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# Statistics Translated : A Step-by-Step Guide to Analyzing and Interpreting Data

**by**Terrell, Steven R.

### 9781462503018

1462503012

Paperback

4/3/2012

The Guilford Press

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## Summary

Written in a humorous and encouraging style, this text shows how the most common statistical tools can be used to answer interesting real-world questions, presented as mysteries to be solved. Engaging research examples lead the reader through a series of six steps, from identifying a researchable problem to stating a hypothesis, identifying independent and dependent variables, and selecting and interpreting appropriate statistical tests. All techniques are demonstrated both manually and with the help of SPSS software. The book provides students and others who may need to read and interpret statistically based research with the essential knowledge and skills needed to make decisions based on data. Useful pedagogical features include: checklists of key words and formulas in every chapter examples of SPSS screenshots used for analyzing data cautionary notes plus "putting it all together" section recaps end-of-chapter self-quizzes (with full answers and explanations) glossary of terms

## Author Biography

Steven R. Terrell, PhD, is Professor in the Graduate School of Computer and Information Sciences at Nova Southeastern University, where he teaches quantitative and qualitative research methods. He is the author of over 100 journal articles and presentations focusing primarily on student motivation and attrition at all levels of education. Dr. Terrell is active in the American Psychological Association and the American Counseling Association, and recently finished serving as the President of the American Educational Research Association\u2019s Online Teaching and Learning Special Interest Group.

## Table of Contents

**Introduction: You Do Not Need to be a Statistician to Understand Statistics!**

A Little Background

Many Students Don’t Know What They’re Getting Into

A Few Simple Steps

Summary

Do You Understand These Key Words and Phrases?

**1. Identifying a Research Problem and Stating Hypotheses**

Step 1: Identify a Problem That Can Be Investigated Using Inferential Statistics

Step 2: State a Hypothesis about the Problem You Are Investigating

Do You Understand These Key Words and Phrases?

Quiz Time!

**2. Identifying the Independent and Dependent Variables in a Hypothesis**

Step 3: Be Able to Identify the Independent Variable(s) and the Levels of the Independent Variable(s) in Your Hypothesis

Step 4: Be Able to Identify and Statistically Describe the Dependent Variable(s) in Your Hypothesis

Do You Understand These Key Words and Phrases?

Do You Understand These Formulas?

Quiz Time!

**3. Measures of Dispersion and Measures of Relative Standing**

Measures of Dispersion

Measures of Relative Standing

Summary of the Measures of Dispersion and Measures of Relative Standing

Do You Understand These Key Words and Phrases?

Do You Understand These Formulas?

Quiz Time!

**4. Graphically Describing the Dependent Variable**

Graphical Descriptive Statistics

The Normal Distribution

Do You Understand These Key Words and Phrases?

Quiz Time!

**5. Choosing the Right Statistical Test**

The Very Basics

How Are We Doing So Far?

Estimating Population Parameters Using Confidence Intervals

Predicting a Population Parameter Based on a Sample Statistic Using Confidence Intervals

Testing Hypotheses about a Population Parameter Based on a Sample Statistic

Testing a One-Tailed Hypothesis

Testing a One-Tailed "Less Than" Hypothesis

Summarizing What We Just Said

Be Careful When Changing Your Alpha Values

The Heart of Inferential Statistics

Probability Values

Step 5 Summary of Choosing the Right Statistical Test

Do You Understand These Formulas and Symbols?

Quiz Time!

**6. The One-Sample t-Test**

Welcome to the Guinness Breweries

The t Distribution

Let’s Look at a Directional Hypothesis

One More Time

Let’s Use the Six-Step Model

Summary of the One-Sample t-Test

Do You Understand These Key Words and Phrases?

Do You Know These Formulas?

Quiz Time!

**7. The Independent-Sample t-Test**

If We Have Samples from Two Independent Populations, How Do We Know If They Are Significantly Different from One Another?

Putting the Independent-Sample t-Test to Work

Summary of the Independent-Sample t-Test

Do You Understand These Key Words and Phrases?

Do You Understand These Formulas?

Quiz Time!

**8. The Dependent-Sample t-Test**

That’s Great, But How Do We Test Our Hypothesis?

Independence versus Dependence

Testing a Two-Tailed Hypothesis

Let’s Move Forward and Use Our Six-Step Model

The Case of the Unexcused Students

The Case of Never Saying Never

Summary of the Dependent Sample t-Test

Do You Understand These Key Words and Phrases?

Do You Understand These Formulas?

Quiz Time!

**9. The Analysis of Variance**

Understanding the ANOVA

The Different Types of ANOVAs

Assumptions of the ANOVA

Calculating the ANOVA

The Factorial ANOVA

Interpreting the Interaction p Value

Summary of the ANOVA

Do You Understand These Key Words and Phrases?

Do You Understand These Formulas?

Quiz Time!

**10. The Chi-Square Tests**

The One-Way Chi-Square Test

The Factorial Chi-Square Test (the Chi-Square Test of Independence)

Computing the Chi-Square Statistic

The Chi-Square Test of Independence

Computing Chi-square for the Test of Independence

Post-Hoc Tests Following the Chi-Square

Summary of the Chi-Square Tests

Do You Understand These Key Words and Phrases?

Do You Understand These Formulas?

Quiz Time!

**11. The Correlational Procedures**

Understanding the Idea of Correlations

Interpreting Pearson’s r

A Nonparametric Correlational Procedure

Linear Regression

Summary of the Correlational Procedures

Do You Understand These Key Words and Phrases?

Do You Understand These Formulas?

Quiz Time!

**Conclusion. Have We Accomplished What We Set Out to Do?**

Statistics in a New Light

A Limited Set of Statistical Techniques

The Use of Statistical Software Packages

A Straightforward Approach

Appendix A: Area Under the Normal Curve Table (Critical Values of z)

Appendix B. Critical Values of t

Appendix C. Critical Values of F When Alpha = .01

Appendix D. Critical Values of F When Alpha = .-05

Appendix E. Critical Values of Chi-Square

Appendix F. Critical Values of F When Alpha = .10

Appendix G. Selecting the Right Statistical Test

Appendix G. Selecting the Right Statistical Test

Glossary

Answers to Quiz Time