Introduction: Methods, Material, and Moments to Remember | p. 1 |

The What and How of Statistics | p. 4 |

Before We Begin | p. 5 |

A World of Information | p. 5 |

Levels of Measurement | p. 8 |

Samples and Populations | p. 12 |

The Purposes of Statistical Analysis | p. 14 |

Descriptive Statistics | p. 15 |

Inferential Statistics | p. 15 |

Chapter Summary | p. 17 |

Some Other Things You Should Know | p. 18 |

Key Terms | p. 19 |

Chapter Problems | p. 19 |

Describing Data and Distributions | p. 21 |

Before We Begin | p. 22 |

Measures of Central Tendency | p. 22 |

The Mean | p. 22 |

The Median | p. 26 |

The Mode | p. 28 |

Measures of Variability or Dispersion | p. 30 |

The Range | p. 30 |

Deviations From the Mean | p. 31 |

The Mean Deviation | p. 34 |

The Variance | p. 36 |

The Standard Deviation | p. 39 |

n Versus n-1 | p. 46 |

Chapter Summary | p. 50 |

Some Other Things You Should Know | p. 50 |

Key Terms | p. 51 |

Chapter Problems | p. 51 |

The Shape of Distributions | p. 54 |

Before We Begin | p. 55 |

The Basic Elements | p. 55 |

Beyond the Basics: Comparisons and Conclusions | p. 58 |

A Special Curve | p. 63 |

Chapter Summary | p. 70 |

Some Other Things You Should Know | p. 71 |

Key Terms | p. 72 |

Chapter Problems | p. 72 |

The Normal Curve | p. 74 |

Before We Begin | p. 75 |

Real-World Normal Curves | p. 76 |

Into the Theoretical World | p. 79 |

The Table of Areas Under the Normal Curve | p. 82 |

Finally, an Application | p. 89 |

Chapter Summary | p. 93 |

Some Other Things You Should Know | p. 94 |

Key Terms | p. 94 |

Chapter Problems | p. 95 |

Four Fundamental Concepts | p. 96 |

Before We Begin | p. 97 |

Fundamental Concept #1: Random Sampling | p. 97 |

Fundamental Concept #2: Sampling Error | p. 100 |

Fundamental Concept #3: The Sampling Distribution of Sample Means | p. 103 |

Fundamental Concept #4: The Central Limit Theorem | p. 105 |

Chapter Summary | p. 110 |

Some Other Things You Should Know | p. 111 |

Key Terms | p. 112 |

Chapter Problems | p. 112 |

Confidence Intervals | p. 114 |

Before We Begin | p. 115 |

Confidence Interval for the Mean | p. 115 |

Confidence Interval for the Mean With ¿ Known | p. 116 |

An Application | p. 117 |

Reviewing Z Values | p. 118 |

Z Values and the Width of the Interval | p. 120 |

Bringing in the Standard Error of the Mean | p. 120 |

The Relevance of the Central Limit Theorem and the Standard Error | p. 123 |

Confidence and Interval Width | p. 126 |

A Brief Recap | p. 128 |

Confidence Interval for the Mean With ¿ Unknown | p. 129 |

Estimating the Standard Error of the Mean | p. 129 |

The Family of t Distributions | p. 132 |

The Table for the Family of t Distributions | p. 134 |

An Application | p. 138 |

A Final Comment About the Interpretation of a Confidence Interval for the Mean | p. 140 |

A Final Comment About Z Versus t | p. 141 |

Confidence Intervals for Proportions | p. 142 |

An Application | p. 143 |

Margin of Error | p. 145 |

Chapter Summary | p. 147 |

Some Other Things You Should Know | p. 149 |

Key Terms | p. 150 |

Chapter Problems | p. 150 |

Hypothesis Testing With a Single Sample Mean | p. 155 |

Before We Begin | p. 156 |

Setting the Stage | p. 156 |

A Hypothesis as a Statement of Your Expectations: The Case of the Null Hypothesis | p. 157 |

Single Sample Test With ¿ Known | p. 159 |

Refining the Null and Phrasing It the Right Way | p. 160 |

The Logic of the Test | p. 161 |

Applying the Test | p. 163 |

Levels of Significance, Critical Values, and the Critical Region | p. 166 |

But What If… | p. 170 |

But What If We're Wrong? | p. 171 |

Single Sample Test With ¿ Unknown | p. 176 |

Applying the Test | p. 177 |

Some Variations on a Theme | p. 178 |

Chapter Summary | p. 179 |

Some Other Things You Should Know | p. 180 |

Key Terms | p. 181 |

Chapter Problems | p. 181 |

Hypothesis Testing With Two Samples (Mean Difference and Difference Between Means) | p. 185 |

Before We Begin | p. 186 |

Related Samples | p. 186 |

The Logic of the Test | p. 187 |

The Null Hypothesis | p. 191 |

Combining the Logic and the Null | p. 191 |

The Estimate of the Standard Error of the Mean Difference | p. 192 |

Applying the Test | p. 193 |

Interpreting the Results | p. 193 |

Some Additional Examples | p. 194 |

Independent Samples | p. 195 |

The Logic of the Test | p. 196 |

The Null Hypothesis | p. 199 |

Combining the Logic and the Null | p. 199 |

The Estimate of the Standard Error of the Difference of Means | p. 199 |

Applying the Test | p. 202 |

Interpreting the Results | p. 202 |

Some Additional Examples | p. 203 |

Chapter Summary | p. 204 |

Some Other Things You Should Know | p. 205 |

Key Terms | p. 206 |

Chapter Problems | p. 206 |

Beyond the Null Hypothesis | p. 210 |

Before We Begin | p. 211 |

Research or Alternative Hypotheses | p. 211 |

One-Tailed and Two-Tailed Test Scenarios | p. 213 |

Testing a Non-directional Research Hypothesis | p. 214 |

Testing a Directional Research Hypothesis | p. 217 |

Power and Effect | p. 221 |

Chapter Summary | p. 225 |

Some Other Things You Should Know | p. 226 |

Key Terms | p. 226 |

Chapter Problems | p. 227 |

Analysis of Variance | p. 229 |

Before We Begin | p. 231 |

The Logic of ANOVA | p. 231 |

From Curves to Data Distributions | p. 233 |

The Different Means | p. 234 |

From Different Means to Different Types of Variation | p. 236 |

The Null Hypothesis | p. 238 |

The Application | p. 239 |

Calculating the Within-Groups Sum of Squares (SS_{W}) | p. 240 |

Calculating the Between-Groups Sum of Squares (SS_{B}) | p. 243 |

From Sums of Squares to Estimates of Variance | p. 245 |

Calculating the F Ratio | p. 249 |

The Interpretation | p. 250 |

Interpretation of the F Ratio | p. 250 |

Post Hoc Testing | p. 252 |

Chapter Summary | p. 256 |

Some Other Things You Should Know | p. 257 |

Key Terms | p. 258 |

Chapter Problems | p. 258 |

The Chi-Square Test | p. 263 |

Before We Begin | p. 264 |

The Chi-Square Test of Independence | p. 264 |

The Logic of the Test | p. 265 |

A Focus on the Departure From Chance | p. 269 |

The Null Hypothesis | p. 270 |

The Application | p. 271 |

The Formula | p. 275 |

The Calculation | p. 275 |

Conclusion and Interpretation | p. 276 |

Chapter Summary | p. 278 |

Some Other Things You Should Know | p. 279 |

Key Terms | p. 279 |

Chapter Problems | p. 280 |

Correlation and Regression | p. 283 |

Before We Begin | p. 284 |

Scatter Plots | p. 284 |

Linear Associations: Direction and Strength | p. 286 |

Other Types of Association | p. 288 |

Correlation Analysis | p. 289 |

Two Variables: X and Y | p. 290 |

The Logic of Correlation | p. 292 |

The Formula for Pearson's r | p. 293 |

Application | p. 296 |

Interpretation | p. 298 |

An Additional Step: Testing the Null | p. 300 |

Conclusion and Interpretation | p. 301 |

Regression Analysis | p. 302 |

An Application | p. 302 |

The Logic of Prediction and the Line of Best Fit | p. 304 |

The Regression Equation | p. 306 |

The Standard Error of the Estimate | p. 309 |

Chapter Summary | p. 311 |

Some Other Things You Should Know | p. 311 |

Key Terms | p. 312 |

Chapter Problems | p. 313 |

Table of Areas Under the Normal Curve (Distribution of Z) | p. 318 |

Family of t Distributions (Two-Tailed Test) | p. 320 |

Family of t Distributions (One-Tailed Test) | p. 321 |

Distribution of F (.05 Level of Significance) | p. 322 |

Distribution of F (.01 Level of Significance) | p. 323 |

Distribution of Q (.05 Level of Significance) | p. 324 |

Distribution of Q (.01 Level of Significance) | p. 325 |

Critical Values for Chi-Square (X^{2}) | p. 326 |

Critical Values of r (Correlation Coefficient) | p. 327 |

Data Sets and Computer-Based Data Analysis | p. 328 |

It Usually Starts with Rows and Columns | p. 328 |

Good News; Words of Caution; It's Up to You | p. 332 |

Some of the More Common Formulas Used in the Text | p. 334 |

Answers to Chapter Problems | p. 337 |

Glossary | p. 343 |

References | p. 349 |

Index | p. 351 |

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