Preface 

ix  


1  (11) 

Statistics: The Science of Data 


2  (1) 

Fundamental Elements of Statistics 


2  (3) 


5  (2) 

The Role of Statistics in Critical Thinking 


7  (2) 

A Guide to Statistical Methods Presented in This Text 


9  (3) 

Statistics In Action Contamination of Fish in the Tennessee River: Collecting the Data 


10  (2) 


12  (47) 

Graphical and Numerical Methods for Describing Qualitative Data 


13  (6) 

Graphical Methods for Describing Quantitative Data 


19  (8) 

Numerical Methods for Describing Quantitative Data 


27  (1) 

Measures of Central Tendency 


28  (4) 


32  (6) 

Measures of Relative Standing 


38  (3) 

Methods for Detecting Outliers 


41  (4) 

Distorting the Truth with Descriptive Statistics 


45  (14) 

Statistics in Action Characteristics of Contaminated Fish in the Tennessee River, Alabama 


56  (3) 


59  (58) 

The Role of Probability in Statistics 


60  (1) 

Events, Sample Spaces, and Probability 


60  (10) 


70  (2) 


72  (4) 


76  (4) 

Probability Rules for Unions and Intersections 


80  (10) 


90  (3) 


93  (10) 

Probability and Statistics: An Example 


103  (2) 


105  (12) 

Statistics in Action Assessing Predictors of Software Defects in NASA Spacecraft instrument Code 


114  (3) 

Discrete Random Variables 


117  (51) 

Discrete Random Variables 


118  (1) 

The Probability Distribution for a Discrete Random Variable 


118  (5) 

Expected Values for Random Variables 


123  (4) 

Some Useful Expectation Theorems 


127  (2) 


129  (1) 

The Binomial Probability Distribution 


130  (7) 

The Multinomial Probability Distribution 


137  (5) 

The Negative Binomial and the Geometric Probability Distributions 


142  (4) 

The Hypergeometric Probability Distribution 


146  (5) 

The Poisson Probability Distribution 


151  (6) 

Moments and Moment Generating Functions (Optional) 


157  (11) 

Statistics in Action The Reliability of a ``OneShot'' Device 


165  (3) 

Continuous Random Variables 


168  (43) 

Continuous Random Variables 


169  (1) 

The Density Function for a Continuous Random Variable 


170  (2) 

Expected Values for Continuous Random Variables 


172  (5) 

The Uniform Probability Distribution 


177  (3) 

The Normal Probability Distribution 


180  (4) 

Descriptive Methods for Assessing Normality 


184  (6) 

GammaType Probability Distributions 


190  (4) 

The Weibull Probability Distribution 


194  (3) 

BetaType Probability Distributions 


197  (3) 

Moments and Moment Generating Functions (Optional) 


200  (11) 

Statistics in Action Super Weapons DevelopmentOptimizing the Hit Ratio 


206  (5) 

Bivariate Probability Distributions and Sampling Distributions 


211  (51) 

Bivariate Probability Distributions for Discrete Random Variables 


212  (5) 

Bivariate Probability Distributions for Continuous Random Variables 


217  (4) 

The Expected Value of Functions of Two Random Variables 


221  (2) 


223  (2) 

The Covariance and Correlation of Two Random Variables 


225  (3) 

Probability Distributions and Expected Values of Functions of Random Variables (Optional) 


228  (8) 


236  (1) 

Approximating a Sampling Distribution by Monte Carlo Simulation 


237  (3) 

The Sampling Distributions of Means and Sums 


240  (5) 

Normal Approximation to the Binomial Distribution 


245  (3) 

Sampling Distributions Related to the Normal Distribution 


248  (14) 

Statistics in Action Availability of an Up/Down Maintained System 


259  (3) 

Estimation Using Confidence Intervals 


262  (73) 

Point Estimators and their Properties 


263  (4) 

Finding Point Estimators: Classical Methods of Estimation 


267  (7) 

Finding Interval Estimators: The Pivotal Method 


274  (7) 

Estimation of a Population Mean 


281  (6) 

Estimation of the Difference Between Two Population Means: Independent Samples 


287  (7) 

Estimation of the Difference Between Two Population Means: Matched Pairs 


294  (5) 

Estimation of a Population Proportion 


299  (3) 

Estimation of the Difference Between Two Population Proportions 


302  (3) 

Estimation of a Population Variance 


305  (4) 

Estimation of the Ratio of Two Population Variances 


309  (6) 


315  (3) 

Alternative Interval Estimation Methods: Bootstrapping and Bayesian Methods (Optional) 


318  (17) 

Statistics in Action Bursting Strength of PET Beverage Bottles 


332  (3) 


335  (65) 

The Relationship Between Statistical Tests of Hypotheses and Confidence Intervals 


336  (1) 

Elements and Properties of a Statistical Test 


336  (6) 

Finding Statistical Tests: Classical Methods 


342  (4) 

Choosing the Null and Alternative Hypotheses 


346  (2) 

Testing a Population Mean 


348  (6) 

The Observed Significance Level for a Test 


354  (3) 

Testing the Difference Between Two Population Means: Independent Samples 


357  (7) 

Testing the Difference Between Two Population Means: Matched Pairs 


364  (5) 

Testing a Population Proportion 


369  (3) 

Testing the Difference Between Two Population Proportions 


372  (4) 

Testing a Population Variance 


376  (3) 

Testing the Ratio of Two Population Variances 


379  (4) 

Alternative Testing Procedures: Bootstrapping and Bayesian Methods (Optional) 


383  (17) 

Statistics in Action Comparing Methods for Dissolving Drug TabletsDissolution Method Equivalence Testing 


395  (5) 

Categorical Data Analysis 


400  (39) 

Categorical Data and Multinomial Probabilities 


401  (1) 

Estimating Category Probabilities in a OneWay Table 


401  (4) 

Testing Category Probabilities in a OneWay Table 


405  (4) 

Inferences About Category Probabilities in a TwoWay (Contingency) Table 


409  (8) 

Contingency Tables with Fixed Marginal Totals 


417  (5) 

Exact Tests for Independence in a Contingency Table Analysis (Optional) 


422  (17) 

Statistics in Action The Public's Perception of Engineers and Engineering 


432  (7) 


439  (56) 


440  (1) 


441  (2) 

Estimating β0 and β1: The Method of Least Squares 


443  (11) 

Properties of the Least Squares Estimators 


454  (2) 


456  (4) 

Assessing the Utility of the Model: Making Inferences About the Slope β1 


460  (5) 

The Coefficient of Correlation 


465  (4) 

The Coefficient of Determination 


469  (4) 

Using the Model for Estimation and Prediction 


473  (7) 


480  (3) 

A Summary of the Steps to Follow in Simple Linear Regression 


483  (12) 

Statistics in Action Can Dowsers Really Detect Water? 


491  (4) 

Multiple Regression Analysis 


495  (88) 

General Form of a Multiple Regression Model 


496  (1) 


497  (1) 

Fitting the Model: The Method of Least Squares 


498  (1) 

Computations Using Matrix Algebra: Estimating and Making Inferences About the Individual β Parameters 


499  (7) 

Assessing Overall Model Adequacy 


506  (4) 

A Confidence Interval for E(y) and a Prediction Interval for a Future Value of y 


510  (9) 

A FirstOrder Model with Quantitative Predictors 


519  (9) 

An Interaction Model with Quantitative Predictors 


528  (5) 

A Quadratic (SecondOrder) Model with a Quantitative Predictor 


533  (7) 

Checking Assumptions: Residual Analysis 


540  (19) 

Some Pitfalls: Estimability, Multicollinearity, and Extrapolation 


559  (9) 

A Summary of the Steps to Follow in a Multiple Regression Analysis 


568  (15) 

Statistics in Action BidRigging in the Highway Construction Industry 


575  (8) 


583  (65) 

Introduction: Why Model Building Is Important 


584  (1) 

The Two Types of Independent Variables: Quantitative and Qualitative 


585  (1) 

Models with a Single Quantitative Independent Variable 


586  (7) 

Models with Two Quantitative Independent Variables 


593  (7) 

Coding Quantitative Independent Variables (Optional) 


600  (5) 

Models with One Qualitative Independent Variable 


605  (6) 

Models with Both Quantitative and Qualitative Independent Variables 


611  (10) 

Tests for Comparing Nested Models 


621  (7) 

External Model Validation (Optional) 


628  (2) 


630  (18) 

Statistics in Action Deregulation of the Intrastate Trucking Industry 


640  (8) 

Principles of Experimental Design 


648  (23) 


649  (1) 

Experimental Design Terminology 


649  (2) 

Controlling the Information in an Experiment 


651  (1) 


652  (6) 

VolumeIncreasing Designs 


658  (5) 

Selecting the Sample Size 


663  (2) 

The Importance of Randomization 


665  (6) 

Statistics in Action Anticorrosive Behavior of Epoxy Coatings Augmented with Zinc 


668  (3) 

The Analysis of Variance for Designed Experiments 


671  (84) 


672  (1) 

The Logic Behind an Analysis of Variance 


672  (2) 

OneFactor Completely Randomized Designs 


674  (11) 


685  (13) 

TwoFactor Factorial Experiments 


698  (16) 

More Complex Factorial Designs (Optional) 


714  (7) 

Nested Sampling Designs (Optional) 


721  (11) 

Multiple Comparisons of Treatment Means 


732  (7) 

Checking ANOVA Assumptions 


739  (16) 

Statistics in Action On the Trail of the Cockroach 


751  (4) 


755  (45) 

Introduction: DistributionFree Tests 


756  (1) 

Testing for Location of a Single Population 


757  (5) 

Comparing Two Populations: Independent Random Samples 


762  (7) 

Comparing Two Populations: MatchedPairs Design 


769  (6) 

Comparing Three or More Populations: Completely Randomized Design 


775  (5) 

Comparing Three or More Populations: Randomized Block Design 


780  (4) 


784  (16) 

Statistics in Action Deadly Exposure: Agent Orange and Vietnam Vets 


796  (4) 

Statistical Process and Quality Control 


800  (57) 


801  (1) 


801  (5) 

Control Chart for Means: xChart 


806  (8) 

Control Chart for Process Variation: RChart 


814  (5) 

Detecting Trends in a Control Chart: Runs Analysis 


819  (2) 

Control Chart for Percent Defectives: pChart 


821  (4) 

Control Chart for the Number of Defectives per Item: cChart 


825  (4) 


829  (3) 

Capability Analysis (Optional) 


832  (7) 

Acceptance Sampling for Defectives 


839  (5) 

Other Sampling Plans (Optional) 


844  (1) 

Evolutionary Operations (Optional) 


845  (12) 

Statistics in Action Testing Jet Fuel Additive for Safety 


851  (6) 

Product and System Reliability 


857  (25) 


858  (1) 

Failure Time Distributions 


858  (1) 


859  (4) 

Life Testing: Censored Sampling 


863  (1) 

Estimating the Parameters of an Exponential Failure Time Distribution 


864  (3) 

Estimating the Parameters of a Weibull Failure Time Distribution 


867  (5) 


872  (10) 

Statistics in Action Modeling the Hazard Rate of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Deck Deterioration 


879  (3) 

Appendix A Matrix Algebra 


882  (14) 

Matrices and Matrix Multiplication 


882  (4) 

Identity Matrices and Matrix Inversion 


886  (3) 

Solving Systems of Simultaneous Linear Equations 


889  (2) 

A Procedure for Inverting a Matrix 


891  (5) 

Appendix B Useful Statistical Tables 


896  (40) 


897  (4) 

Table 2 Cumulative Binomial Probabilities 


901  (4) 


905  (1) 

Table 4 Cumulative Poisson Probabilities 


906  (2) 

Table 5 Normal Curve Areas 


908  (1) 


909  (1) 

Table 7 Critical Values for Student's T 


910  (1) 

Table 8 Critical Values of X2 


911  (2) 

Table 9 Percentage Points of the F Distribution, α = .10 


913  (2) 

Table 10 Percentage Points of the F Distribution, α = .05 


915  (2) 

Table 11 Percentage Points of the F Distribution, α = .025 


917  (2) 

Table 12 Percentage Points of the F Distribution, α = .01 


919  (2) 

Table 13 Percentage Points of the Studentized Range q (p, v), α = .05 


921  (2) 

Table 14 Percentage Points of the Studentized Range q (p, v), α = .01 


923  (2) 

Table 15 Critical Values of TL and TU for the Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test: Independent Samples 


925  (1) 

Table 16 Critical Values of T0 for the Wilcoxon MatchedPairs Signed Rank Test 


926  (1) 

Table 17 Critical Values of Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient 


927  (1) 

Table 18 Critical Values of C for the Theil ZeroSlope Test 


928  (4) 

Table 19 Factors Used When Constructing Control Charts 


932  (1) 

Table 20 Values of K for Tolerance Limits for Normal Distributions 


933  (1) 

Table 21 Sample Size n for Nonparametric Tolerance Limits 


934  (1) 

Table 22 Sample Size Code Letters: MILSTD105D 


934  (1) 

Table 23 A Portion of the Master Table for Normal Inspection (Single Sampling): MILSTD105D 


935  (1) 

Appendix C SAS for Windows Tutorial 


936  (29) 

Appendix D MINITAB for Windows Tutorial 


965  (33) 

Appendix E SPSS for Windows Tutorial 


998  (30) 
References 

1028  (8) 
Selected Short Answers 

1036  (13) 
Credits 

1049  (5) 
Index 

1054  