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Statistics: A Tool for Social Research

by
Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780534627942

ISBN10:
0534627943
Media:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
5/6/2010 3:46:00 PM
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth
List Price: $156.95

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Summary

A comprehensive, exceptionally well-written text that instructors find to be appropriate for students with varying levels of mathematical skill, ranging from those suffering from math phobia and anxiety to those adept at math. The text provides students a first look at social statistics by illustrating the application of statistics to contemporary social issues. Students learn to read and interpret statistics in a variety of settings. Each chapter is complete with numerous practice exercises, problems, and demonstrations and applications of the latest SPSS statistical software package to reinforce chapter concepts, operations, and formulas. Students can also find demonstrations and applications using the MicroCase statistical package on the text's companion web site. The book's primary emphasis is on developing the following skills necessary for students to become "statistically literate": computational competence; appreciation of statistics; and the ability to read professional social science literature.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Chapter 1 Introduction
1(22)
1.1 Why Study Statistics?
1(1)
1.2 The Role of Statistics in Scientific Inquiry
2(4)
1.3 The Goals of This Text
6(1)
1.4 Descriptive and Inferential Statistics
7(2)
1.5 Discrete and Continuous Variables
9(1)
1.6 Level of Measurement
10(14)
Reading Statistics 1: Introduction
14(3)
Summary
17(1)
Glossary
17(1)
Problems
18(2)
Introduction to SPSS and the General Social Survey
20(3)
Part I DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS 23(124)
Chapter 2 Basic Descriptive Statistics: Percentages, Ratios and Rates, Tables, Charts, and Graphs
24(45)
2.1 Percentages and Proportions
25(4)
Application 2.1
27 (1)
Application 2.2
28(1)
2.2 Ratios, Rates, and Percentage Change
29(3)
Application 2.3
30 (2)
Application 2.4
32(1)
2.3 Frequency Distributions: Introduction
32(2)
2.4 Frequency Distributions for Variables Measured at the Nominal and Ordinal Levels
34(2)
2.5 Frequency Distributions for Variables Measured at the Interval-Ratio Level
36(6)
Application 2.5
37(5)
2.6 Constructing Frequency Distributions for Interval-Ratio-Level Variables: A Review
42(5)
Reading Statistics 2: Frequency Distributions and Charts
43(4)
2.7 Charts and Graphs
47(5)
2.8 Interpreting Statistics: Using Percentages, Frequency Distributions, Charts, and Graphs to Analyze Changing Patterns of Workplace Surveillance
52(17)
Summary
56 (1)
Summary of Formulas
56 (1)
Glossary
56 (1)
Multimedia Resources
57 (1)
Problems
57(5)
Using SPSS for Windows to Produce Frequency Distributions and Graphs
62(7)
Chapter 3 Measures of Central Tendency
69(26)
3.1 Introduction
70 (1)
3.2 The Mode
70 (1)
3.3 The Median
71(2)
3.4 Other Measures of Position: Percentiles, Deciles, and Quartiles
73(1)
3.5 The Mean
74(1)
3.6 Some Characteristics of the Mean
75(4)
3.7 Computing Measures of Central Tendency for Grouped Data
79(3)
3.8 Choosing a Measure of Central Tendency
82(13)
Application 3.1
83(1)
Summary
84 (1)
Summary of Formulas
84 (1)
Glossary
84(1)
Multimedia Resources
85 (1)
Problems
85(5)
Using SPSS for Windows for Measures of Central Tendency and Percentiles
90(5)
Chapter 4 Measures of Dispersion
95(28)
4.1 Introduction
96(1)
4.2 The Index of Qualitative Variation (IQV)
97 (2)
4.3 The Range (R) and Interquartile Range (Q)
99(1)
4.4 Computing the Range and Interquartile Range
100 (1)
4.5 The Standard Deviation
101(3)
4.6 Computing the Standard Deviation: An Additional Example
104(1)
4.7 Computing the Standard Deviation from Grouped Data
105(2)
4.8 Interpreting the Standard Deviation
107 (1)
Application 4.1
108(1)
4.9 Interpreting Statistics: The Central Tendency and Dispersion of Income in the United States
108(15)
Application 4.2
109(1)
Reading Statistics 3: Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion
110 (4)
Summary
114 (1)
Summary of Formulas
114 (1)
Glossary
114 (1)
Multimedia Resources
115 (1)
Problems
115 (4)
Using SPSS for Windows to Produce Measures of Dispersion
119(4)
Chapter 5 The Normal Curve
123(20)
5.1 Introduction
124(2)
5.2 Computing Z Scores
126(1)
5.3 The Normal Curve Table
127(2)
5.4 Finding Total Area Above and Below a Score
129(2)
5.5 Finding Areas Between Two Scores
131(2)
Application 5.1
133(1)
5.6 Using the Normal Curve to Estimate Probabilities
133(16)
Application 5.2
134 (1)
Application 5.3
135(3)
Summary
138 (1)
Summary of Formulas
138 (1)
Glossary
138 (1)
Multimedia Resources
139 (1)
Problems
139(2)
Using SPSS for Windows to Transform Raw Scores into Z Scores
141(2)
Part I Cumulative Exercises
143(4)
Part II INFERENTIAL STATISTICS 147(168)
Chapter 6 Introduction to Inferential Statistics: Sampling and the Sampling Distribution
149(16)
6.1 Introduction
149(1)
6.2 Techniques for Probability Sampling
150(1)
6.3 EPSEM Sampling Techniques
151 (3)
6.4 The Sampling Distribution
154(4)
6.5 The Sampling Distribution: An Additional Example
158(2)
6.6 Symbols and Terminology
160(5)
Summary
161 (1)
Glossary
161 (1)
Multimedia Resources
162 (1)
Problems
162(1)
Using SPSS for Windows to Draw Random Samples
163(2)
Chapter 7 Estimation Procedures
165(26)
7.1 Introduction
165(1)
7.2 Bias and Efficiency
166(3)
7.3 Estimation Procedures: Introduction
169(2)
7.4 Interval Estimation Procedures for Sample Means (Large Samples)
171(3)
Application 7.1
173(1)
7.5 Interval Estimation Procedures for Sample Proportions (Large Samples)
174(1)
Application 7.2
175(1)
7.6 A Summary of the Computation of Confidence Intervals
175(1)
7.7 Controlling the Width of Interval Estimates
175(4)
Application 7.3
177(2)
7.8 Interpreting Statistics: Predicting the Election of the President and Judging His Performance
179(12)
Reading Statistics 4: Public-Opinion Polls
180(4)
Reading Statistics 5: Using Representative Samples to Track National Trends
184(1)
Summary
185 (1)
Summary of Formulas
185 (1)
Glossary
186 (1)
Multimedia Resources
186 (1)
Problems
186(3)
Using SPSS for Windows to Produce Confidence Intervals
189(2)
Chapter 8 Hypothesis Testing I: The One-Sample Case
191(32)
8.1 Introduction
192(1)
8.2 An Overview of Hypothesis Testing
193(5)
8.3 The Five-Step Model for Hypothesis Testing
198 (5)
Application 8.1
202(1)
8.4 One-Tailed and Two-Tailed Tests of Hypothesis
203(5)
8.5 Selecting an Alpha Level
208(2)
8.6 The Student's t Distribution
210(3)
8.7 Tests of Hypotheses for Single-Sample Proportions (Large Samples)
213(10)
Application 8.2
216(1)
Summary
217 (1)
Summary of Formulas
218(1)
Glossary
218 (1)
Multimedia Resources
219 (1)
Problems
219(4)
Chapter 9 Hypothesis Testing II: The Two-Sample Case
223(27)
9.1 Introduction
223(1)
9.2 Hypothesis Testing with Sample Means (Large Samples)
224 (5)
Application 9.1
228(1)
9.3 Hypothesis Testing with Sample Means (Small Samples)
229(2)
9.4 Hypothesis Testing with Sample Proportions (Large Samples)
231 (2)
9.5 The Limitations of Hypothesis Testing: Significance Versus Importance
233(3)
Application 9.2
234(2)
9.6 Interpreting Statistics: Are There Significant Differences in Income Between Men and Women?
236(14)
Reading Statistics 6: Hypothesis Testing
237(3)
Application 9.3
240(1)
Summary
241(1)
Summary of Formulas
241 (1)
Glossary
242 (1)
Multimedia Resources
242 (1)
Problems
242(4)
Using SPSS for Windows to Test the Significance of the Difference Between Two Means
246(4)
Chapter 10 Hypothesis Testing III: The Analysis of Variance
250(30)
10.1 Introduction
250(1)
10.2 The Logic of the Analysis of Variance
251(2)
10.3 The Computation of ANOVA
253(2)
10.4 A Computational Shortcut
255(1)
10.5 A Computational Example
255(2)
10.6 A Test of Significance for ANOVA
257(5)
Application 10.1
258(2)
Application 10.2
260(2)
10.7 An Additional Example for Computing and Testing the Analysis of Variance
262(2)
10.8 The Limitations of the Test
264(1)
10.9 Interpreting Statistics: Does Sexual Activity Vary by Marital Status?
265 (15)
Reading Statistics 7: Investigating Perceptions of Disabled Workers
266 (4)
Summary
270 (1)
Summary of Formulas
270 (1)
Glossary
271(1)
Multimedia Resources
271 (1)
Problems
271(4)
Using SPSS for Windows to Conduct Analysis of Variance
275(5)
Chapter 11 Hypothesis Testing IV: Chi Square
280(32)
11.1 Introduction
280(1)
11.2 Bivariate Tables
281(1)
11.3 The Logic of Chi Square
282(2)
11.4 The Computation of Chi Square
284(2)
11.5 The Chi Square Test for Independence
286(3)
11.6 The Chi Square Test: An Example
289(2)
11.7 An Additional Application of the Chi Square Test: The Goodness-of-Fit Test
291(4)
Application 11.1
292(3)
11.8 The Limitations of the Chi Square Test
295(2)
Reading Statistics 8: Another look at Income and Gender
296 (1)
11.9 Interpreting Statistics: Family Values and Social Class
297 (20)
Application 11.2
301(1)
Summary
302 (1)
Summary of Formulas
302 (1)
Glossary
302 (1)
Multimedia Resources
303(1)
Problems
303(4)
Using SPSS for Windows to Conduct the Chi Square Test
307(5)
Part II Cumulative Exercises
312(3)
Part III BIVARIATE MEASURES OF ASSOCIATION 315(114)
Chapter 12 Bivariate Association: Introduction and Basic Concepts
317(23)
12.1 Statistical Significance and Theoretical Importance
317 (2)
12.2 Association Between Variables and the Bivariate Table
319 (1)
12.3 Three Characteristics of Bivariate Associations
320(20)
Application 12.1
322(2)
Application 12.2
324(2)
Reading Statistics 9: Bivariate Tables
326(3)
Summary
329 (1)
Glossary
330 (1)
Multimedia Resources
331 (1)
Problems
331(4)
Using SPSS for Windows to Analyze Bivariate Association
335(5)
Chapter 13 Association Between Variables Measured at the Nominal Level
340(21)
13.1 Introduction
340(1)
13.2 Chi Square-Based Measures of Association
341(5)
Reading Statistics 10: The Importance of Percentages
344 (2)
13.3 Proportional Reduction in Error (PRE)
346(1)
13.4 A PRE Measure for Nominal-Level Variables: Lambda
347 (2)
Application 13.1
349(1)
13.5 The Computation of Lambda
349(3)
Application 13.2
350(2)
13.6 The Limitations of Lambda
352(9)
Summary
353 (1)
Summary of Formulas
353 (1)
Glossary
353(1)
Multimedia Resources
354 (1)
Problems
354(3)
Using SPSS for Windows to Produce Nominal-Level Measures of Association
357(4)
Chapter 14 Association Between Variables Measured at the Ordinal Level
361(32)
14.1 Introduction
361(1)
14.2 Proportional Reduction in Error (PRE)
362(1)
14.3 The Computation of Gamma
363(6)
Application 14.1
364(3)
Application 14.2
367(2)
14.4 Determining the Direction of Relationships
369(2)
14.5 Interpreting Association with Bivariate Tables: What Are the Sources of Civic Engagement in U.S. Society?
371(5)
Reading Statistics 11: Bivariate Tables and Associated Statistics
372 (4)
14.6 Spearman's Rho (r,)
376(4)
Application 14.3
378(2)
14.7 Testing the Null Hypothesis of "No Association" with Gamma and Spearman's Rho
380(13)
Summary
383 (1)
Summary of Formulas
383 (1)
Glossary
383 (1)
Multimedia Resources
384 (1)
Problems
384(4)
Using SPSS for Windows to Produce Ordinal-Level Measures of Association
388(5)
Chapter 15 Association Between Variables Measured at the Interval-Ratio Level
393(32)
15.1 Introduction
394 (1)
15.2 Scattergrams
394(3)
15.3 Regression and Prediction
397(3)
15.4 The Computation of a and b
400(3)
15.5 The Correlation Coefficient (Pearson's r)
403(1)
15.6 Interpreting the Correlation Coefficient: r2
404(4)
Application 15.1
405(3)
15.7 The Correlation Matrix
408(4)
Application 15.2
410(2)
15.8 Testing Pearson's r for Significance
412(1)
15.9 Interpreting Statistics: The Correlates of Crime
413(18)
Summary
416 (1)
Summary of Formulas
417 (1)
Glossary
417(1)
Multimedia Resources
418 (1)
Problems
418(3)
Using SPSS for Windows to Produce Pearson's r
421(4)
Part III Cumulative Exercises
425(4)
Part IV MULTIVARIATE TECHNIQUES 429(64)
Chapter 16 Elaborating Bivariate Tables
431(30)
16.1 Introduction
432(1)
16.2 Controlling for a Third Variable
432(3)
16.3 Interpreting Partial Tables
435(8)
Application 16.1
437(5)
Application 16.2
442 (1)
16.4 Partial Gamma (GI)
443(2)
16.5 Where Do Control Variables Come From?
445(1)
16.6 The Limitations of Elaborating Bivariate Tables
446(1)
16.7 Interpreting Statistics: Analyzing Civic Engagement
447(14)
Summary
451(1)
Summary of Formulas
451 (1)
Glossary
451 (1)
Multimedia Resources
452 (1)
Problems
452(6)
Using SPSS for Windows to Elaborate Bivariate Tables
458(3)
Chapter 17 Partial Correlation and Multiple Regression and Correlation
461(30)
17.1 Introduction
462(1)
17.2 Partial Correlation
462(4)
17.3 Multiple Regression: Predicting the Dependent Variable
466 (3)
17.4 Multiple Regression: Assessing the Effects of the Independent Variables
469(5)
Application 17.1
470(2)
Application 17.2
472(2)
17.5 Multiple Correlation
474(2)
17.6 Interpreting Statistics: Another Look at the Correlates of Crime
476 (5)
Reading Statistics 12: Regression and Correlation
478(3)
17.7 The Limitations of Multiple Regression and Correlation
481 (10)
Summary
482 (1)
Summary of Formulas
482 (1)
Glossary
483 (1)
Multimedia Resources
483 (1)
Problems
483(4)
Using SPSS for Windows for Regression Analysis
487(4)
Part IV Cumulative Exercises
491(2)
Appendix A Area Under the Normal Curve 493(4)
Appendix B Distribution of t 497(1)
Appendix C Distribution of Chi Square 498(1)
Appendix D Distribution of F 499(2)
Appendix E Using Statistics: Ideas for Research Projects 501(6)
Appendix F An Introduction to SPSS for Windows 507(8)
Appendix G Code Book for the General Social Survey, 2002 515(8)
Appendix H Basic Mathematics Review 523(9)
Answers to Odd-Numbered Computational Problems 532(12)
Glossary 544(6)
Index 550


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