition with a publication date of 7/20/2006.
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Summary

What decides who someone will fall in love with? Where do aggressive, violent, and criminal behaviors come from? Why are some people more charitable than others? Why do some people obey authority and conform while others always have to buck the trend? Why are some people lazier when they work in groups? What is the source of people's stereotypes and prejudices? What causes conflict between groups? What makes us who we are? SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY covers topics ranging from interpersonal attraction to social structure, allowing you to explore essential questions in the field.

Table of Contents

Preface xii
Introduction to Social Psychology
1(25)
Introduction
2(1)
What Is Social Psychology?
3(2)
A Formal Definition
3(1)
Core Concerns of Social Psychology
3(2)
Relation to Other Fields
5(1)
Theoretical Perspectives in Social Psychology
5(17)
Role Theory
8(3)
Reinforcement Theory
11(3)
Cognitive Theory
14(2)
Symbolic Interaction Theory
16(2)
Evolutionary Theory
18(2)
A Comparison of Perspectives
20(2)
Is Social Psychology a Science?
22(2)
Characteristics of Science
22(1)
Social Psychology as a Science
23(1)
Summary
24(1)
List of Key Terms and Concepts
25(1)
Research Methods in Social Psychology
26(26)
Introduction
27(1)
Questions About Research Methods
27(1)
Characteristics of Empirical Research
27(2)
Objectives of Research
27(1)
Research Hypotheses
28(1)
Validity of Findings
29(1)
Research Methods
29(18)
Surveys
30(7)
Field Studies and Naturalistic Observation
37(2)
Archival Research and Content Analysis
39(2)
Experiments
41(4)
Comparison of Research Methods
45(1)
Meta-Analysis
46(1)
Research in Diverse Populations
47(1)
Ethical Issues in Social Psychological Research
48(3)
Potential Sources of Harm
48(1)
Institutional Safeguards
49(1)
Potential Benefits
50(1)
Summary
51(1)
List of Key Terms and Concepts
51(1)
Socialization
52(30)
Introduction
53(1)
Perspectives on Socialization
54(3)
The Developmental Perspective
54(1)
The Social Learning Perspective
55(1)
The Interpretive Perspective
56(1)
The Impact of Social Structure
57(1)
Agents of Childhood Socialization
57(8)
Family
57(6)
Peers
63(1)
School
64(1)
Processes of Socialization
65(4)
Instrumental Conditioning
65(3)
Observational Learning
68(1)
Internalization
69(1)
Outcomes of Socialization
69(9)
Gender Role
69(2)
Linguistic and Cognitive Competence
71(3)
Moral Development
74(3)
Work Orientations
77(1)
Adult Socialization
78(2)
Role Acquisition
78(1)
Anticipatory Socialization
79(1)
Role Discontinuity
79(1)
Summary
80(1)
List of Key Terms and Concepts
81(1)
Self and Identity
82(26)
Introduction
83(2)
The Nature and Genesis of Self
85(4)
The Self as Source and Object of Action
85(1)
Self-Differentiation
85(2)
Role Taking
87(1)
The Social Origins of Self
87(2)
Identities: The Self We Know
89(4)
Role Identities
89(1)
Social Identities
90(1)
Research on Self-Concept Formation
91(2)
The Situated Self
93(1)
Identities: The Self We Enact
93(5)
Identities and Behavior
93(2)
Choosing an Identity to Enact
95(2)
Identities as Sources of Consistency
97(1)
The Self in Thought and Feeling
98(3)
Self-Schema
99(1)
Effects of Self-Awareness
99(1)
Effects of Self-Discrepancies
100(1)
Self-Esteem
101(5)
Assessment of Self-Esteem
101(1)
Sources of Self-Esteem
101(2)
Self-Esteem and Behavior
103(2)
Protecting Self-Esteem
105(1)
Summary
106(1)
List of Key Terms and Concepts
107(1)
Social Perception and Cognition
108(33)
Introduction
109(1)
Schemas
110(4)
Types of Schemas
111(1)
Schematic Processing
112(2)
Schemas as Cultural Elements
114(1)
Person Schemas and Group Stereotypes
114(8)
Person Schemas
114(2)
Group Stereotypes
116(6)
Impression Formation
122(12)
Trait Centrality
122(1)
Integrating Information About Others
123(2)
Impressions as Self-Fulfilling Prophecies
125(1)
Heuristics
126(1)
Anchoring and Adjustment
127(1)
Dispositional Versus Situational Attributions
127(1)
Inferring Dispositions From Acts
128(3)
Covariation Model of Attribution
131(1)
Attributions for Success and Failure
132(2)
Bias and Error in Attribution
134(4)
Overattribution to Dispositions
134(1)
Focus of Attention Bias
135(1)
Actor-Observer Difference
136(1)
Motivational Biases
137(1)
Cultural Basis of Attributions
138(1)
Summary
139(1)
List of Key Terms and Concepts
140(1)
Attitudes
141(24)
Introduction
142(1)
The Nature of Attitudes
142(2)
The Components of an Attitude
142(1)
Attitude Formation
143(1)
The Functions of Attitudes
144(1)
Attitude Organization
144(2)
Attitude Structure
144(2)
Cognitive Consistency
146(8)
Balance Theory
147(2)
Theory of Cognitive Dissonance
149(2)
Is Consistency Inevitable?
151(3)
The Relationship Between Attitudes and Behavior
154(7)
Do Attitudes Predict Behavior?
154(1)
Activation of the Attitude
154(1)
Characteristics of the Attitude
155(2)
Attitude-Behavior Correspondence
157(2)
Situational Constraints
159(2)
The Reasoned Action Model
161(3)
Formal Model
161(2)
Assessment of the Model
163(1)
Summary
164(1)
List of Key Terms and Concepts
164(1)
Symbolic Communication and Language
165(31)
Introduction
166(1)
Language and Verbal Communication
166(9)
Linguistic Communication
167(1)
The Encoder-Decoder Model
168(2)
The Intentionalist Model
170(2)
The Perspective-Taking Model
172(3)
Nonverbal Communication
175(5)
Types of Nonverbal Communication
175(2)
What's in a Face?
177(1)
Combining Nonverbal and Verbal Communication
178(2)
Social Structure and Communication
180(8)
Gender and Communication
180(1)
Social Stratification and Speech Style
181(4)
Communicating Status and Intimacy
185(3)
Normative Distances for Interaction
188(2)
Normative Distances
188(2)
Conversational Analysis
190(4)
Initiating Conversations
190(2)
Regulating Turn Taking
192(1)
Feedback and Coordination
192(2)
Summary
194(1)
List of Key Terms and Concepts
195(1)
Social Influence and Persuasion
196(29)
Introduction
197(1)
Forms of Social Influence
197(1)
Attitude Change via Persuasion
198(12)
Processing Persuasive Messages
198(1)
Communication-Persuasion Paradigm
199(1)
The Source
200(3)
The Message
203(5)
The Target
208(2)
Compliance with Threats and Promises
210(7)
Effectiveness of Threats and Promises
211(4)
Problems in Using Threats and Promises
215(1)
Bilateral Threat and Negotiation
216(1)
Obedience to Authority
217(4)
Experimental Study of Obedience
218(2)
Factors Affecting Obedience to Authority
220(1)
Resisting Influence and Persuasion
221(1)
Inoculation
221(1)
Forewarning
222(1)
Reactance
222(1)
Summary
222(2)
List of Key Terms and Concepts
224(1)
Self-Presentation and Impression Management
225(25)
Introduction
226(1)
Self-Presentation in Everyday Life
227(3)
Definition of the Situation
227(2)
Self-Disclosure
229(1)
Tactical Impression Management
230(7)
Managing Appearances
231(1)
Ingratiation
232(3)
Aligning Actions
235(2)
Altercasting
237(1)
The Downside of Self-Presentation
237(2)
Self-Presentation May Be Hazardous to Your Health
238(1)
Deception May Be Hazardous to Your Relationships
239(1)
Detecting Deceptive Impression Management
239(3)
Ulterior Motives
239(1)
Nonverbal Cues of Deception
240(2)
Ineffective Self-Presentation and Spoiled Identities
242(6)
Embarrassment and Saving Face
242(2)
Cooling-Out and Identity Degradation
244(1)
Stigma
245(3)
Summary
248(1)
List of Key Terms and Concepts
249(1)
Emotions
250(23)
Introduction
251(1)
Defining Emotions
251(1)
Classical Ideas About the Origins of Emotion
252(1)
Universal Emotions and Facial Expressions
253(7)
Facial Expressions of Emotion
253(4)
Cultural Differences in Basic Emotions and Emotional Display
257(3)
Social Emotions
260(12)
Cognitive Labeling Theory
261(3)
Five Social Emotions
264(6)
Emotion Work
270(2)
Summary
272(1)
List of Key Terms and Concepts
272(1)
Helping and Altruism
273(26)
Introduction
274(1)
Motivation to Help Others
275(4)
Egoism and Cost-Reward Motivation
275(1)
Altruism and Empathic Concern
276(1)
Evolution and Helping
277(2)
Characteristics of the Needy That Foster Helping
279(3)
Acquaintanceship and Liking
279(1)
Similarity
280(1)
Deservingness
280(2)
Normative Factors in Helping
282(3)
Norms of Responsibility and Reciprocity
282(1)
Personal Norms and Helping
283(2)
Personal and Situational Factors in Helping
285(3)
Modeling Effects
285(1)
Gender Differences in Helping
286(1)
Good and Bad Moods
286(2)
Guilt and Helping
288(1)
Bystander Intervention in Emergency Situations
288(7)
The Decision to Intervene
289(1)
The Bystander Effect
290(2)
Costs and Emergency Intervention
292(3)
Seeking and Receiving Help
295(2)
Help and Obligation
295(1)
Threats to Self-Esteem
296(1)
Summary
297(1)
List of Key Terms and Concepts
298(1)
Aggression
299(26)
Introduction
300(1)
What Is Aggression?
300(1)
Aggression and the Motivation to Harm
300(4)
Aggression as Instinct
301(1)
Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis
301(2)
Aversive Emotional Arousal
303(1)
Social Learning and Aggression
304(1)
Characteristics of Targets That Affect Aggression
304(5)
Gender and Race
305(3)
Attribution for Attack
308(1)
Retaliatory Capacity
308(1)
Situational Impacts on Aggression
309(3)
Reinforcements
309(1)
Modeling
309(1)
Norms
310(1)
Stress
310(1)
Aggressive Cues
311(1)
Reducing Aggressive Behavior
312(3)
Reducing Frustration
312(1)
Punishment to Suppress Aggression
313(1)
Nonaggressive Models
313(1)
Catharsis
313(2)
Aggression in Society
315(9)
Sexual Assault
315(4)
Pornography and Violence
319(1)
Media Violence and Aggression
320(4)
Summary
324(1)
List of Key Terms and Concepts
324(1)
Interpersonal Attraction and Relationships
325(29)
Introduction
326(1)
Who Is Available?
327(2)
Routine Activities
327(1)
Proximity
327(1)
Familiarity
328(1)
Who Is Desirable?
329(6)
Social Norms
329(1)
Physical Attractiveness
330(3)
Exchange Processes
333(2)
The Determinants of Liking
335(3)
Similarity
336(1)
Shared Activities
337(1)
Reciprocal Liking
338(1)
The Growth of Relationships
338(5)
Self-Disclosure
339(1)
Trust
340(1)
Interdependence
341(2)
Love and Loving
343(4)
Liking Versus Loving
343(1)
Passionate Love
343(2)
The Romantic Love Ideal
345(1)
Love as a Story
345(2)
Breaking Up
347(5)
Progress? Chaos?
347(1)
Unequal Outcomes and Instability
347(2)
Differential Commitment and Dissolution
349(1)
Responses to Dissatisfaction
350(2)
Summary
352(1)
List of Key Terms and Concepts
353(1)
Group Cohesion and Conformity
354(24)
Introduction
355(1)
What Is a Group?
355(5)
Group Cohesion
355(3)
Group Structure and Goals
358(1)
Roles in Groups
358(2)
Status of Group Members
360(5)
Status Characteristics
360(1)
Status Generalization
361(2)
Expectation States Theory
363(1)
Overcoming Status Generalization
364(1)
Conformity to Group Norms
365(9)
Group Norms
365(3)
Conformity
368(1)
Why Conform?
369(2)
Increasing Conformity
371(3)
Minority Influence in Groups
374(2)
Effectiveness of Minority Influence
374(1)
Differences Between Minority and Majority Influence
375(1)
Summary
376(1)
List of Key Terms and Concepts
377(1)
Group Structure and Performance
378(30)
Introduction
379(1)
Group Leadership
380(7)
Endorsement of Formal Leaders
381(1)
Revolutionary and Conservative Coalitions
382(1)
Activities of Leaders
383(1)
Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness
383(4)
Productivity and Performance
387(6)
The Presence of Others
387(1)
Group Size
388(4)
Group Goals
392(1)
Reward Distribution and Equity
393(5)
Principles Used in Reward Distribution
393(1)
Equity Theory
394(1)
Task Interdependence
395(2)
Responses to Inequity
397(1)
Brainstorming
398(2)
Production Blocking
399(1)
Group Decision Making
400(6)
Groupthink
400(4)
Risky Shift, Cautious Shift, and Group Polarization
404(2)
Summary
406(1)
List of Key Terms and Concepts
407(1)
Intergroup Conflict
408(24)
Introduction
409(2)
Intergroup Conflict
410(1)
Development of Intergroup Conflict
411(5)
Realistic Group Conflict
411(1)
Social Identity
412(3)
Aversive Events and Escalation
415(1)
Persistence of Intergroup Conflict
416(5)
Biased Perception of the Out-Group
417(3)
Changes in Relations Between Conflicting Groups
420(1)
Impact of Conflict on Within-Group Processes
421(3)
Group Cohesion
421(1)
Leadership Militancy
422(1)
Norms and Conformity
422(2)
Resolution of Intergroup Conflict
424(6)
Superordinate Goals
424(1)
Intergroup Contact
425(1)
Mediation and Third-Party Intervention
426(3)
Unilateral Conciliatory Initiatives
429(1)
Summary
430(1)
List of Key Terms and Concepts
431(1)
Life Course and Gender Roles
432(29)
Introduction
433(1)
Components of the Life Course
434(1)
Careers
434(1)
Identities and Self-Esteem
434(1)
Stress and Satisfaction
435(1)
Influences on Life Course Progression
435(4)
Biological Aging
435(1)
Social Age Grading
436(1)
Historical Trends and Events
437(2)
Stages in the Life Course: Age and Gender Roles
439(16)
Stage I: Achieving Independence
440(2)
Stage II: Balancing Family and Work Commitments
442(7)
Stage III: Performing Adult Roles
449(2)
Stage IV: Coping with Loss
451(4)
Historical Variations
455(4)
Women's Work: Gender Role Attitudes and Behavior
455(2)
Impact of Events
457(2)
Summary
459(1)
List of Key Terms and Concepts
460(1)
Social Structure and Personality
461(32)
Introduction
462(1)
Status Attainment
463(8)
Occupational Status
463(2)
Intergenerational Mobility
465(6)
Social Networks
471(1)
Individual Values
471(3)
Occupational Role
473(1)
Education
474(1)
Social Influences on Health
474(14)
Physical Health
475(4)
Mental Health
479(9)
Alienation
488(3)
Self-Estrangement
488(2)
Powerlessness
490(1)
Summary
491(1)
List of Key Terms and Concepts
492(1)
Deviant Behavior and Social Reaction
493(31)
Introduction
494(1)
The Violation of Norms
494(9)
Norms
494(1)
Anomie Theory
495(3)
Control Theory
498(3)
Differential Association Theory
501(2)
Routine Activities Perspective
503(1)
Reactions to Norm Violations
503(7)
Reactions to Rule Breaking
506(1)
Determinants of the Reaction
506(3)
Consequences of Labeling
509(1)
Labeling and Secondary Deviance
510(4)
Societal Reaction
510(3)
Secondary Deviance
513(1)
Formal Social Controls
514(8)
Formal Labeling and the Creation of Deviance
515(6)
Long-Term Effects of Formal Labeling
521(1)
Summary
522(1)
List of Key Terms and Concepts
523(1)
Collective Behavior and Social Movements
524(29)
Introduction
525(1)
Collective Behavior
525(15)
Crowds
526(4)
Gatherings
530(2)
Underlying Causes of Collective Behavior
532(3)
Precipitating Incidents
535(1)
Empirical Studies of Riots
536(4)
Social Movements
540(12)
The Development of a Movement
541(4)
Social Movement Organizations
545(6)
The Consequences of Social Movements
551(1)
Summary
552(1)
List of Key Terms and Concepts
552(1)
Glossary 553(14)
References 567(84)
Credits 651(2)
Name Index 653(22)
Subject Index 675


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