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The Student's Companion to the Theologians



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This companion brings together a team of contemporary theologians and writers to provide substantial introductions to the key people who shaped the Christian story and tradition.

  • A substantial reference work, bringing together over 75 entries on the most important and influential theologians in the history of Christianity
  • Structured accessibly around five periods: early centuries, middle ages, reformation period, the Enlightenment, and the twentieth-century to the present
  • A to Z entries range from substantial essays to shorter overviews, each of which locates the theologian in their immediate context, summarizes the themes of their work, and explains their significance
  • Covers a broad span of theologians, from Augustine to Thomas Aquinas, through to C. S. Lewis, James Cone, and Rosemary Radford Reuther
  • Provides profiles of key Catholic, protestant, evangelical, and progressive theologians
  • Includes a useful timeline to orientate the reader, reading lists, and a glossary of key terms

Author Biography

Ian S. Markham is the Dean and President of Virginia Theological Seminary. Awards include the Robertson Fellow 2006, Teape Lecturer in India 2004, Claggett Fellow attached to Washington National Cathedral in 2000, and Frank Woods Fellow at Trinity College, Melbourne in 1997. He is the author and editor of numerous books, including The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to the Anglican Communion (edited with J. Barney Hawkins IV, Justyn Terry & Leslie Nuñez Steffensen, 2013), Against Atheism: Why Dawkins, Hitchens, and Harris Are Fundamentally Wrong (2010), A World Religions Reader, 3rd edition (2009), Understanding Christian Doctrine (2007), and Do Morals Matter (2006), all published by Wiley-Blackwell.

Table of Contents

Notes on Contributors viii

Preface xiii

Acknowledgments xv

Timeline xvi

Early Centuries 1

The Apocalypse of John 3

Arius (c.256–336) 6

Athanasius (c.295–373) 16

Augustine of Hippo (c.354–430) 26

Boethius (c.475–c.524) 31

The Cappadocians (c.329–c.524) 43

Cyril of Alexandria (c.378–444) and Nestorius of Constantinople (c.381–c.451) 48

Ephrem the Syrian (c.306–73) 60

Ignatius of Antioch (c.35–c.110) 71

Irenaeus of Lyons (2nd century) 74

John the Evangelist 79

Marcion (c.85–c.160) 89

Maximos the Confessor (580–662) 93

Origen (c.185–254) 103

The Apostle Paul 113

The Synoptic Evangelists: Mark, Matthew, and Luke 119

Tertullian (Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus) (c.155–c.225) 128

Middle Ages 137

Peter Abelard (1079–1142) 139

St Anselm of Canterbury (1033–1109) 142

Thomas Aquinas, OP (c.1224–74) 153

Bernard of Clairvaux (1090–1153) 159

Bonaventure (c.1217–74) 162

Duns Scotus (c.1266–1308) 171Julian of Norwich (1342–c.1416) 181

William Ockham (c.1280–c.1349) 187

Reformation Period 197

John Calvin (1509–64) 199

Richard Hooker (1554–1600) 204

Martin Luther (1483–1546) 208

Philip Melanchthon (1497–1560) 216

The Reformation 219

Teresa of Ávila (1515–82) 227

Enlightenment and Modern Period 237

Donald Baillie (1887–1954) 239

John Baillie (1886–1960) 245

Karl Barth (1886–1968) 250

Emil Brunner (1889–1966) 256

John Nelson Darby (1800–1882) 262

Georges Vasilievich Florovsky (1893–1979) 265

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770–1831) 276

Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) 287

Søren Kierkegaard (1813–55) 290

C. S. (Clive Staples) Lewis (1898–1963) 295

John Henry Newman (1801–90) 299

Reinhold Niebuhr (1892–1971) 310

Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher (1768–1834) 320

Gottfried Thomasius (1802–75) 326

Paul Tillich (1886–1965) 338

B. B. Warfield (1851–1921) 350

Twentieth Century to Present 353

Hans Urs von Balthasar (1905–88) 355

Serge Laugier de Beaurecueil (1917–2005) 367

Black Theology 371

Dietrich Bonhoeffer (1906–45) 378

James Cone (1938– ) 390

Austin Farrer (1904–68) 393

Hans Frei (1922–88) 397

Colin Gunton (1941–2003) 400

Gustavo Gutiérrez (1928– ) 402

Stanley Hauerwas (1940– ) 406

John Hick (1922–2012) 416

Elizabeth A. Johnson, CSJ (1941– ) 427

Martin Luther King, Jr. (1929–68) 431

Liberal Theology 438

George Lindbeck (1923– ) 451

Donald MacKinnon (1913–94) 454

John Milbank (1952– ) 458

Jürgen Moltmann (1926– ) 461

Richard John Neuhaus (1936–2009) 472

James Packer (1926– ) 475

Wolfhart Pannenberg (1928– ) 478

Charles Philip Price (1920–99) 486

Process Theology 491

Karl Rahner (1904–84) 502

Rosemary Radford Ruether (1936– ) 512

Elisabeth Schüssler Fiorenza (1938– ) 515

Dorothee Sölle (1929–2003) 518

Richard Swinburne (1934– ) 522

Vatican II 527

Keith Ward (1938– ) 541

Glossary 546

Index 550

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