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Sociology : A Brief Introduction,9780205350995
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Sociology : A Brief Introduction

by
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780205350995

ISBN10:
0205350992
Media:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2003
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $65.40
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Summary

Unique for its blend of style and substance, this introductory text uses a systematic and balanced application of sociological perspectives to help students see the difference between myths and realities about society.

Table of Contents

Theoretical Thumbnails xv
Maps
xvii
Preface xix
About the Author xxvii
The Essence of Sociology
1(29)
The Study of Social Life
2(5)
More Than Common Sense
2(1)
The Appreciation of Social Diversity
3(1)
The Importance of Global Analysis
3(1)
Sociology as a Science
4(1)
The Sociological Imagination
5(2)
The Development of Sociology
7(3)
The Pioneers of Sociology
7(2)
Sociology in the United States
9(1)
Major Perspectives in Sociology
10(5)
Functionalist Perspective: A Focus on Social Order
10(1)
Conflict Perspective: A Focus on Social Conflict
11(2)
Symbolic Interactionist Perspective: A Focus on Social Interactions
13(1)
A Multiple View
14(1)
Sports: Illustrating the Three Perspectives
15(4)
Sports as Beneficial to Society
15(1)
Sports as Harmful to Society
16(2)
Sports as Symbolic Interaction
18(1)
An Evaluation
19(1)
Major Research Methods
19(11)
Survey
19(2)
Observation and Ethnography
21(1)
Experiment
22(1)
Analysis of Existing Data
23(1)
Research Ethics
24(1)
Sociological Frontiers: Deconstructing Society
25(1)
Using Sociology: How to Change Our World
25(5)
Society and Culture
30(34)
Building Blocks of Society
32(4)
Statuses
32(2)
Roles
34(1)
Groups
35(1)
Institutions
35(1)
Societies in Sociocultural Evolution
36(6)
Hunting-Gathering Societies
37(1)
Pastoral Societies
38(1)
Horticultural Societies
39(1)
Agricultural Societies
39(1)
Industrial Societies
40(1)
Postindustrial Societies
41(1)
Components of Culture
42(6)
Knowledge and Beliefs
43(1)
Norms and Values
43(3)
Symbols and Language
46(2)
U.S. Culture
48(5)
Basic Values
48(1)
Multiculturalism
48(2)
Pop Culture
50(3)
A Global Analysis of Culture
53(4)
Cultural Universals
53(1)
Culture Clash
54(2)
Ethnocentrism
56(1)
Cultural Relativism
56(1)
Sociological Perspectives on Culture
57(7)
Functionalist Perspective: Culture Meets Human Needs
57(1)
Conflict Perspective: Culture Supports Social Inequality
57(1)
Symbolic Interactionist Perspective: Culture Reflects Shared Understandings
58(1)
Sociological Frontiers: The New U.S. Society and Culture
58(1)
Using Sociology: How to Enhance Your Cultural Competence
59(5)
Socialization
64(28)
The Significance of Heredity
66(1)
The Significance of Socialization
67(1)
Impairing Development
67(1)
Creating Geniuses
68(1)
Processes of Socialization
68(6)
Learning How to Think
68(2)
Learning How to Feel
70(1)
Learning How to Be Normal
71(1)
Learning How to Be Moral
72(1)
Learning How to Be Masculine or Feminine
73(1)
Sociological Perspective on Socialization
74(3)
Functionalist Perspective: Social, Psychological, and Economic Functions
74(1)
Conflict Perspective: Exploitation and Abuse of Children
74(1)
Symbolic Interactionist Perspective: Developing Self-Image from Interactions
75(2)
Social Diversity in Socialization
77(3)
Socialization of Native American Children
77(2)
Socialization of African American Children
79(1)
Socialization of Hispanic American Children
79(1)
Socialization of Asian American Children
79(1)
A Global Analysis of Socialization
80(1)
Agents of Socialization
81(3)
The Family
81(1)
The School
82(1)
The Peer Group
82(1)
The Mass Media
83(1)
Adult Socialization
84(3)
Learning New Roles
84(1)
Continuing Development
84(2)
Aging and Dying
86(1)
Are We Puppets of Society?
87(5)
Sociological Frontiers: Overpermissive Parenting
87(1)
Using Sociology: How to Make Latchkey Kids Safe and Smart
88(4)
Social Interaction in Everyday Life
92(22)
Sociological Perspectives on Social Interaction
94(4)
Functionalist Perspective: Supportive Interactions
94(1)
Conflict Perspective: Oppositional Interactions
95(2)
Symbolic Interactionist Perspective: Interpreting Interactions
97(1)
Interaction as Symbolic Communication
98(4)
The Nature of Human Communication
98(1)
A Global Analysis of Communication
99(2)
U.S. Diversity in Communication
101(1)
Communication between Women and Men
102(2)
Speaking Different Genderlects
102(1)
Playing the Gendered Game of Proxemics
103(1)
Dramaturgy: Interaction as Drama
104(2)
Behaving Like Actors
104(1)
Presenting the Self
104(2)
Performing Interaction Rituals
106(1)
The Art of Managing Impressions
106(1)
Defensive Measures by the Performer
106(1)
Protective Measures by the Audience
107(1)
The Social Construction of Reality
107(7)
Thomas Theorem: Creating Reality with Definition
108(1)
Ethnomethodology: Exposing Hidden Reality
108(1)
Humorology: Subverting Established Reality
109(2)
Sociological Frontiers: The World of Online Chat
111(1)
Using Sociology: How to Use Humor to Improve Your Life
111(3)
Groups and Organizations
114(26)
Social Groups
116(3)
In-Groups and Out-Groups
116(1)
Reference Groups
117(1)
Primary and Secondary Groups
117(2)
Group Characteristics
119(4)
Group Leadership
119(1)
Idiosyncrasy Credit
119(1)
Group Conformity
120(1)
Group Size
121(1)
Social Diversity
122(1)
Social Networks
123(2)
Attributes
123(1)
Effects
124(1)
Formal Organizations
125(2)
Goals and Means
125(1)
Lower and Involvement
125(2)
Classifying Organizational Theories
127(1)
Functionalist Perspective: Cooperating to Achieve a Common Goal
127(2)
Scientific Management
127(1)
Human Relations
128(1)
Conflict Perspective: Equality as Key to Organizational Success
129(2)
Collectivist Model
129(1)
Feminist Model
130(1)
Symbolic Interactionist Perspective: Defining the Situation in Organizations
131(2)
Organizational Culture: Shared Definitions
131(1)
Bureaucracy: Embodiment of a Rational Worldview
131(2)
The Realities of Bureaucracy
133(2)
Bureaucratic Benefits
133(1)
Bureaucratic Problems
133(1)
The Future of Bureaucracy
134(1)
A Global Analysis of Organizations
135(5)
Sociological Frontiers: Is Cyberspace Lonely?
135(1)
Using Sociology: How to Reduce Wait Time in Lines
136(4)
Deviance and Control
140(30)
What Is Deviance?
142(1)
Examples of Deviance
143(7)
Homicide
143(1)
Rape
144(2)
Drug Use
146(1)
Binge Drinking
147(1)
Corporate Crime
148(1)
Mental Problems
149(1)
Functionalist Perspective: Functions and Dysfunctions
150(3)
Durkheim: Functionalist Theory
150(1)
Merton: Strain Theory
151(1)
Hirschi: Control Theory
152(1)
Braithwaite: Shaming Theory
152(1)
Conflict Perspective: Social Conflict or Inequality
153(2)
Conflict Theory
153(1)
Power Theory
154(1)
Feminist Theory
154(1)
Symbolic Interactionist Perspective: Association, Reaction, and Interpretation
155(2)
Differential Association Theory
155(1)
Labeling Theory
156(1)
Phenomenological Theory
157(1)
Social Diversity in Deviance
157(3)
Race and Deviance
158(1)
Class and Deviance
159(1)
Gender and Deviance
159(1)
A Global Analysis of Deviance
160(1)
Controlling Deviance
161(9)
Criminal Justice
161(2)
The Death Penalty
163(1)
The Medicalization of Deviance
164(1)
The War on Drugs
165(1)
Sociological Frontiers: Shyness as a New Disease
165(1)
Using Sociology: How to Manage Your Drinking
166(4)
U.S. and Global Stratification
170(34)
The Bases of Stratification
172(4)
Wealth
172(1)
Power
173(1)
Prestige
174(2)
Stratification Systems: A Global View
176(2)
The Egalitarian System
176(1)
The Master-Slave System
176(1)
The Feudal System
176(1)
The Caste System
177(1)
The Class System
177(1)
New Approaches to Stratification
178(2)
The Feminist Perspective
178(1)
Social Diversity
179(1)
The U.S. Class Structure
180(4)
Identifying Classes
180(1)
Class Profiles
180(3)
The Influence of Class
183(1)
Poverty in the United States
184(4)
What Is Poverty?
184(1)
The Feminization of Poverty
185(1)
Explanations of Poverty
186(1)
Who Are the Homeless?
187(1)
Welfare: Beliefs and Reforms
187(1)
Social Mobility in U.S. Society
188(3)
Patterns: The Rich Get Richer
188(1)
Sources: Societal and Individual Factors
189(2)
Global Stratification
191(6)
Characteristics
191(1)
Consequences
192(3)
Dependency Theory: Exploitation by Rich Nations
195(1)
Feminist Theory: Women's Contribution to Economic Development
196(1)
Sociological Perspectives on Stratification
197(7)
Functionalist Perspective: Benefiting Society
197(1)
Conflict Perspective: Harming Society
198(1)
Symbolic Interactionist Perspective: Influencing Interactions
198(1)
Sociological Frontiers: Stratification in Cyberspace
199(1)
Using Sociology: How to Become a Millionaire
199(5)
Race and Ethnicity
204(30)
Sociological Definitions
206(3)
Race
206(2)
Ethnicity
208(1)
Minority
209(1)
Racial and Ethnic Diversity
209(11)
Native Americans
209(2)
African Americans
211(2)
Hispanic Americans
213(2)
Asian Americans
215(2)
Jewish Americans
217(1)
European Americans
218(2)
Putting It All Together
220(1)
Racial and Ethnic Relations
220(3)
Functionalist Perspective: Cohesive Relations
220(1)
Conflict Perspective: Abusive Relations
221(1)
Symbolic Interactionist Perspective: Perception and Interaction
222(1)
Prejudice and Discrimination
223(3)
Characteristics
223(1)
Causes
224(1)
Consequences
225(1)
Remedy: Affirmative Action
225(1)
A Global Analysis of Race and Ethnicity
226(8)
The Developing World
226(1)
Western Europe
227(1)
Western Europe
228(1)
The Former Soviet Union
228(1)
Causes of Ethnic Conflict
228(1)
A Global Conference against Racism
228(1)
Sociological Frontiers: A New Theory about Child Abandonment
229(1)
Using Sociology: How to Achieve Diversity without Preferences
230(4)
Gender and Age
234(30)
Gender Roles
236(3)
Gender Roles in the United States
236(1)
Gender Roles in Other Societies
237(1)
Biological Constraints
238(1)
The Role of Culture
238(1)
Gender Socialization
239(3)
The Family
239(1)
The Peer Group
240(1)
The School
240(1)
The Mass Media
241(1)
The Learning Process
241(1)
Spheres of Gender Inequality
242(8)
Sexism
242(1)
Education
243(2)
Employment
245(1)
Politics
246(1)
Religion
247(1)
Feminism: Fighting Back
248(2)
Consequences of Gender Inequality
250(2)
Sexual Harassment
250(1)
Violence against Women
250(1)
Social Diversity
251(1)
A Global Analysis
251(1)
Sociological Perspectives on Gender Inequality
252(2)
Functionalist Perspective: Instrumental versus Expressive Roles
252(1)
Conflict Perspective: Economic and Sexual Exploitation
253(1)
Symbolic Interactionist Perspective: Interaction between the Sexes
254(1)
The Aging Process
254(5)
Biological Consequences of Aging
255(1)
Psychological Consequences of Aging
256(1)
Social Causes of Aging
256(1)
Age Prejudice and Discrimination
257(1)
Aging in Global Perspective
258(1)
Social Diversity in Aging
259(1)
Social Class
259(1)
Gender
259(1)
Race and Ethnicity
259(1)
The Future of Aging
260(4)
Sociological Frontiers: The Games Girls Like to Play in Cyberspace
260(1)
Using Sociology: How to Reduce Gender Inequality
261(3)
Families
264(26)
Families: A Global Analysis
266(2)
Family Composition
266(1)
Mate Selection
267(1)
Residence and Descent
268(1)
Authority
268(1)
Sociological Perspectives on the Family
268(2)
Functionalist Perspective: Familial Functions
268(1)
Conflict Perspective: Violence and Exploitation
269(1)
Symbolic Interactionist Perspective: Interaction and Happiness
270(1)
Patterns of U.S. Marriages
270(4)
Preparing for Marriage
270(3)
Marriage Choices
273(1)
Marital Happiness
273(1)
Problems of U.S. Families
274(3)
Violence
274(1)
Divorce
275(2)
Changes in the U.S. Family
277(5)
Historical Background
277(1)
Two-Career Families
278(2)
Single-Parent Families
280(1)
Blended Families
281(1)
Other Lifestyles
282(2)
Staying Single
282(1)
Living Together
282(1)
Gay and Lesbian Marriages
283(1)
Social Diversity of U.S. Families
284(2)
Native American Families
284(1)
African American Families
284(1)
Hispanic American Families
285(1)
Asian American Families
285(1)
The Future of the Family
286(4)
Sociological Frontiers: The Revival of Covenant Marriage
286(1)
Using Sociology: How to Solve Marital Problems
287(3)
Education and Religion
290(36)
Sociological Perspectives on Education
292(4)
Functionalist Perspective: Positive Functions of Education
292(2)
Conflict Perspective: Inequality and Cultural Imperialism
294(1)
Symbolic Interactionist Perspective: The Power of Teacher Expectations
295(1)
Education in the United States
296(6)
Problems in Perspective
296(2)
Head Start
298(1)
School Choice
299(1)
Homeschooling
300(1)
Lifelong Learning
301(1)
Social Diversity in U.S. Education
302(2)
Native American Education
302(1)
African American Education
302(1)
Hispanic American Education
303(1)
Asian American Education
304(1)
Sociological Perspectives on Religion
304(4)
Functionalist Perspective: Religion as a Positive Force
304(2)
Conflict Perspective: Religion as an Oppressive Illusion
306(1)
Symbolic Interactionist Perspective: Religion as an Ironic Belief
307(1)
Religion in the United States
308(7)
Religious Affiliation
308(1)
Social Diversity
308(2)
Fundamentalist Revival
310(1)
Proliferation of Cults
311(1)
New Age Movement
312(1)
American Islam
312(2)
The Promise Keepers
314(1)
Facing the Secular World: Confrontation or Compromise?
315(4)
Church and Sect
315(1)
Dilemmas of Success
315(2)
Church and State
317(1)
Civil Religion
317(1)
Secularized Religion
318(1)
A Global Analysis of Religion
319(7)
Theism
319(1)
Ethicalism
320(1)
Animism
321(1)
Sociological Frontiers: Religious Fanaticism and Terrorism
322(1)
Using Sociology: How to Make It in College
322(4)
The Economy and Politics
326(36)
The Economy in Perspective
328(5)
The Historical Perspective: From Industrial to Postindustrial World
328(2)
The Three Sociological Perspectives: The Nature and Origin of Capitalism
330(2)
The Feminist Perspective: Women's Economic Status
332(1)
The World's Economic Systems
333(2)
The Economic Continuum
333(1)
Economic Performance
334(1)
The Dominance of Big Corporations
335(2)
The Nature of Big Corporations
335(1)
Welfare for the Rich
336(1)
Multinational Corporations
336(1)
Work in the United States
337(4)
Occupations
337(1)
The Workers
338(1)
Job Satisfaction
339(1)
The Changing Workplace
340(1)
Social Diversity in the U.S. Economy
341(2)
Native Americans
341(1)
African Americans
341(1)
Hispanic Americans
342(1)
Asian Americans
343(1)
Power and Authority
343(3)
The Nature of Power
343(1)
Types of Authority
344(2)
The World of U.S. Politics
346(5)
Political Socialization
346(1)
Political Attitudes
346(1)
Political Participation
347(1)
Social Diversity
348(1)
Political Parties
349(1)
Interest Groups
350(1)
Who Really Governs in U.S. Society?
351(3)
The Pluralist View: Diverse Interest Groups
351(1)
The Elitist View: Rule by a Few
352(1)
The Marxist View: Dominance by the Capitalist Class
353(1)
Putting It Together
354(1)
A Global Analysis of Political Violence
354(8)
Causes of Revolution
354(1)
Terrorism
355(1)
Causes of War
356(1)
Sociological Frontiers: Politics Going Online
356(1)
Using Sociology: How to Stop Terrorists
357(5)
Health and Population
362(30)
Health and Society
364(7)
A Global Analysis of Health
364(1)
Social Diversity in U.S. Health
365(2)
Epidemiology
367(1)
AIDS
368(1)
Smoking
369(2)
Medical Care
371(5)
The Changing Medical Profession
371(1)
Sexism in Medical Research
372(1)
Social Diversity in Seeking Medical Care
373(1)
Health Care Delivery
374(1)
Facing Death
375(1)
Sociological Perspectives on Health and Medical Care
376(3)
Functionalist Perspective: The Functions of Sick and Healing Roles
376(1)
Conflict Perspective: The Negative Aspects of Medical Care
377(1)
Symbolic Interactionist Perspective: The Importance of Doctor-Patient Interaction
377(2)
A Global Analysis of Population
379(4)
How the Census Is Taken
379(1)
Population Growth
380(1)
Birth Rate
381(1)
Death Rate
382(1)
International Migration
382(1)
Age, Gender, and Marriage
382(1)
Patterns of Population Change
383(3)
Malthusian Theory
383(1)
The Demographic Transition
384(1)
Demographic Fallout
385(1)
Combating Population Growth
386(6)
Voluntary Family Planning
386(1)
Compulsory Population Control
386(1)
U.S. Population Policy
387(1)
Sociological Frontiers: Societal Reactions to Stem Cell Research
388(1)
Using Sociology: How to Be a Savvy E-Patient
388(4)
Environment and Urbanization
392(28)
Environment
394(5)
Elements of Ecology
394(1)
Diminishing Resources
394(1)
Environmental Pollution
395(2)
A Primary Cause
397(1)
Saving the Environment
397(1)
The Feminist Perspective
398(1)
A Global Analysis of Urbanization
399(4)
The Preindustrial City
399(1)
The Industrial City
400(1)
Metropolis and Megalopolis
401(1)
The World's Megacities
402(1)
Cities in the United States
403(3)
A Demographic Profile
403(1)
Suburbs as Edge Cities
404(2)
Recent Trends
406(1)
The Urban Environment
406(3)
Spatial Patterns
406(2)
Ecological Processes
408(1)
The Nature of City Life
409(3)
Urban Anomie Theory
409(1)
Compositional Theory
410(1)
Subcultural Theory
411(1)
Critical Analysis
411(1)
Causes of Urban Problems
412(2)
Population Decline
412(1)
Fiscal Squeeze
412(1)
Political Dilemma
413(1)
Housing Segregation
413(1)
Sociological Perspectives on Urbanization and City Life
414(6)
Functionalist Perspective: Urbanization Driven by the Masses
414(1)
Conflict Perspective: Urbanization Fueled by Big Business
415(1)
Symbolic Interactionist Perspective: How Urbanites Interact
415(1)
Sociological Frontiers: The Future of U.S. Cities
416(1)
Using Sociology: How to Revitalize the City
416(4)
Collective Behavior, Social Movements, and Social Change
420(27)
The Study of Collective Behavior
422(3)
General Characteristics
423(1)
Social Factors
423(2)
Forms of Collective Behavior
425(8)
Panics
425(1)
Crowds
426(2)
Fashions
428(1)
Rumors
429(1)
Public Opinion
430(2)
Social Movements
432(1)
A Global Analysis of Social Change
433(3)
Tradition and Modernization
433(1)
Convergence and Divergence
434(1)
Is the United States in Decline?
434(2)
Functionalist Perspective: Gradual Change
436(2)
Evolutionary Theory
436(1)
Cyclical Theory
436(2)
Equilibrium Theory
438(1)
Conflict Perspective: Revolutionary Change
438(1)
Symbolic Interactionist Perspective: Changing Interaction
439(1)
How U.S. Society Has Changed
440(7)
Sociological Frontiers: What the Future Will Be Like
441(1)
Using Sociology: How to Use Cell Phones Properly
442(5)
Glossary 447(8)
References 455(22)
Name Index 477(8)
Subject Index 485


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