Introduction | |

Statistics and the Life Sciences | |

Examples and Overview | |

Description of Populations and Samples | |

Introduction | |

Frequency Distributions: Techniques for Data | |

Frequency Distributions: Shapes and Examples | |

Descriptive Statistics: Measures of Center | |

Boxplots | |

Measures of Dispersion | |

Effect of Transformation of Variables (Optional) | |

Samples and Populations: Statistical Inference | |

Perspective | |

Random Sampling, Probability, and the Binomial Distribution | |

Probability and the Life Sciences | |

Random Sampling | |

Introduction to Probability | |

Probability Trees | |

Density Curves | |

The Binomial Distribution | |

Fitting a Binomial Distribution to Data (Optional) | |

The Normal Distribution | |

Introduction | |

The Normal Curves | |

Areas Under a Normal Curve | |

Assessing Normality | |

The Continuity Correction (Optional) | |

Perspective | |

Sampling Distributions | |

Basic Ideas | |

Dichotomous Observations | |

Quantitative Observations | |

Illustration of the Central Limit Theorem (Optional) | |

The Normal Approximation to the Binomial Distribution (Optional) | |

Perspective | |

Confidence Intervals | |

Statistical Estimation | |

Standard Error of the Mean | |

Confidence Interval for u | |

Planning a Study to Estimate u | |

Conditions for Validity of Estimation Methods | |

Confidence Interval for a Population Proportion | |

Perspective and Summary | |

Comparison of Two Independent Samples | |

Introduction | |

Standard Error of (y1 - y2) | |

Confidence Interval for (u1 - u2) | |

Hypothesis Testing: The t-test | |

Further Discussion of the t-test | |

One-Tailed Tests | |

More on Interpretation of Statistical Significance | |

Planning for Adequate Power (Optional) | |

Student's t: Conditions and Summary | |

More on Principles of Testing Hypotheses | |

The Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney Test | |

Perspective | |

Statistical Principles of Design | |

Introduction | |

Observational Studies | |

Experiments | |

Restricted Randomization: Blocking and Stratification | |

Levels of Replication | |

Sampling Concerns (Optional) | |

Perspective | |

Comparison of Two Paired Samples | |

Introduction | |

The Paired-Sample t-Test and Confidence Interval | |

The Paired Design | |

The Sign Test | |

Further Considerations in Paired Experiments | |

Perspective | |

Analysis of Categorical Data | |

Inference for Proportions: The Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit Test | |

The Chi-Square Test for the 2 X 2 Contingency Table | |

Independence and Association in a 2 X 2 Contingency Table | |

Fisher's Exact Test (Optional) | |

The r x k Contingency Table | |

Applicability of Methods | |

Confidence Interval for a Difference Between Proportions | |

Paired Data and 2 X 2 Tables (Optional) | |

Relative Risks and the Odds Ratio (Optional) | |

Summary of Chi-Square Tests | |

Comparing the Means of k Independent Samples | |

Introduction | |

The Basic Analysis of Variance | |

The Analysis of Variance Model (Optional) | |

The Global F Test | |

Applicability of Methods | |

Linear Combinations of Means (Optional) | |

Multiple Comparisons (Optional) | |

Perspective | |

Linear Regression and Correlation | |

Introduction | |

The Fitted Regression Line | |

Parametric Interpretation of Regression: The Linear Model | |

Statistical Inference Concerning B1 | |

Perspective | |

Summary of Formulas | |

A Summary of Inference Methods | |

Introduction | |

Data Analysis Samples | |

Appendices | |

Chapter Notes | |

Statistical Tables | |

Answers to Selected Exercises | |

Index | |

Index of Examples | |

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