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Successful Inclusion for Educational Leaders,9780130404886
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Successful Inclusion for Educational Leaders

by ; ;
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780130404886

ISBN10:
0130404888
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2002
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon

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Summary

This book outlines and explains the requirements of special education law as it applies to regular and special education. It tackles the difficult and sometimes complicated issues of inclusion, student discipline, IEP development, transitioning, and working with parents. Its strength is presenting special education law in easy-to-understand language and its use of best practices in implementing the law.Inclusion Basics; Working with Parents and Parent Rights; Due Process Hearings, Mediation, and Complaints; Identification and Evaluation of Students; Individualized Education Programs; Placement; Preschool and Infant and Toddler Programs; Secondary School Considerations; Discipline; Student Relationships; Staff Relationships and Staffing Patterns; Budget and Funding; Autism; Emotional Disturbance/Behavior Disorders (EBD); Mental Retardation/Mental Disabilities (MD); Specific Learning Disability (LD); Orthopedic Impairment/Physical Disabilities; Speech or Language Impairment; Other Health Impairment (OHI); and Low Incidence Disabilities.

Table of Contents

PART I LEGAL AND POLICY ISSUES 1(210)
Inclusion Basics
3(20)
Chapter Preview
3(3)
Basic Special Education and Inclusion Considerations
6(9)
Approaches to Compliance
15(2)
New Challenges and Thoughts
17(6)
Working with Parents and Parent Rights
23(22)
Chapter Preview
24(2)
The Role of Parents
26(1)
Legal Issues
27(3)
Parental Rights---Practical Safeguards
30(4)
Approaches to Improving Communication
34(3)
Parent Services
37(4)
School Choice and Its Implications
41(1)
Conclusion
42(3)
Due Process Hearings, Meditation, and Complaints
45(14)
Chapter Preview
46(2)
The Shadow of Due Process Hearings
48(1)
Legal Issues
49(3)
Alternative Approaches to Resolving Problems
52(2)
Preparation for the Hearing
54(2)
School's Defense
56(1)
Conclusion
57(2)
Identification and Evaluation of Students
59(16)
Chapter Preview
60(2)
Child Find
62(1)
Evaluations
62(2)
Legal Issues
64(2)
Problems of Identification, Evaluation, and Bias
66(2)
Approaches to Resolving Problems
68(4)
Conclusion
72(3)
Individualized Education Programs (IEPs)
75(26)
Chapter Preview
76(2)
The IEP: Key to the IDEA
78(1)
Legal Issues
78(7)
Elements of an IEP
85(8)
Other IEP Issues
93(2)
Approaches to Resolving Problems
95(2)
Conclusion
97(1)
View from the Court Bench
97(4)
Placement
101(32)
Chapter Preview
102(2)
Problems in Placement
104(1)
Legal Issues
104(4)
Least Restrictive Environment
108(3)
The Philosophy of Inclusion
111(2)
Inclusion Decision-Making
113(4)
Procedural Safeguards
117(1)
Extended School Year (ESY) Services
117(1)
Private School Placement
118(1)
Approaches to Resolving Problems
119(9)
Conclusion
128(5)
Infant and Toddler and Preschool Programs
133(18)
Chapter Preview
134(2)
Emerging Early Childhood and Preschool Program
136(3)
Legal Aspects
139(3)
Approaches to Resolving Problems
142(6)
Conclusion
148(3)
Secondary School Considerations
151(30)
Chapter Preview
152(2)
Coping with Secondary School
154(1)
Legal Issues
155(1)
Transition in the IEP
156(3)
Importance of the IEP in Inclusion
159(5)
Career and Vocational Education in the IEP
164(7)
The Principal's Role
171(1)
The Question of Diplomas, Transcripts, and Honor Rolls
172(2)
Nonacademic Considerations
174(2)
Transfer of Rights in Some States---Age of Majority
176(1)
General Considerations
176(1)
Conclusion
177(4)
Discipline
181(30)
Chapter Preview
182(3)
Concerns for Educational Leaders
185(1)
Legal History Under the Act
185(1)
Legal Requirements
186(13)
The IEP Process
199(1)
The Continuing Dilemma
199(2)
Approaches to Resolving Problems
201(5)
Cultural Awareness
206(1)
Conclusion
207(1)
View from the Court Bench
208(3)
PART II ADMINISTRATIVE ISSUES 211(64)
Student Relationships
213(16)
Chapter Preview
214(1)
Peer Interactions
215(2)
The Inclusion Model
217(2)
Cooperative Learning Activities
219(3)
Collaborative Problem-solving
222(1)
Peer Tutoring
223(2)
Attitude Change Programs
225(1)
Conclusion
226(3)
Staff Relationships and Staffing Patterns
229(24)
Chapter Preview
230(2)
Inherent Staffing Issues in the IDEA
232(5)
Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) Guidelines Personnel Functions
237(1)
Collaborative Roles
238(6)
New Roles for Educators
244(1)
Teacher Associates
245(2)
Comprehension System of Personnel Development
247(1)
Conclusion
248(5)
Budget and Funding
253(22)
Chapter Preview
254(2)
Coping with Budgets and Funding
256(1)
Legal Issues
256(4)
Relationship Between Services and Costs
260(1)
A Taxonomy of Special Education Finance
261(3)
Sources of Revenue
264(6)
Preparing Budgets
270(1)
Funding Trends
271(1)
Conclusion
272(3)
PART III EXCEPTIONALITY IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS 275(82)
Autism
277(10)
Chapter Preview
278(1)
Federal Definition of Autism
279(1)
Referral and Initial Assessment
279(1)
Characteristics of Autism
279(1)
Instruction
280(2)
Related Services
282(1)
Inclusion Strategies
283(4)
Emotional Distrubance/Behavioral Disorders (EBD)
287(12)
Chapter Preview
288(1)
Federal Definition of EBD
289(1)
Referral and Initial Assessment
289(1)
Characteristics of EBD
290(1)
Instruction
291(1)
Behavior Management
292(1)
Related Services
293(1)
Inclusion Strategies
294(5)
Mental Disabilities or Retardation
299(8)
Chapter Preview
300(1)
Federal Definition of Mental Disability or Retardation
301(1)
Referral and Initial Assessment
301(1)
Characteristics of Mental Disabilities
302(1)
Instruction
302(1)
Related Services
303(1)
Inclusion Strategies
304(3)
Specific Learning Disability
307(8)
Chapter Preview
308(1)
Federal Definition of Learning Disability
309(1)
Referral and Initial Assessment
309(1)
Characteristics of Learning Disabilities
310(1)
Instruction
310(1)
Related Services
311(1)
Inclusion Strategies
311(4)
Orthopedic Impairments (Physical Disabilities)
315(10)
Chapter Preview
316(1)
Federal Definition of Orthopedic Impairments
317(1)
Referral and Initial Assessment
317(1)
Characteristics of Physical Disabilities
317(2)
Instruction
319(1)
Related Services
319(2)
Inclusion Strategies
321(4)
Speech and Language Impairment
325(6)
Chapter Preview
326(1)
Federal Definition of Speech and Language Impairment
327(1)
Referral and Initial Assessment
327(1)
Characteristics of Speech and Language Impairment
327(1)
Instruction and Related Services
328(1)
Inclusion Strategies
329(2)
Other Health Impairments (OHI)
331(10)
Chapter Preview
332(1)
Federal Definition of OHI
333(1)
Referral and Initial Assessment
333(1)
Characteristics of OHI
333(2)
Instruction
335(1)
Inclusion Strategies
336(5)
Low-Incidence Disabilities
341(16)
Chapter Preview
342(2)
TBI
344(2)
Visual Impairments Including Blindness
346(2)
Deafness and Hearing Impairment
348(3)
Multiple Handicaps and Deafness-Blindness
351(6)
Appendix 357(26)
Name Index 383(8)
Subject Index 391

Excerpts

Nearly 25 years ago, the Congress and president of the United States declared the public policy of this nation to be one of access to public education forallchildren. Only when the educational needs of a child with disabilities cannot be appropriately met with peers in a public school educational setting may the child be educated in alternative settings. Even segregated settings must provide for meaningful interaction with typical peers.This enunciation of public policy has resulted in a degree of tension between some educators who would exclude those students who present challenges to their traditional teaching methods and those educators, who in the absence of a justifiable educational reason, disavow the exclusion of children from an educational setting with their peers. This tension is most easily identified in the outworn and legally questionable concept of "mainstreaming." Although the laws of the nation and most states require that students with disabilities be educated in regular education settings "to the maximum extent appropriate," a contrary practice was established. It recognized a "two box" model of regular education and special education, in which both seldom occurred in the same place at the same time. Instead, under the mainstreaming concept, it was expected that children with disabilities would be educated with peers without disabilities only when they could exhibit the proper conduct and could acquire an academic level commensurate with their peers. In the minds of many educators, students with disabilities were expected to "earn" their way into a regular class setting.In the late 1980s and early 1990s, after 15 years under the national legislation, court interpretations suddenly collided with educators' complacent thinking. The courts ruled that no matter what the concept was called, the process had to be revised. Instead of a child with disabilities having to earn the right to be in a classroom with peers, all considerations of child placement were to begin with the child being placed in the regular class or activity setting. Only when the regular school setting was deemed not appropriate, for an educationally justifiable reason, could an education for the child even be considered in a special setting.No court interpretation or administrative agency interpretation of special education law has ever found that "full inclusion" (all children with disabilities educated in the regular education classroom they would attend if not disabled) is required. Although the authors of this book salute those who attempt full inclusion, they do not endorse it in its strictest sense as an educationally viable concept. There are some students with disabilities whose needs are such that their presence in a regular class or activity setting is not educationally justifiable or appropriate.The current approach of presuming regular education placement as the first choice has caught many educators, in both special and regular education, unprepared. This was not the paradigm in which most educators had been trained. This was not the system in which many had spent their professional life. That was not what many were ready to implement. Thus, a large part of new interpretations and understandings of education for children with disabilities has been either rejected or ignored by many practitioners, in both regular and special education.We sincerely believe that much of the reluctance of educators to embrace and practice what has been legally mandated--but largely ignored for 25 years--is not based in laziness, uncaring attitude, or evil intent. Rather it is based in inexperience and the inertia of organizational structures. The purpose ofSuccessful Inclusion for Educational Leadersis to provide background information on legal mandates, with the current status of law stated as clearly as possible, and to point toward successful solutions based in research and best prac


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