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Statistical Methods for Psychology

by
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780534389703

ISBN10:
0534389708
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2001
Publisher(s):
Thomson Learning
List Price: $98.95
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Table of Contents

Basic Concepts
1(15)
Important Terms
2(3)
Descriptive and Inferential Statistics
5(1)
Measurement Scales
6(3)
Using Computers
9(1)
The Plan of the Book
10(5)
Describing and Exploring Data
15(58)
Plotting Data
17(2)
Histograms
19(2)
Stem-and-Leaf Displays
21(3)
Alternative Methods of Plotting Data
24(4)
Describing Distributions
28(3)
Using Computer Programs to Display Data
31(2)
Notation
33(2)
Measures of Central Tendency
35(6)
Measures of Variability
41(16)
Boxplots: Graphical Representations of Dispersions and Extreme Scores
57(3)
Obtaining Measures of Dispersion Using Minitab
60(2)
Percentiles, Quartiles, and Deciles
62(1)
The Effect of Linear Transformations on Data
62(11)
The Normal Distribution
73(18)
The Normal Distribution
76(3)
The Standard Normal Distribution
79(3)
Using the Tables of the Standard Normal Distribution
82(3)
Setting Probable Limits on an Observation
85(1)
Measures Related to z
86(5)
Sampling Distributions and Hypothesis Testing
91(24)
Two Simple Examples Involving Course Evaluations and Rude Motorists
92(3)
Sampling Distributions
95(1)
Hypothesis Testing
96(2)
The Null Hypothesis
98(2)
Test Statistics and Their Sampling Distributions
100(1)
Using the Normal Distribution to Test Hypotheses
101(3)
Type I and Type II Errors
104(3)
One- and Two-Tailed Tests
107(3)
What Does It Mean to Reject the Null Hypothesis?
110(1)
Effect Size
110(1)
A Final Worked Example
111(1)
Back to Course Evaluations and Rude Motorists
112(3)
Basic Concepts of Probability
115(26)
Probability
116(2)
Basic Terminology and Rules
118(4)
Discrete versus Continuous Variables
122(1)
Probability Distributions for Discrete Variables
123(1)
Probability Distributions for Continuous Variables
124(2)
Permutations and Combinations
126(3)
The Binomial Distribution
129(5)
Using the Binomial Distribution to Test Hypotheses
134(2)
The Multinomial Distribution
136(5)
Categorical Data and Chi-Square
141(36)
The Chi-Square Distribution
143(1)
Statistical Importance of the Chi-Square Distribution
144(2)
The Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit Test---One-Way Classification
146(3)
Two Classification Variables: Contingency Table Analysis
149(3)
Chi-Square for Larger Contingency Tables
152(7)
Chi-Square for Ordinal Data
159(1)
Summary of the Assumptions of Chi-Square
159(2)
One-and Two-Tailed Tests
161(1)
Likelihood Ratio Tests
162(1)
Measures of Assocation
163(14)
Hypothesis Tests Applied to Means
177(46)
Sampling Distribution of the Mean
178(3)
Testing Hypotheses about Means---σ Known
181(2)
Testing a Sample Mean When σ Is Unknown---The One-Sample t Test
183(8)
Hypothesis Tests Applied to Means---Two Matched Samples
191(7)
Hypothesis Tests Applied to Means---Two Independent Samples
198(8)
Confidence Intervals
206(5)
A Second Worked Example
211(2)
Heterogeneity of Variance: The Behrens--Fisher Problem
213(10)
Power
223(20)
Factors Affecting the Power of a Test
225(2)
Effect Size
227(2)
Power Calculations for the One-Sample t
229(3)
Power Calculations for Differences Between Two Independent Means
232(3)
Power Calculations for Matched-Sample t
235(2)
Power Considerations in Terms of Sample Size
237(1)
Post-Hoe Power
238(5)
Correlation and Regression
243(52)
Scatterplot
245(5)
The Relationship Between Stress and Health
250(2)
The Covariance
252(1)
The Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient (r)
253(2)
The Regression Line
255(5)
The Accuracy of Prediction
260(7)
Assumptions Underlying Regression and Correlation
267(1)
Confidence Limits on Y
268(2)
A Computer Example Showing the Role of Test-Taking Skills
270(3)
Hypothesis Testing
273(9)
The Role of Assumptions in Correlation and Regression
282(1)
Factors That Affect the Correlation
282(3)
Power Calculation for Pearson's r
285(10)
Alternative Correlational Techniques
295(24)
Point-Biserial Correlation and Phi: Non-Pearson Correlations by Another Name
297(8)
Biserial and Tetrachoric Correlation: Non-Pearson Correlation Coefficients
305(1)
Correlation Coefficients for Ranked Data
306(3)
Analysis of Contingency Tables with Ordered Variables
309(3)
Kendall's Coefficient of Concordance (W)
312(7)
Simple Analysis of Variance
319(50)
An Example
320(1)
The Underlying Model
321(3)
The Logic of the Analysis of Variance
324(2)
Calculations in the Analysis of Variance
326(7)
Computer Solutions
333(3)
Derivation of the Analysis of Variance
336(2)
Unequal Sample Sizes
338(2)
Violations of Assumptions
340(2)
Transformations
342(8)
Fixed versus Random Models
350(1)
Magnitude of Experimental Effect
350(4)
Power
354(6)
Computer Analyses
360(9)
Multiple Comparisons Among Treatment Means
369(52)
Error Rates
370(3)
Multiple Comparisons in a Simple Experiment on Morphine Tolerance
373(2)
A Priori Comparisons
375(16)
Post Hoc Comparisons
391(7)
Tukey's Test
398(1)
The Ryan Procedure (REGWQ)
399(1)
The Scheffe Test
400(1)
Dunnett's Test for Comparing All Treatments with a Control
401(1)
Comparison of Dunnett's Test and the Bonferroni t
402(1)
Comparison of the Alternative Procedures
402(2)
Which Test?
404(1)
Computer Solution
404(4)
Trend Analysis
408(13)
Factorial Analysis of Variance
421(50)
An Extension of the Eysenck Study
424(5)
Structural Models and Expected Mean Squares
429(1)
Interactions
430(2)
Simple Effects
432(4)
Analysis of Variance Applied to the Effects of Smoking
436(2)
Multiple Comparisons
438(2)
Power Analysis for Factorial Experiments
440(2)
Expected Mean Squares
442(4)
Magnitude of Experimental Effects
446(3)
Unequal Sample Sizes
449(6)
Analysis for Unequal Sample Sizes Using SAS
455(1)
Higher-Order Factorial Designs
456(8)
A Computer Example
464(7)
Repeated-Measures Designs
471(62)
The Structural Model
474(1)
F Ratios
475(1)
The Covariance Matrix
476(1)
Analysis of Variance Applied to Relaxation Therapy
477(3)
One Between-Subjects Variable and One Within-Subjects Variable
480(14)
Two Within-Subjects Variables
494(1)
Two Between-Subjects Variables and One Within-Subjects Variable
494(6)
Two Within-Subjects Variables and One Between-Subjects Variable
500(8)
Three Within-Subjects Variables
508(4)
Intraclass Correlation
512(3)
Other Considerations
515(1)
A Computer Analysis Using a Traditional Approach
516(3)
Multivariate Analysis of Variance for Repeated-Measures Designs
519(14)
Multiple Regression
533(70)
Multiple Linear Regression
534(9)
Standard Errors and Tests of Regression Coefficients
543(1)
Residual Variance
544(1)
Distribution Assumptions
545(1)
The Multiple Correlation Coefficient
546(2)
Geometric Representation of Multiple Regression
548(4)
Partial and Semipartial Correlation
552(5)
Suppressor Variables
557(1)
Regression Diagnostics
558(5)
Constructing a Regression Equation
563(8)
The ``Importance'' of Individual Variables
571(2)
Using Approximate Regression Coefficients
573(1)
Mediating and Moderating Relationships
574(9)
Logistic Regression
583(20)
Analysis of Variance and Covariance as General Linear Models
603(52)
The General Linear Model
604(3)
One-Way Analysis of Variance
607(3)
Factorial Designs
610(8)
Analysis of Variance with Unequal Sample Sizes
618(7)
The One-Way Analysis of Covariance
625(11)
Interpreting an Analysis of Covariance
636(2)
The Factorial Analysis of Covariance
638(9)
Using Multiple Covariates
647(1)
Alternative Experimental Designs
648(7)
Log-Linear Analysis
655(36)
Two-Way Contingency Tables
658(4)
Model Specification
662(3)
Testing Models
665(4)
Odds and Odds Ratios
669(1)
Treatment Effects (Lambda)
669(2)
Three-Way Tables
671(7)
Deriving Models
678(4)
Treatment Effects
682(9)
Resampling and Nonparametric Approaches to Data
691(36)
Bootstrapping as a General Approach
694(2)
Bootstrapping with One Sample
696(3)
Resampling with Two Paired Samples
699(3)
Resampling with Two Independent Samples
702(2)
Bootstrapping Confidence Limits on a Correlation Coefficient
704(3)
Wilcoxon's Rank-Sum Test
707(6)
Wilcoxon's Matched-Pairs Signed-Ranks Test
713(4)
The Sign Test
717(2)
Kruskal--Wallis One-Way Analysis of Variance
719(1)
Friedman's Rank Test for k Correlated Samples
720(7)
Appendices 727(36)
References 763(10)
Answers to Selected Exercises 773(18)
Index 791


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