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Symbolic Interactionism : An Introduction, an Interpretation, an Integration,9780132276917

Symbolic Interactionism : An Introduction, an Interpretation, an Integration

by
Edition:
9th
ISBN13:

9780132276917

ISBN10:
0132276917
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2007
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $51.20
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Summary

Using a unique step-by-step, integrated approach, Symbolic Interactionism: An Introduction, an Interpretation organizes the basic concepts of symbolic interactionism in such a way that the reader clearly understands the concepts and is able toapply them to their own lives. It emphasizes theactiveside of human beings-humans as definers and users of the environment, humans as problem solvers and in control of their own actions-and it shows students how society makesus, and how we in turnshapesociety.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
1 The Nature of Perspective
1(13)
New Perspectives Mean New Realities
6(3)
Perspectives Are Socially Created
9(1)
Are All Perspectives Created Equal?
9(2)
Summary
11(1)
Some Examples of Perspectives: Informal and Formal Perspectives
11(3)
2 The Perspective of Social Science
14(14)
Five Ways of Knowing
14(1)
Science as a Perspective
15(2)
Social Science as a Perspective
17(9)
Sociology As a Perspective
18(2)
Psychology As a Perspective
20(1)
Commonalities and Differences Between Sociology and Psychology
21(1)
The Perspective of Social Psychology in Psychology
22(2)
The Perspective of Social Psychology in Sociology
24(2)
Summary
26(2)
3 Symbolic Interactionism As a Perspective
28(15)
Introduction: Five Central Ideas
29(1)
General Historical Background of Symbolic Interactionism
30(5)
Mead and Pragmatism
31(1)
Mead and Darwin
32(2)
Mead and Behaviorism
34(1)
A Contrast with Other Perspectives: Warriner
35(1)
Shibutani: Reference Groups as Perspectives
36(3)
Attitudes Versus Perspectives
39(2)
Summary
41(2)
4 The Meaning of the Symbol
43(16)
The Nature of Reality
44(2)
Importance of a Socially Defined Reality
45(1)
Objects as "Social Objects"
46(2)
The Meaning of Symbols
48(3)
Some Types of Symbols
51(1)
Language
52(2)
Words Are Categories
53(1)
Nonsymbolic Animals
54(3)
How Animals Approach Environment
55(1)
Symbols Versus Signs
56(1)
Summary
57(2)
5 The Importance of the Symbol
59(12)
Symbols and Social Reality
60(1)
Symbols and Human Social Life
61(2)
Symbols and the Individual
63(6)
Naming, Memory, Categorizing
64(1)
Perception
64(1)
Thinking
65(1)
Deliberation and Problem Solving
65(1)
Transcendence of Space and Time
66(1)
Transcendence of One's Own Person 67 Abstract Reality
67(1)
Creativity
68(1)
Self-Direction
68(1)
The Importance of Symbols: A Summary
69(2)
6 The Nature of the Self
71(22)
Self as a Social Object
72(2)
Self as Social: Four Social Stages for Self-Development
74(4)
The Preparatory Stage
75(1)
The Play Stage
75(1)
The Game Stage
76(1)
The Reference Group Stage
77(1)
Selves as Ever-Changing Social Objects
78(1)
Self as Object
79(1)
1. Action Toward Self: Self-Communication
80(1)
2. Action Toward Self: Self-Perception
81(7)
Self-Perception: Assessment of Our Own Action
81(1)
Self-Perception: The Development of Self-Concept
82(1)
Self-Perception: Self-Judgment
82(4)
Self-Perception: Identity
86(2)
3. Action Toward Self: Self-Control
88(2)
Central Ideas about the Self
90(1)
The "I" and the "Me"
91(2)
7 The Human Mind
93(11)
The Meaning of Mind: Symbolic Interaction Toward Self
94(1)
Mind Action: Making Indications Toward Self
95(1)
Mind Action: The Ability to Control Overt Action
96(1)
Mind Action: The Ability to Problem Solve
97(3)
Mind Action Is Part of All Social Interaction
100(2)
Summary
102(2)
8 Taking the Role of the Other
104(12)
Imagination and Taking the Role of the Other
105(1)
Symbols, Self, Mind, and Taking the Role of the Other
106(1)
The Meaning of "Taking the Role of the Other"
107(2)
Taking the Role of the Other: Significant Others, Generalized Other, and Others in the Situation
109(2)
The Importance of Taking the Role of the Other
111(3)
Summary
114(2)
9 Human Action
116(24)
The "Stream of Action"
118(2)
The Act
120(2)
Action, Goals, and Social Objects
122(1)
Mead's Four Stages of the Act
123(3)
Another Look at Mead's Four Stages of the Act
125(1)
Locating the "Cause" of Human Action
126(2)
The Definition of the Situation
128(2)
Habitual Action
130(1)
The Role of the Past in Human Action
131(1)
The Role of the Future in Human Action
132(1)
Action and Motives
133(2)
Action and Emotions
135(2)
Human Action and Free Choice
137(1)
Summary
138(2)
10 Social Interaction 140(14)
The Meaning of Social Interaction
141(3)
Social Interaction Develops Out of Social Action
141(1)
Social Interaction Is Ongoing Social Action Among Actors
142(2)
The General Importance of Social Interaction
144(1)
1. Social Interaction Forms Our Basic Human Qualities
144(1)
2. Social Interaction Is an Importance Cause of Human Action
145(3)
3. Social Interaction Shapes Identities
148(5)
4. Social Interaction Creates Society
153(1)
Summary
153(1)
11 Society 154(20)
Two Views of Society
155(1)
Groups, Organizations, Social Worlds, and Societies
156(1)
1. Society Is Symbolic Interaction
157(2)
2. Society Is Symbolic Interaction That Is Characterized by Cooperative Action
159(3)
3. Society Is Social Interaction That Is Symbolic, That Is Characterized by Cooperation, and That Develops Culture
162(5)
Culture Is a Shared Perspective
162(1)
Culture Is a Generalized Other
163(1)
Culture Maintains Society
164(1)
Culture Is Ever-changing
165(2)
The Meaning of Society: A Summary
167(2)
The Individual Exists Within Many Societies
169(2)
The Active Human Being in Society
171(1)
Summary
172(2)
12 Erving Goffman 174(15)
Goffman and Symbolic Interactionism
174(1)
Drama in Interaction
175(4)
Impressions and Performance
175(2)
Performance Teams
177(1)
Reaction to Goffman's Dramaturgical View
178(1)
The Self of Social Interaction
179(3)
Goffman's View of Self
179(1)
Social Control and Self
180(2)
Rituals of Interaction
182(3)
The Meaning of Ritual
182(2)
The Importance of Ritual
184(1)
The Environments of Social Interaction
185(2)
Summary
187(2)
13 Symbolic Interactionism: A Final Assessment 189(28)
Symbolic Interactionism and Human Freedom: A Review
190(2)
Symbolic Interactionism and Science
192(4)
Symbolic Interactionism: Some Representative Studies
196(9)
A Study of Pregnant Drug Users
196(1)
A Study of Sam's Definition of Pain and Injury
197(1)
A Study of Identity Formation in a Maximum-Security Prison
198(2)
A Study of First-time Tattooees
200(1)
A Study of Compulsive Gamblers
201(1)
A Study of Student Anxiety: Not Studying Hegel So Much as Doing Laundry
202(3)
Symbolic Interactionism: Some Examples of Application
205(9)
An Understanding of Society
206(1)
An Understanding of Racism in Society
207(2)
An Understanding of Gender Differences
209(2)
An Understanding of Childhood Socialization
211(2)
Symbolic Interactionism: A View of the College Experience
213(1)
Symbolic Interactionism: A Final Look at Application
213(1)
The Importance of the Symbolic Interactionist Perspective
214(2)
Summary
216(1)
References 217(12)
Index 229

Excerpts

Preface For many students a book entitled symbolic interactionism” might be too academic, or too much like jargon, or a forbidding mystery. To me, however, it is exactly on the money. That is because this whole book is a description of a social psychology that focuses on the importance of interaction as the basis for what individuals and societies are made of, and that interaction is always symbolic. I like symbolic interactionism because it addresses so many of the issues that are important for those people who wrestle with what the human being is and why the human being acts. It is a unique perspective in that it is part of what we call social science, yet it is very probablistic in its predictions. That is, it does not normally identify a single cause” when it understands human action. Instead, its studies focus on the history of action, the many decisions and choices people make as they act. Interaction with others is almost always important, but interaction takes us one way, then the other. It treats the human being not as a passive responder to the environment, a being who is conditioned, who is pushed around by environment and biology. Instead, people are active in their environment, determining to a great extent what they do, think, and become. Symbolic interactionism is a context within which we can understand both the uniqueness of humankind and the ways human beings are similar to to other animals. The first edition of this book attempted to fulfill a promise I made to myself in graduate school: to write a clear, organized, and interesting introduction to symbolic interaction, a perspective that seemed to have interesting ideas and studies, but did not seem to hold together. Integration of the ideas became central to this book. I hope you will find this perspective interesting, organized, and useful. This is the ninth edition. Each time I attempt to improve on what I have written before, it brings a certain humility to my work. Each time I revise I wonder hhow in the world I could ever have written what I had previously. The publisher this time chose excellent reviewers, and many of their suggestions were made. I try to update, correct errors and ambiguities, and reorganize chapters so that they make better sense. In this edition I have made changes in almost every chapter, and I have redone large parts of chapters 4 (The Meaning of Symbols), 6 (The Nature of the Self), 9 (Human Action) and 10 (Social Interaction). Because of a suggestion by a reviewer I decided to add interesting and relevant introductions to each chapter, highlighting the importance of what the chapter is. I believe this makes the book far more attractive to the student and is a good pedagogical tool. Always I try to appeal to students who think sociologically and students who are attracted to the world of ideas. This book is an attempt to contribute to the mystery of what human beings are, their essence. I dedicate this book to my wife, Susan, who continues to be my best friend and greatest supporter. Joel M. Charon Professor Emeritus Minnesota State University Moorhead


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