Technical Communication

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  • Edition: 11th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 12/29/2014
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's
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Instructors know that Mike Markel’s Technical Communication will prepare their students for any workplace writing situation. No other text offers such a comprehensive introduction to the field while still delivering practical, effective support for students at every level. The eleventh edition has been thoroughly revised to reframe the work of technical communicators in the context of today’s highly collaborative, rapidly evolving digital practices. Fresh, social-media driven sample documents and coverage of the latest tools and technologies ensure that students work with the kinds of processes and products they’ll encounter on the job.

The text is now accompanied and enhanced by LaunchPad for Technical Communication, an online course space with an interactive e-book, multimedia sample documents for analysis, tutorials on digital writing tools, a new test bank, Learning Curve adaptive quizzes that give students more ways to master the material, and much more. Get all our great course-specific materials in one fully customizable space online; then assign and mix our resources with yours.

See what's in the LaunchPad

Author Biography

Mike Markel is director of technical communication at Boise State University, where he teaches both undergraduate and graduate courses. The former editor of IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, he is the author of numerous articles and six books about technical communication, including Ethics and Technical Communication: A Critique and Synthesis. His latest book is Big Sick Heart, a mystery.

Table of Contents

Preface for Instructors 
Introduction for Writers 

Understanding the Technical Communication Environment     
1 Introduction to Technical Communication 
What Is Technical Communication?    
The Challenges of Producing Technical Communication   
Characteristics of a Technical Document   
Measures of Excellence in Technical Documents   
Skills and Qualities Shared by Successful Workplace Communicators    
How Communication Skills and Qualities Affect Your Career    
A Look at Three Technical Documents    
: Understanding the Technical Communication Environment [LaunchPad]
Case 1: Using the Measures of Excellence in Evaluating a Resume  [LaunchPad] 

2 Understanding Ethical and Legal Considerations  
A Brief Introduction to Ethics   
Your Ethical Obligations   
Obligations to Your Employer    
Obligations to the Public   
Obligations to the Environment   
Your Legal Obligations   
Copyright Law   
 Guidelines: Determining Fair Use   
 Guidelines: Dealing with Copyright Questions   
 Ethics Note: Distinguishing Plagiarism from Acceptable Reuse of Information   
Trademark Law   
 Guidelines: Protecting Trademarks   
Contract Law   
Liability Law
 Guidelines: Abiding by Liability Laws   
The Role of Corporate Culture in Ethical and Legal Conduct   
Understanding Ethical and Legal Issues Related to Social Media   
 Guidelines: Using Social Media Ethically and Legally   
 Document Analysis Activity: Presenting Guidelines for Using Social Media   
Communicating Ethically Across Cultures   
Communicating with Cultures with Different Ethical Beliefs   
Communicating with Cultures with Different Laws   
Principles for Ethical Communication   
Abide by Relevant Laws   
Abide by the Appropriate Professional Code of Conduct   
Abide by Your Organization’s Policy on Social Media   
Take Advantage of Your Employer’s Ethics Resources   
Tell the Truth   
Don’t Mislead Your Readers   
Use Design to Highlight Important Ethical and Legal Information   
Be Clear      
Avoid Discriminatory Language   
Acknowledge Assistance from Others   
Writer’s Checklist      
: Understanding the Technical Communication Environment [LaunchPad]
Case 2:  The Ethics of Requiring That Students Subsidize a Plagiarism-Detection Service     [LaunchPad] 

 3 Writing Technical Documents     
Analyzing Your Audience   
Analyzing Your Purpose   
Choosing Your Writing Tools   
       Tutorial: Cross-Platform Word Processing with CloudOn, Quip, and More [LaunchPad] Generating Ideas About Your Subject   
Researching Additional Information   
Organizing and Outlining Your Document   
 Tech Tip: How to Use the Outline View   
 Tutorial: Creating Outlines   [LaunchPad]
 Tutorial: Creating Styles and Templates [LaunchPad] 
Selecting an Application, a Design, and a Delivery Method   
Devising a Schedule and a Budget   
Using Templates   
 Guidelines: Drafting Effectively   
 Tech Tip: How to Modify Templates   
 Document Analysis Activity: Identifying the Strengths and Weaknesses of a Commercial Template   
Using Styles   
 Tech Tip: How to Use the Styles Group   
Studying the Draft by Yourself   
Seeking Help from Others
 Ethics Note: Acknowledging Reviewers Responsibly   
 Tutorial: Creating Styles and Templates   [LaunchPad]
Tutorial: Proofreading for Format Consistency   [LaunchPad]
Writer’s Checklist   
: Understanding the Technical Communication Environment [LaunchPad]
Case 3: Understanding Why Revision Software Cannot Revise and Edit Your Document   [LaunchPad] 

4 Writing Collaboratively    
Advantages and Disadvantages of Collaboration   
Advantages of Collaboration   
Disadvantages of Collaboration   
   Team Writing Assignment Modules [LaunchPad]
Managing Projects
Guidelines: Managing Your Project   
Conducting Meetings   
Listening Effectively   
 Guidelines: Listening Effectively   
Tutorial: Scheduling Online Meetings [LaunchPad]
Setting Your Team’s Agenda   
Guidelines: Setting Your Team's Agenda   
Downloadable Form: Work-Schedule Form   [LaunchPad]
Downloadable Form: Team-Member Evaluation Form   [LaunchPad]
Downloadable Form: Self-Evaluation Form   [LaunchPad]
Ethics Note: Pulling Your Weight on Collaborative Projects   
Conducting Efficient Meetings   
Communicating Diplomatically   
Critiquing a Team Member’s Work   
 Guidelines: Communicating Diplomatically   
 Guidelines: Critiquing a Colleague's Work   
Using Social Media and Other Electronic Tools in Collaboration   
Word Processing Tools   
 Tech Tip: How to Use the Review Tab   
Document Analysis Activity: Critiquing a Draft Clearly and Diplomatically   
Tutorial: Reviewing Collaborative Documents [LaunchPad]
Tutorial: Incorporating Tracked Changes [LaunchPad]
Messaging Technologies   
 Guidelines: Representing Your Organization on a Microblog   
 Tutorial: Using Collaborative Software [LaunchPad]
Tutorial: Using Collaborative Software   [LaunchPad]
 Guidelines: Participating in a Videoconference   
Wikis and Shared Document Workspaces   
Tutorial: Using Wikis for Collaborative Work   [LaunchPad]
Virtual Worlds   
 Ethics Note: Maintaining a Professional Presence Online   
Gender and Collaboration   
Culture and Collaboration   
Writer’s Checklist   
: Understanding the Technical Communication Environment [LaunchPad]
Case 4: Accommodating a Team Member’s Scheduling Problems   [LaunchPad]  

Planning the Document     
5 Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose    
Understanding Audience and Purpose   
Using an Audience Profile Sheet   
Downloadable Forms: Audience Profile Sheet [LaunchPad]
Determining the Important Characteristics of Your Audience   
Who Are Your Readers?   
Why Is Your Audience Reading Your Document?   
What Are Your Readers’ Attitudes and Expectations?   
How Will Your Readers Use Your Document?   
Techniques for Learning About Your Audience   
Determining What You Already Know About Your Audience   
Interviewing People   
Reading About Your Audience Online   
Searching Social Media for Documents Your Audience Has Written   
Analyzing Social-media Data   
Communicating Across Cultures   
Understanding the Cultural Variables “on the Surface”   
Understanding the Cultural Variables “Beneath the Surface”   
Considering Cultural Variables as You Write   
 Guidelines: Writing for Readers from Other Cultures   
 Document Analysis Activity: Examining Cultural Variables in a Business Letter   
Using Graphics and Design for Multicultural Readers   
Applying What You Have Learned About Your Audience
 Ethics Note: Meeting Your Readers' Needs Responsibly   
Writing for Multiple Audiences   
Determining Your Purpose   
Gaining Management’s Approval   
Revising Information for a New Audience and Purpose   
Writer’s Checklist   
: Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose [LaunchPad]
Case 5: Focusing on An Audience’s Needs and Interests   [LaunchPad]

6 Researching Your Subject     
Understanding the Differences Between Academic and Workplace Research   
Understanding the Research Process   
Choosing Appropriate Research Methods   
 Guidelines: Researching a Topic   
Conducting Secondary Research   
Understanding the Research Media   
Using Traditional Research Tools
 Online Catalogs   
 Reference Works   
 Periodical Indexes   
 Newspaper Indexes   
 Abstract Services   
 Government Information   
Using Social Media and Other Interactive Resources   
 Discussion Boards   
 Tagged Content
Tutorials: Tracking Sources with Evernote and Zotero [LaunchPad]
 RSS Feeds   
Evaluating the Information   
 Guidelines: Evaluating Print and Online Sources   
 Document Analysis Activity: Evaluating Information from Internet Sources   
Conducting Primary Research   
Analyzing Social Media Data   
Observations and Demonstrations   
Field Research   
Guidelines: Conducting an Interview   
Asking Effective Questions     
Testing the Questionnaire   
Administering the Questionnaire   
Presenting Questionnaire Data in Your Document   
Ethics Note: Reporting and Analyzing Data Honestly   
Writer’s Checklist   
LearningCurve: Researching Your Subject [LaunchPad]
Case 6: Revising a Questionnaire   [LaunchPad] 

7 Organizing Your Information     
Understanding Three Principles for Organizing Technical Information   
Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose   
Using Conventional Patterns of Organization   
Displaying Your Organizational Pattern Prominently   
Understanding Conventional Organizational Patterns   
Guidelines: Organizing Information Chronologically    
 Guidelines: Organizing Information Spatially   
General to Specific   
 Guidelines: Organizing Information from General to Specific   
More Important to Less Important   
 Guidelines: Organizing Information from More Important to Less Important   
Comparison and Contrast   
 Guidelines: Organizing Information by Comparison and Contrast   
 Ethics Note: Comparing and Contrasting Fairly   
Classification and Partition   
 Guidelines: Organizing Information by Classification or Partition   
 Guidelines: Organizing Information by Problem-Methods-Solution   
Cause and Effect   
 Guidelines: Organizing Information by Cause and Effect   
 Document Analysis Activity: Using Multiple Organizational Patterns in an Infographic   
Writer’s Checklist   
 Chronological and Spatial   
 General to Specific   
 More Important to Less Important   
 Comparison and Contrast   
 Classification and Partition   
 Cause and Effect   
: Organizing and Emphasizing Information [LaunchPad]
Case 7: Organizing a Document for Clarity — and Diplomacy   [LaunchPad]  

Developing and Testing the Verbal and Visual Information     
8 Communicating Persuasively    
Considering the Context of Your Argument      
Understanding Your Audience’s Broader Goals      

Working Within Constraints       
 Ethical Constraints   
 Legal Constraints   
 Political Constraints   
 Informational Constraints   
 Personnel Constraints   
 Financial Constraints   
 Time Constraints   
 Format and Tone Constraints   
Crafting a Persuasive Argument     
Identifying the Elements of Your Argument      
Using the Right Kinds of Evidence      
Considering Opposing Viewpoints    
 Document Analysis Activity: Analyzing Evidence in an Argument   
Appealing to Emotions Responsibly      
Deciding Where to Present the Claim     
Understanding the Role of Culture in Persuasion      
Avoiding Logical Fallacies      
Presenting Yourself Effectively
 Guidelines: Creating a Professional Persona   
Using Graphics as Persuasive Elements    
 Ethics Note: Seeming Honest Versus Being Honest In Persuasive Writing   
A Look at Several Persuasive Arguments      
Writer’s Checklist      
: Communicating Persuasively [LaunchPad]
Case 8: Analyzing the Persuasiveness of a Web Site   [LaunchPad]  

9 Emphasizing Important Information     
Writing Clear, Informative Titles
Writing Clear, Informative Headings   
 Tech Tip: How to Modify and Create Styles   
 Guidelines: Revising Headings    
Writing Clear, Informative Lists      
Write Effective Paragraph Lists      
Write Effective Sentence Lists      
 Guidelines: Creating Effective Lists   
Tech Tip: How to Create Numbered and Bulleted Lists   
Writing Clear, Informative Paragraphs      
Structure Paragraphs Clearly      
 The Topic Sentence   
 Ethics Note: Avoiding Burying Bad News in Paragraphs   
 The Supporting Information   
 Paragraph Length   
 Guidelines: Dividing Long Paragraphs   
Use Coherence Devices Within and Between Paragraphs      
 Adding Transitional Words and Phrases   
 Repeating Key Words   
 Using Demonstrative Pronouns Followed by Nouns
 Document Analysis Activity: Identifying the Elements of a Coherent Paragraph   
Writer’s Checklist    
: Organizing and Emphasizing Information [LaunchPad]
Case 9: Emphasizing Important Information in a Technical Description   [LaunchPad]  

10 Writing Correct and Effective Sentences     
Writing Grammatically Correct Sentences   
Avoid Sentence Fragments   
Avoid Comma Splices   
Avoid Run-on Sentences    
Avoid Ambiguous Pronoun References    
Compare Items Clearly    
Use Adjectives Clearly    
Maintain Subject-Verb Agreement    
Maintain Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement    
Use Tenses Correctly    
Structuring Effective Sentences    
Emphasize New and Important Information    
Choose an Appropriate Sentence Length    
 Avoid Overly Long Sentences   
 Avoid Overly Short Sentences   
Focus on the “Real” Subject    
Focus on the “Real” Verb    
Use Parallel Structure   
Use Modifiers Effectively    
 Distinguish Between Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Modifiers   
 Avoid Misplaced Modifiers   
 Avoid Dangling Modifiers   
Choosing the Right Words and Phrases   
Select an Appropriate Level of Formality   
Be Clear and Specific    
 Use Active and Passive Voice Appropriately   
 Be Specific   
 Avoid Unnecessary Jargon   
 Use Positive Constructions   
 Avoid Long Noun Strings   
 Avoid Clichés   
 Avoid Euphemisms   
 Ethics Note: Euphemisms and Truth Telling   
Be Concise    
 Avoid Obvious Statements   
 Avoid Filler   
 Avoid Unnecessary Prepositional Phrases   
 Avoid Wordy Phrases   
 Avoid Fancy Words
Use Inoffensive Language    
 Document Analysis Activity: Revising for Conciseness and Simplicity   
 Use Nonsexist Language   
 Guidelines: Avoiding Sexist Language   
 Use Inoffensive Language When Referring to People with Disabilities   
 Guidelines: Using the People-First Approach   
Understanding Simplified English for Nonnative Speakers    
Preparing Text for Translation    
Writer’s Checklist    
 Words and Phrases   
: Organizing and Emphasizing Information [LaunchPad]
Case 10: Revising a Document for Nonnative Speakers and for Translation   [LaunchPad]  

11 Designing Print and Online Documents    
Goals of Document Design   
Understanding Design Principles   
Planning the Design of Print and Online Documents   
Analyze Your Audience and Purpose   
Determine Your Resources   
Designing Print Documents   
 Tech Tip: How to Set Up Pages   
Accessing Aids   
Designing Print Pages   
 Guidelines: Understanding Learning Theory and Page Design   
Page Layout   
 Page Grids   
 White Space
 Tech Tip: How to Format Columns   
Type Families
 Tech Tip: How to Format Fonts   
 Type Size
 Ethics Note: Using Type Sizes Responsibly   
 Line Length   
 Line Spacing   
 Tech Tip: How to Modify Line Spacing   
 Tech Tip: How to Modify Justification   
Titles and Headings   
Other Design Features   
 Tech Tip: How to Create Borders and Screens   
 Tech Tip: How to Create Text Boxes   
Analyzing Several Print-Document Designs   
 Document Analysis Activity: Analyzing a Page Design   
Designing Online Documents   
Use Design to Emphasize Important Information   
Create Informative Headers and Footers   
Help Readers Navigate the Document   
 Guidelines: Making Your Document Easy to Navigate   
Include Extra Features Your Readers Might Need   
Help Readers Connect with Others   
Design for Readers with Disabilities   
Design for Multicultural Audiences
 Ethics Note: Designing Legal and Honest Online Documents   
Designing Online Pages   
Aim for Simplicity
 Guidelines: Designing a Simple Site   
Make the Text Easy to Read and Understand   
 Guidelines: Designing Easy-To-Read Text   
Create Clear, Informative Links   
 Guidelines: Writing Clear, Informative Links   
Analyzing Several Online Document Designs   
Writer’s Checklist   
 Designing Print Documents and Pages   
 Designing Online Documents   
Case 11
: Designing a Flyer   [LaunchPad]

12 Creating Graphics    
The Functions of Graphics   
The Characteristics of an Effective Graphic
 Ethics Note: Creating Honest Graphics   
 Guidelines: Integrating Graphics and Text   
Understanding the Process of Creating Graphics   
Planning Graphics   
Producing Graphics   
 Tech Tip: How to Insert and Modify Graphics   
Revising Graphics   
Citing Graphics   
Using Color Effectively   
Choosing the Appropriate Kind of Graphic   
Illustrating Numerical Information   
 Guidelines: Creating Effective Tables   
 Bar Graphs   
 Tech Tip: How to Use Tab Stops   
 Tech Tip: How to Create Tables   
 Tech Tip: How to Create Graphics in Excel   
 Guidelines: Creating Effective Bar Graphs   
 Guidelines: Creating Effective Infographics   
 Tech Tip: How to Use Drawing Tools   
 Line Graphs   
 Guidelines: Creating Effective Line Graphs   
 Pie Charts   
 Guidelines: Creating Effective Pie Charts   
Illustrating Logical Relationships 
 Organization Charts   
 Document Analysis Activity: Analyzing a Graphic   
Illustrating Process Descriptions and Instructions   
 Logic Trees   
 Techniques for Showing Motion   
Tutorials: Audio Recording & Editing with Audacity   [LaunchPad] 
Illustrating Visual and Spatial Characteristics   
 Guidelines: Presenting Photographs Effectively   
 Screen Shots   
 Tech Tip: How to Create and Insert Screen Shots   
 Line Drawings   
Tutorials: Photo Editing Basics with GIMP   [LaunchPad] 
Creating Effective Graphics for Multicultural Readers   
Writer’s Checklist   
Case 12
: Creating Appropriate Graphics to Accompany a Report   [LaunchPad]  

13 Reviewing, Evaluating, and Testing Documents and Web Sites   
Understanding Reviewing, Evaluating, and Testing   
Reviewing Documents and Web Sites   
 Guidelines: Editing the Draft   
Conducting Usability Evaluations   
Conducting Usability Tests   
The Basic Principles of Usability Testing   
Preparing for a Usability Test   
Conducting a Usability Test   
 Interacting with the Test Participant   
 Ethics Note: Understanding the Ethics of Informed Consent   
 Debriefing the Test Participant   
Interpreting and Reporting the Data from a Usability Test   
 Document Analysis Activity: Obtaining Informed Consent   
Writer’s Checklist   
 Revising, Editing, and Proofreading   
 Usability Evaluations   
 Usability Tests   
Case 13:
Revising a Document for a New Audience   [LaunchPad]     

Learning Important Applications    
14 Writing Correspondence    
Understanding the Process of Writing Correspondence   
Selecting a Type of Correspondence   
Presenting Yourself Effectively in Correspondence   
Use the Appropriate Level of Formality   
Communicate Correctly   
Project the “You Attitude”   
Avoid Correspondence Clichés   
Communicate Honestly   
 Ethics Note: Writing Honest Business Correspondence   
Writing Letters   
Elements of a Letter   
Common Types of Letters   
 Inquiry Letter   
 Response to an Inquiry   
 Claim Letter   
 Adjustment Letter   
Writing Memos   
 Guidelines: Organizing a Memo   
Writing E-mails    
 Guidelines: Following Netiquette   
 Document Analysis Activity: Following Netiquette in an E-mail Message   
Writing Microblogs   
 Guidelines: Representing Your Organization on a Microblog   
Writing Correspondence to Multicultural Readers   
Writer’s Checklist   
 Letter Format   
 Types of Letters   
Case 14
: Setting Up and Maintaining a Professional Microblog Account   [LaunchPad]  

15 Writing Job-Application Materials    
Understanding the Job-Application Process   
Establishing Your Personal Brand   
Understand What Employers Want   
 Guidelines: Building the Foundation of Your Personal Brand   
Craft Your Personal Brand   
 Guidelines: Presenting Your Personal Brand   
Tutorial: Building Your Personal Brand with LinkedIn, Twitter, and More [LaunchPad]
 Ethics Note: Writing Honest Job-Application Materials   
Planning the Job Search   
Understanding Four Major Ways to Look for a Position   
 Guidelines: Using LinkedIn's Employment Features   
Writing Résumés   
Elements of the Chronological Résumé
 Identifying Information   
 Summary Statement   
 Guidelines: Elaborating on Your Education   
 Employment History   
 Interests and Activities   
 Other Elements
Elements of the Skills Résumé   
Preparing a Plain-text Résumé   
 Guidelines: Formatting a Plain-Text Résumé   
 Document Analysis Activity: Preparing a Text Résumé   
Document Analysis Activity: Professional Website Featuring an Infographic Résumé   [LaunchPad] 
Writing Job-Application Letters   
Preparing for a Job Interview   
 Guidelines: Preparing for a Job Interview   
Writing Follow-up Letters or E-mails After an Interview   
Writer’s Checklist   
 Job-Application Letter   
 Preparing for a Job Interview   
 Follow-up Letters   
Case 15
: Identifying the Best-of-the-Best Job-search Sites   [LaunchPad]  

16 Writing Proposals    
Understanding the Process of Writing Proposals   
The Logistics of Proposals   
Internal and External Proposals   
 Internal Proposals   
 External Proposals
Solicited and Unsolicited Proposals   
 Solicited Proposals   
 Unsolicited Proposals   
The “Deliverables” of Proposals   
Research Proposals   
Goods and Services Proposals   
Persuasion and Proposals   
Understanding Readers’ Needs   

 Readers' Needs in an Internal Proposal   
 Readers' Needs in an External Proposal   
Describing What You Plan to Do   
Demonstrating Your Professionalism   
 Guidelines: Demonstrating Your Professionalism in a Proposal   
 Ethics Note: Writing Honest Proposals   
Writing a Proposal   
The Structure of the Proposal   
 Guidelines: Introducing a Proposal   
Proposed Program   
Qualifications and Experience
 Document Analysis Activity: Writing the Proposed Program   
Document Analysis Activity: Proposal Delivered as a Prezi Presentation [LaunchPad]
 Task Schedule   
  Bar Charts   
 Tech Tip: How to Create a Gantt Chart   
  Network Diagrams   
 Description of Evaluation Techniques   
Sample Internal Proposal   
Writer’s Checklist   
Case 16:
Revising a Brief Proposal   [LaunchPad]  

17 Writing Informational Reports    
Understanding the Process of Writing Informational Reports   
Writing Directives   
 Document Analysis Activity: Writing a Persuasive Directive   
 Document Analysis Activity: Report Presented as a Website  [LaunchPad]
 Document Analysis Activity: Informational Report Presented through Interactive Graphics [LaunchPad]
Writing Field Reports   
 Guidelines: Responding to Readers' Questions in a Field Report   
Writing Progress and Status Reports   
 Ethics Note: Reporting Your Progress Honestly   
Organizing Progress and Status Reports   
Concluding Progress and Status Reports   
 Guidelines: Projecting an Appropriate Tone in a Progress or Status Report   
 Sample Progress Report   
Writing Incident Reports   
Writing Meeting Minutes   
Writer’s Checklist   
Case 17:
Writing a Directive About Using Agendas for Meetings   [LaunchPad]  

18 Writing Recommendation Reports    
Understanding the Role of Recommendation Reports   
Using a Problem-Solving Model for Preparing Recommendation Reports   
Identify the Problem or Opportunity   
Establish Criteria for Responding to the Problem or Opportunity   
Determine the Options   
Study Each Option According to the Criteria   
Draw Conclusions About Each Option   
Formulate Recommendations Based on the Conclusions   
 Ethics Note: Presenting Honest Recommendations   
Writing Recommendation Reports   
Writing the Body of the Report   
 Guidelines: Writing Recommendations   
Writing the Front Matter   
 Letter of Transmittal   
 Title Page   
 Table of Contents   
 List of Illustrations   
 Executive Summary   
 Tech Tip: How to Format Headers, Footers, and Page Numbers   
 Tech Tip: How to Create a Table of Contents   
 Guidelines: Writing an Executive Summary   
 Document Analysis Activity: Analyzing an Executive Summary   
Writing the Back Matter   
 Glossary and List of Symbols   
 Sample Recommendation Report   
Writer’s Checklist   
Case 18:
Analyzing Decision Matrices   [LaunchPad]  

19 Writing Lab Reports    
Persuasion and Lab Reports   
Understanding the Process of Writing Lab Reports   
Understanding the Structure of the Lab Report   
 Guidelines: Writing Equations   
Materials and Methods   
 Ethics Note: Presenting Data Honestly   
Understanding the Role of Science and Engineering Articles   
Sample Lab Report   
Writer’s Checklist   
Case 19
: Introducing the Scientific Method Through a Lab Report   [LaunchPad]  

20 Writing Definitions, Descriptions, and Instructions    
Writing Definitions   
Analyzing the Writing Situation for Definitions   
Determining the Kind of Definition to Write   
 Writing Parenthetical Definitions   
 Writing Sentence Definitions   
 Guidelines: Writing Effective Sentence Definitions   
 Writing Extended Definitions   
  Principle of Operation   
  Comparison and Contrast   
  A Sample Extended Definition   
Deciding Where to Place the Definition   
Writing Descriptions   
Analyzing the Writing Situation for Descriptions   
Indicating Clearly the Nature and Scope of the Description   
Introducing the Description Clearly   
Providing Appropriate Detail   
 Guidelines: Providing Appropriate Detail in Descriptions   
Concluding the Description   
A Look at Several Sample Descriptions   
Writing Instructions   
Understanding the Role of Instructional Videos   
Designing a Set of Written Instructions   
 Guidelines: Designing Clear, Attractive Pages   
Planning for Safety   
 Ethics Note: Protecting Your Readers' Safety   
Drafting Effective Instructions   
 Drafting Titles   
 Drafting General Introductions   
 Guidelines: Drafting Introductions for Instructions   
 Drafting Step-by-Step Instructions   
 Guidelines: Drafting Steps in Instructions   
 Drafting Conclusions   
Revising, Editing, and Proofreading Instructions   
A Look at Several Sample Sets of Instructions
 Document Analysis Activity: Presenting Clear Instructions   
Document Analysis Activity: Mechanism Description Using Interactive Graphics   [LaunchPad] 
Document Analysis Activity: Process Description Using Video Animation   [LaunchPad] 
Document Analysis Activity: Instructions Using Video Demonstration   [LaunchPad] 
Document Analysis Activity: Instructions Using Video Screen Capture   [LaunchPad] 
Document Analysis Activity: Instructions Using a Combination of Video Demonstration and Screen Capture   [LaunchPad] 
Document Analysis Activity: Definition Using Video Animation   [LaunchPad] 
Writing Manuals   
Writer’s Checklist   
 Parenthetical, Sentence, and Extended Definitions   
 Descriptions of Objects and Mechanisms   
 Process Descriptions   
Case 20
: Choosing a Medium for Presenting Instructions  [LaunchPad] 

21 Making Oral Presentations    
Understanding the Role of Oral Presentations   
Understanding the Process of Preparing and Delivering the Oral Presentation   
Preparing the Presentation   
Analyzing the Speaking Situat
 Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose   
 Budgeting Your Time   
Organizing and Developing the Presentation   
 Planning the Introduction   
 Guidelines: Introducing the Presentation   
 Planning the Conclusion   
 Guidelines: Concluding the Presentation   
Preparing Presentation Graphics   
Tutorial: Creating Presentations with PowerPoint and Prezi
 Graphics and the Speaking Situation   
Tech Tip: How to Create a Master Page Design In PowerPoint   
Tech Tip: How to Set List Items to Appear and Dim During a PowerPoint Presentation   
Use Graphics to Signal the Organization of the Presentation   
Document Analysis Activity: Integrating Graphics and Text on a Presentation Slide   
Choosing Effective Language   
 Using Language to Signal Advance Organizers, Summaries, and Transitions   
 Using Memorable Language   
 Guidelines: Using Memorable Language in Oral Presentations   
Rehearsing the Presentation   
 Rehearsing the Extemporaneous Presentation   
 Rehearsing the Scripted Presentation   
Delivering the Presentation   
Calming Your Nerves   
 Guidelines: Releasing Nervous Energy   
Using Your Voice Effectively   
Using Your Body Effectively   
 Guidelines: Facing an Audience   
Answering Questions After the Presentation     
 Ethics Note: Answering Questions Honestly   
Sample Evaluation Form   
Downloadable Form: Oral Presentation Evaluation Form [LaunchPad]
Speaker’s Checklist   
Case 21:
Understanding the Claim-and-Support Structure for Presentation Graphics   [LaunchPad] 
Reference Handbook    
A Skimming Your Sources and Taking Notes    
B Documenting Your Sources    
APA Style    
Tutorial: How to Cite a Database in APA [LaunchPad]
Tutorial: How to Cite a Web Site in APA [LaunchPad]

IEEE Style    
MLA Style    
Tutorial: How to Cite a Book in MLA [LaunchPad]
Tutorial: How to Cite an Article in MLA  [LaunchPad]
Tutorial: How to Cite a Web Site in MLA [LaunchPad]
Tutorial: How to Cite a Database in MLA [LaunchPad]

C Editing and Proofreading Your Documents    
Grammatical Sentences    
Proofreading Symbols and Their Meanings    

D Guidelines for Multilingual Writers (ESL)    
Cultural and Stylistic Communication Issues    
Sentence-Level Issues    
LearningCurve: Articles and Nouns for Multilingual Writers [LaunchPad]
LearningCurve: Prepositions for Multilingual Writers [LaunchPad]
LearningCurve: Sentence Structure for Multilingual Writers [LaunchPad]
LearningCurve: Verbs for Multilingual Writers [LaunchPad]

Selected Bibliography    

Rewards Program

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