What is included with this book?
Preface
Acknowledgements
1. Introduction
1.1 Introduction and Overview
1.2 The Aim of the Book: Get in the Game!
1.3 The Approach and Style: Impossible to Misunderstand!
PART I BASIC STATISTICAL MEASURES AND CONCEPTS
2. Introduction to Software Packages used in this Book
2.1 R
2.2 ProUCL
2.3 Visual Sample Plan
2.4 DataPlot
2.5 Kendal-Thiel Robust Line
2.6 Minitab^{®}
2.7 Excel 2010
3. Laboratory Detection Limits, Non-Detects and Data Analysis
3.1 Introduction and Overview
3.2 Types of Laboratory Data Detection Limits
3.3 Problems with Non-Detects (NDs) in Statistical Data Samples
3.4 Options for Addressing Non-Detects in Data Analysis
4. Data Sample, Data Population and Data Distribution
4.1 Introduction and Overview
4.2 Data Sample versus Data Population or Universe
4.3 The Concept of a Distribution
4.4 Types of Distributions
EXERCISES
5. Graphics for Data Analysis and Presentation
5.1 Introduction and Overview
5.2 Graphics for Single Univariate Data Samples
5.3 Graphics for Two or more Univariate Data Samples
5.4 Graphics for Bivariate and Multivariate Data Samples
5.5 Graphics for Data Presentation
5.6 Data Smoothing
EXERCISES
6. Basic Statistical Measures: Descriptive or Summary Statistics
6.1 Introduction and Overview
6.2 Arithmetic Mean and Weighted Mean
6.3 Median and other Robust Measures of Central Tendency
6.4 Standard Deviation, Variance, and other Measures of Dispersion or Spread
6.5 Skewness and other Measures of Shape
6.6 Outliers
6.6.1 Tests for Outliers
6.7 Data Transformations
EXERCISES
PART II STATISTICAL PROCEDURES FOR UNIVARIATE DATA
7. Statistical Intervals: Confidence, Tolerance and Prediction Intervals
7.1 Introduction and Overview
7.2 Confidence Intervals
7.3 Tolerance Intervals
7.4 Prediction Intervals
7.5 Control Charts
EXERCISES
8. Tests of Hypothesis and Decision Making
8.1 Introduction and Overview
8.2 Basic Terminology and Procedures for Tests of Hypothesis
8.3 Type I and Type II Decision Errors, Statistical Power, and Inter-relationships
8.4 The Problem with Multiple Tests or Comparisons: Site-wide False Positive Error Rates (SWFPR)
8.5 Tests for Equality of Variance
EXERCISES
9. Applications of Hypothesis Tests: Comparing Populations, Analysis of Variance
9.1 Introduction and Overview
9.2 Single Sample Tests
9.3 Two-Sample Tests
9.4 Comparing Three or More Populations: Parametric ANOVA and Non-Parametric Kruskal-Wallis Tests
EXERCISES
10. Trends, Autocorrelation and Temporal Dependence
10.1 Introduction and Overview
10.2 Tests for Autocorrelation and Temporal Effects
10.3 Tests for Trend
10.4 Correcting Seasonality and Temporal Effects in the Data
10.5 Effects of Exogenous Variables on Trend Tests
EXERCISES
PART III BIVARIATE AND MULTIVARIATE DATA ANALYSES
11. Correlation, Covariance, Geostatistics
11.1 Introduction and Overview
11.2 Correlation and Covariance
11.3 Introduction to Geostatistics
EXERCISES
12. Simple Linear Regression
12.1 Introduction and Overview
12.2 The Simple Linear Regression Model
12.3 Basic Applications of Simple Linear Regression
12.4 Verify Compliance with the Assumptions of Conventional Linear Regression
12.5 Check the Regression Diagnostics for the Presence of Influential Data Points
12. 6 Confidence Intervals for the Predicted Y Values
12.7 Regression for Left-Censored Data (Non Detects)
EXERCISES
13. Data Transformation versus Generalized Linear Model
13.1 Introduction and Overview
13.2 Data Transformation
13.3 The Generalized Linear Model (GLM) and Applications for Regression
13.4 Extension of Data Transformation and Generalized Linear Model to Multiple Regression
EXERCISES
14. Robust Regression
14.1 Introduction and Overview
14.2 Kendall-Theil Robust Line
14.3 Weighted Least Squares Regression
14.4 Iteratively Reweighted Least Squares Regression
14.5 Other Robust Regression Alternatives
14.6 Robust Regression Methods for Multiple-Variable Data
EXERCISES
15. Multiple Linear Regression
15.1 Introduction and Overview
15.2 The Need for Multiple Regression
15.3 The Multiple Linear Regression Model
15.4 The Estimated Multivariable X-Y Relationship based on a Data Sample
15.5 Assumptions of Multiple Linear Regression
15.6 Hypothesis Tests for Reliability of the MLR Model
15.7 Confidence Intervals for the Regression Coefficients and Predicted Y Values
15.8 Coefficient of Multiple Correlation (R), Multiple Determination (R^{2}), Adjusted R^{2}, and Partial Correlation Coefficients
15.9 Regression Diagnostics
15.10 Model Interactions and Multiplicative Effects
EXERCISES
16. Categorical Data Analysis
16.1 Introduction and Overview
16.2 Types of Variables and associated Data
16.3 One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Model
16.4 Two-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Regression Model with no Interactions
16.5 Two-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Model with Interactions
16.6 Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) Regression Model
EXERCISES
17. Model Building: Stepwise Regression and Best Subsets Regression
17.1 Introduction and Overview
17.2 Consequences of Inappropriate Variable Selection
17.3 Stepwise Regression Procedures
17.4 Subsets Regression
EXERCISES
18. Nonlinear Regression
18.1 Introduction and Overview
18.2 The Nonlinear Regression Model
18.3 Assumptions of Nonlinear Least Squares Regression
EXERCISES
PART IV STATISTICS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING DESIGN AND RISK ASSESSMENT
19. Data Quality Objectives and Environmental Sampling Design
19.1 Introduction and Overview
19.2 Sampling Design
19.3 Sampling Plans
19.4 Sample Size Determination
EXERCISES
20. Determination of Background and Applications in Risk Assessment
20.1 Introduction and Overview
20.2 When Background Sampling is required and when it is not
20.3 Background Sampling Plans
20.4 Graphical and Quantitative Data Analysis for Site versus Background Data Comparisons
20.5 Determination of Exposure Point Concentration and Contaminants of Potential Concern
EXERCISES
21. Statistics in Conventional and Probabilistic Risk Assessment
21.1 Introduction and Overview
21.2 Conventional or Point Risk Estimation
21.3 Probabilistic Risk Assessment using Monte Carlo Simulation
EXERCISES
Appendix A: Software Scripts
Appendix B: Datasets
References
Index