An Introduction to the Research Process | |

an Introduction to The Research Process | |

Overview | |

The Research Process | |

Concepts and Variables | |

Levels of measurement | |

Hypothesis-Testing | |

Evidence-Based Practice | |

Research Designs | |

Multiple Choice Questions | |

Computer-Assisted Analysis | |

Overview of the Three Statistical Packages | |

Introduction to SPSS | |

Setting out Your Variable for within - and between - Group Designs. | |

Introduction to R | |

Introduction to SAS | |

Summary | |

Descriptive Statistics | |

Descriptive Statistics | |

Numerical Descriptive Statistics | |

Choosing a Measure of Central Tendency | |

Measures of Variation or Dispersion | |

Deviations from the Mean | |

Numerical Descriptives in SPSS | |

Frequencies | |

Graphical Statistics | |

Bar Charts | |

Line Graphs | |

Incorporating Variability into Graphs | |

Generating Graphs with Standard Deviations in SPSS | |

Graphs Showing Dispersion - Frequency Histogram | |

Box-Plots | |

Multiple Choice Questions | |

The Basis of Statistical Testing | |

Overview | |

Introduction | |

Samples and Populations | |

Distributions | |

Statistical Significance | |

Criticisms of NHST | |

Summary | |

MCQs | |

Epidemiology | |

Overview | |

Introduction | |

Estimating the Prevalence of Disease | |

Difficulties in Estimating Prevalence | |

Beyond Prevalence: Identifying Risk Factors for Disease | |

Risk Ratios | |

The Odds-Ratio | |

Establishing Causality | |

Case-Control Studies | |

Cohort Studies | |

Experimental Designs | |

Summary | |

Multiple Choice Questions | |

Introduction to Data Screening and Cleaning | |

Overview | |

Introduction | |

Minimising Problems at the Design Stage | |

Entering Data into Databases/Statistical Packages | |

Accuracy | |

Using Descriptive Statistics to Help Identify Errors | |

Missing Data | |

Spotting Missing Data | |

Normality | |

Reporting Data Screening and Cleaning Procedures | |

Summary | |

Multiple Choice Questions | |

Differences Between Two Groups | |

Overview | |

Introduction | |

Conceptual Description of the T-Tests | |

Generalising to the Population | |

Cohen's d | |

Paired-T Test in SPSS | |

Non-Parametric Tests | |

Mann-Whitney: for Independent Groups | |

Mann Whitney test in SPSS | |

Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test: For Repeated Measures | |

Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test in SPSS | |

Adjusting for Multiple Tests | |

Summary | |

Multiple Choice questions | |

Differences Between Three or More Conditions | |

Overview | |

Introduction | |

Conceptual Description of the (Parametric) ANOVA | |

One-Way ANOVA | |

One-way ANOVA in SPSS | |

ANOVA Models for Repeated-Measures Designs | |

Repeated Measures ANOVA in SPSS | |

Non-parametric Equivalents | |

The Kruskal-Wallis Test | |

Kruskal-Wallis and the Median Test in SPSS | |

The Median Test | |

Friedman's ANOVA for Repeated Measures | |

Friedman's ANOVA in SPSS | |

Summary | |

Multiple Choice Questions | |

Testing Associations Between Categorical Variables | |

Overview | |

Introduction | |

Rationale of Contingency Table Analysis | |

Running the Analysis in SPSS | |

Measuring Effect Size in Contingency Table Analysis | |

Larger Contingency Tables | |

Contingency Table Analysis Assumptions | |

The X2 Goodness of Fit Test | |

Running the X2 Goodness of Fit Test Using SPSS | |

Summary | |

Multiple Choice Questions | |

Measuring Agreement: Correlational Techniques | |

Overview | |

Introduction | |

Bivariate Relationships | |

Perfect Correlations | |

Calculating the Correlation Pearson's R Using SPSS. | |

How to obtain scatterplots | |

Variance Explanation of R | |

Partial Correlations | |

Spearman's Rho | |

Other uses for Correlational Techniques | |

Reliability of Measures | |

Internal Consistency | |

Inter Rater Reliability | |

Validity | |

Percentage Agreement | |

Cohen's Kappa | |

Summary | |

Multiple Choice Questions | |

Linear Regression | |

Overview | |

Introduction | |

Linear Regression in SPSS | |

Assumptions underlying linear regression | |

Dealing with Outliers | |

What happens if the Correlation Between X and Y is Near Zero? | |

Using Regression to Predict Missing Data in SPSS | |

Summary | |

Multiple Choice Questions | |

Standard Multiple Regression | |

Overview | |

Introduction | |

Multiple Regression in SPSS | |

Variables in the Equation | |

The Regression Equation | |

Predicting an Individual's Score | |

Hypothesis Testing | |

Other Types of Multiple Regression | |

Hierarchical Multiple Regression | |

Summary | |

Multiple Choice Questions | |

Logistic Regression | |

Overview | |

Introduction | |

The Conceptual Basis of Logistic Regression | |

Logistic Regression with Multiple Predictor Variables | |

Logistic Regression with Categorical Predictors | |

Categorical Predictors with Three or More Levels | |

Summary | |

Multiple Choice Questions | |

Interventions and Analysis of Change | |

Overview | |

Interventions | |

How do we Know Whether Interventions are Effective? | |

Randomised Control Trials (RCTs) | |

Designing an Rct: Consort | |

The Consort Flow Chart | |

Important Features of an Rct | |

Blinding | |

Analysis of RCTs | |

Running an Ancova in SPSS | |

McNemar's Test of Change | |

Running McNemar's Test in SPSS | |

The Sign Test | |

Running the Sign Test using SPSS | |

Intention to Treat Analysis | |

Crossover Designs | |

Single Case Designs (N= 1) | |

Generating Single Case Design Graphs Using SPSS | |

Summary | |

MCQs | |

Survival Analysis: an Introduction | |

Overview | |

Introduction | |

Survival Curves | |

The Kaplan-Meier Survival Function | |

Kaplan-Meier Survival Analyses in SPSS | |

Comparing Two Survival Curves - the Mantel-Cox test | |

Mantel-Cox using SPSS | |

Hazard | |

Hazard Curves | |

Hazard Functions in SPSS | |

Summary | |

Multiple Choice Questions | |

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