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Television Production Handbook,9780534260583
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Television Production Handbook

by
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780534260583

ISBN10:
0534260586
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
8/14/1996
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing
List Price: $95.66

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This is the 6th edition with a publication date of 8/14/1996.
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Summary

Thousands of students have learned the basics of television production techniques with Herbert Zettl's pace-setting, best-selling Television Production Handbook. In this Sixth Edition, you'll learn about the latest equipment and techniques that are changing the face of the industry. Whether you're a novice or have prior exposure to television production, you'll find this handbook's two-tier organization helpful in directing you to topic coverage that's appropriate for your level of knowledge. This book covers all aspects of television production, from cameras, lighting, and audio to editing, visual effects, and every stage of production. In this edition you'll find the latest information on such topics as lighting techniques, the newest small digital camcorders, nonlinear editing, desktop production, and other uses of the computer in postproduction. And the book's numerous illustrations and photographs give you a clear view of the world of television production.

Table of Contents

Photo Creditsp. xxi
About the Authorp. xxiii
Prefacep. xxiv
The Television Production Processp. 2
What Television Production Is All Aboutp. 4
The Basic Television Systemp. 4
The Expanded Studio and Electronic Field Production Systemsp. 5
System Elements of Studio Productionp. 5
The Studio System in Actionp. 7
System Elements of Field Productionp. 7
Production Elementsp. 8
The Camerap. 8
Lightingp. 10
Audiop. 11
Videotape Recordingp. 13
The Switcherp. 14
Postproduction Editingp. 14
Special Effectsp. 15
Studios, Master Control, and Support Areasp. 17
The Television Studiop. 17
Physical Layoutp. 17
Major Installationsp. 18
The Studio Control Roomp. 19
Program Controlp. 20
Image Controlp. 21
Audio Controlp. 21
Lighting Controlp. 21
Master Controlp. 22
Program Inputp. 22
Program Storagep. 23
Program Retrievalp. 23
Studio Support Areasp. 23
Scenery and Propertiesp. 23
Makeup and Dressing Roomsp. 24
Analog and Digital Televisionp. 26
Analog and Digital Televisionp. 28
Basic Image Creationp. 28
Basic Colors of the Video Displayp. 30
What Digital is all Aboutp. 30
Why Digital?p. 30
The Difference Between Analog and Digitalp. 30
The Process of Digitizationp. 30
Benefits of Digital Televisionp. 32
Qualityp. 32
Computer Compatibility and Flexibilityp. 33
Signal Transportp. 33
Compressionp. 33
Aspect Ratiop. 34
The 4 [times] 3 Aspect Ratiop. 34
The 16 [times] 9 Aspect Ratiop. 34
DTV Scanning Systemsp. 36
Progressive and Interlaced Scanningp. 36
The Progressive Scanning Systemp. 36
The Interlaced Scanning Systemp. 37
DTV Systemsp. 37
The 480p Systemp. 38
The 720p Systemp. 38
The 1080i Systemp. 38
Flat-Panel Displaysp. 38
Plasma Display Panelp. 38
Liquid Crystal Displayp. 38
The Television Camerap. 40
How Television Cameras Workp. 42
Parts of the Camerap. 42
From Light to Video Signalp. 43
The Beam Splitterp. 44
The Imaging Devicep. 44
The Camera Chainp. 45
The Camera Control Unitp. 45
The Sync Generator and Power Supplyp. 46
Types of Camerasp. 46
Analog and Digital Camerasp. 46
Studio Camerasp. 47
ENG/EFP Cameras and Camcordersp. 48
Consumer Camcordersp. 49
Electronic Characteristicsp. 50
Aspect Ratiop. 50
Resolutionp. 50
Light Sensitivity and Operating Light Levelp. 52
Gainp. 53
Video Noise and Signal-to-Noise Ratiop. 54
Image Blur and Electronic Shutterp. 54
Smear and Moirep. 54
Contrastp. 54
Operational Characteristicsp. 55
Operational Items and Controls: Studio Camerasp. 55
Operational Items: ENG/EFP Cameras and Camcordersp. 57
Operational Controls: ENG/EFP Cameras and Camcordersp. 59
From Light to Video Imagep. 61
The CCD Processp. 61
The Nature of Colorp. 62
Color Attributesp. 62
Color Mixingp. 62
Chrominance and Luminance Channelsp. 62
Chrominance Channelp. 62
Luminance Channelp. 63
The Encoderp. 63
Lensesp. 64
What Lenses Arep. 66
Types of Zoom Lensesp. 66
Studio and Field Lensesp. 66
Zoom Rangep. 66
Lens Formatp. 68
Optical Characteristics of Lensesp. 69
Focal Lengthp. 69
Focusp. 70
Light Transmission: Iris and f-stopp. 71
Depth of Fieldp. 73
Operational Controlsp. 74
Zoom Controlp. 75
Digital Zoom Lensp. 76
Focus Controlp. 76
What Lenses Seep. 78
How Lenses see the Worldp. 78
The Wide-Angle Lensp. 78
The Normal Lensp. 81
The Narrow-Angle, or Telephoto, Lensp. 82
Camera Mounting Equipmentp. 86
Standard Camera Mounts and Movementsp. 88
Basic Camera Mountsp. 88
The Handheld and Shoulder-Mounted Camerap. 88
The Monopod and Tripodp. 89
The Studio Pedestalp. 90
Camera Mounting (Pan-And-Tilt) Headsp. 92
Fluid Headsp. 92
Cam Headsp. 93
Plate and Wedge Mountp. 93
Camera Movementsp. 94
Special Camera Mountsp. 97
Special Mounting Devicesp. 97
High Hatp. 97
Bean Bagp. 97
Steadicamp. 98
Short and Long Jibsp. 98
Studio Cranep. 99
Robot Pedestals and Mounting Headsp. 100
Camera Operation and Picture Compositionp. 102
Working the Camerap. 104
Working the Camcorder and EFP Camerap. 104
Some Basic Camera "Don'ts"p. 105
Before the Shootp. 105
During the Shootp. 106
After the Shootp. 109
Working the Studio Camerap. 109
Before the Showp. 110
During the Showp. 110
After the Showp. 112
Framing Effective Shotsp. 113
Screen Size and Field of Viewp. 113
Screen Sizep. 114
Field of Viewp. 114
Framing A Shotp. 115
Dealing With Height and Widthp. 115
Close-upsp. 117
Headroomp. 118
Noseroom and Leadroomp. 118
Closurep. 119
Depthp. 122
Screen Motionp. 123
Lightingp. 126
Lighting Instruments and Lighting Controlsp. 128
Studio Lighting Instrumentsp. 128
Spotlightsp. 128
Floodlightsp. 131
Field Lighting Instrumentsp. 134
Spotlightsp. 134
Floodlightsp. 137
Handheld Lightsp. 138
Lighting Control Equipmentp. 139
Mounting Devicesp. 139
Directional Controlsp. 143
Intensity Controls: Diffusers and Reflectorsp. 144
Intensity Controls: Electronic Dimmersp. 145
Color Temperaturep. 148
How to Control Color Temperaturep. 149
Light Intensity, Lamps, and Color Mediap. 151
Light Intensityp. 151
Lux and Foot-candlesp. 151
Incident Lightp. 152
Reflected Lightp. 152
Calculating Light Intensityp. 153
Operating Light Level: Baselightp. 153
Baselight Levelsp. 154
Types of Lampsp. 154
Incandescentp. 155
Quartz, or Tungsten-Halogenp. 155
HMIp. 155
Fluorescentp. 155
Color Mediap. 155
How to Use Color Mediap. 155
Mixing Color Gelsp. 155
Techniques of Television Lightingp. 158
Lighting in the Studiop. 160
Types of Lightp. 160
Main Light Sourcesp. 161
Types of Lighting Instrumentsp. 161
Functions of Main Light Sourcesp. 161
The Photographic Principle, or Triangle Lightingp. 165
Specific Lighting Techniquesp. 166
Continuous-Action Lightingp. 166
Large-Area Lightingp. 168
Cameo Lightingp. 168
Silhouette Lightingp. 169
Chroma-Key Area Lightingp. 169
Controlling Eye and Boom Shadowsp. 170
Contrastp. 172
Contrast Ratiop. 172
Shadingp. 172
Auto-Irisp. 173
Measuring Contrastp. 173
Limiting Contrastp. 173
Balancing Intensitiesp. 173
Key-to-Back-Light Ratiop. 174
Key-to-Fill-Light Ratiop. 174
The Light Plotp. 175
Operation of Studio Lightsp. 176
Safetyp. 176
Preserving Lamps and Powerp. 176
Using a Studio Monitorp. 176
Lighting in the Fieldp. 178
Eng Lightingp. 178
Shooting in Outdoor Lightp. 179
Shooting at Nightp. 180
Shooting in Indoor Lightp. 181
Efp Lightingp. 183
Safetyp. 184
Power Supplyp. 184
Location Surveyp. 184
Lighting Setupp. 186
Audio: Sound Pickupp. 190
How Microphones Hearp. 192
Electronic Characteristics of Microphonesp. 192
Sound-Generating Elementp. 192
Pickup Patternsp. 193
Special Microphone Featuresp. 195
Operational Characteristics of Microphonesp. 195
Lavaliere Microphonesp. 195
Hand Microphonesp. 198
Boom Microphonesp. 200
Headset Microphonesp. 204
Wireless Microphonesp. 204
Desk Microphonesp. 206
Stand Microphonesp. 208
Hanging Microphonesp. 209
Hidden Microphonesp. 210
Long-distance Microphonesp. 211
How Microphones Workp. 213
Sound-Generating Elementsp. 213
Dynamic Microphonesp. 213
Condenser Microphonesp. 214
Ribbon Microphonesp. 214
Sound Qualityp. 214
Special Microphone Featuresp. 214
Impedancep. 214
Frequency Responsep. 218
Balanced and Unbalanced Mics and Cables, and Audio Connectorsp. 218
Mic Setups for Music Pickupp. 218
Microphone Setup for Singer and Acoustic Guitarp. 218
Microphone Setup for Singer and Pianop. 219
Microphone Setup for Small Rock Group and Direct Insertionp. 219
Microphone Use Specific to Eng/Efpp. 219
Microphone Use Specific to the Studiop. 221
Audio: Sound Controlp. 224
Sound Controls and How to Use Themp. 226
Audio Control Areas: Studiop. 226
Audio Control Boothp. 226
Audio Production Roomp. 227
Audio Production Equipment: Studiop. 228
Audio Consolep. 228
Patchbayp. 232
Audio Recording Systemsp. 234
Analog Recording Systemsp. 234
Digital Recording Systemsp. 235
Audio/Video Postproductionp. 238
Audio Production Equipment: Fieldp. 239
Mixerp. 239
Mixing and Sound Aestheticsp. 241
Basic Audio Operationp. 241
Volume Controlp. 241
Live and Postproduction Mixingp. 243
Live Studio Mixingp. 243
Live Mixing in ENG/EFPp. 244
Postproduction Mixingp. 245
Controlling Sound Qualityp. 245
Aesthetic Factorsp. 246
Environmentp. 246
Figure-groundp. 246
Perspectivep. 246
Continuityp. 247
Energyp. 247
Surround Soundp. 247
Switching, or Instantaneous Editingp. 250
How Switchers Workp. 252
Basic Switcher Functionsp. 252
Simple Switcher Layoutp. 253
Program Busp. 253
Mix Busesp. 253
Preview Busp. 254
Effects Busesp. 254
Multifunction Switchersp. 254
Basic Switcher Operationp. 256
Cut or Takep. 256
Dissolvep. 258
Superp. 259
Fadep. 259
Additional Special-Effects Controlsp. 259
What Switchers Dop. 262
Switcher Types and Functionsp. 262
Production Switchersp. 262
Postproduction Switchersp. 263
Master Control Switchersp. 263
Routing Switchersp. 264
Electronic Designsp. 264
Composite and Component Switchersp. 264
Analog and Digital Switchersp. 264
Audio-Follow-Video Switchersp. 265
Video-Recording and Storage Systemsp. 266
How Video Recording Worksp. 268
Tape-and Disk-Based Recording Systemsp. 268
Analog and Digital Systemsp. 268
Linear and Nonlinear Systemsp. 269
Composite and Component Systemsp. 269
Compressionp. 270
Tape-Based Recording and Storage Systemsp. 271
How Videotape Recording Worksp. 271
Operational Controls and Electronic Featuresp. 273
Major Analog Videotape Recordersp. 275
Major Digital Videotape Recordersp. 277
Disk-Based Recording and Storage Systemsp. 280
Hard Disk Systemsp. 280
Read/Write Optical Discsp. 281
Data Transferp. 281
How Video Recording Is Donep. 283
Uses of Video Recording and Storagep. 283
Building a Showp. 283
Time Delayp. 284
Program Duplication and Distributionp. 284
Record Protection and Referencep. 284
Operational Video-Recording Systemsp. 284
Quality Choicep. 284
Operational Video Recorder Systemsp. 284
Video-Recording Production Factorsp. 286
Preproductionp. 286
Productionp. 288
Postproduction Editingp. 294
How Postproduction Editing Worksp. 296
Editing Modes: Off- and On-Linep. 297
Basic Editing Systemsp. 297
Linear Systemsp. 297
Nonlinear Systemsp. 297
Editing Principlep. 298
Linear Editing Systemsp. 298
Single-Source Systemp. 298
Expanded Single-Source Systemp. 299
Multiple-Source Systemsp. 301
Linear Editing Features and Techniquesp. 302
Assemble and Insert Editingp. 302
Control Track and Time Code Editingp. 303
Control Track, or Pulse-Count, Editingp. 304
Time Code Editingp. 305
AB Rolling and AB-Roll Editingp. 306
AB Rollingp. 306
AB-Roll Editingp. 307
Nonlinear Editing Systemsp. 308
Nonlinear Editing Features and Techniquesp. 309
Digitizing Informationp. 309
Compressionp. 309
Storing Informationp. 309
Juxtaposing and Rearranging Video and Audio Filesp. 309
Preediting Phasesp. 310
Shooting Phasep. 310
Review Phasep. 311
Decision-Making Phasep. 314
Operational Phasep. 315
Making Editing Decisionsp. 318
Editing Functionsp. 318
Combinep. 318
Trimp. 319
Correctp. 319
Buildp. 319
Basic Transition Devicesp. 319
The Cutp. 319
The Dissolvep. 320
The Wipep. 320
The Fadep. 320
Major Editing Principlesp. 320
Continuity Editingp. 322
Complexity Editingp. 328
Contextp. 328
Ethicsp. 329
Visual Effectsp. 332
Electronic Effects and How to Use Themp. 334
Standard Analog Video Effectsp. 334
Superimpositionp. 334
Keyp. 335
Chroma Keyp. 337
Wipep. 339
Digital Video Effectsp. 341
Computer-Manipulated Effectsp. 341
Image Size, Shape, Light, and Colorp. 342
Motionp. 344
Multi-Imagesp. 346
Computer-Generated Effectsp. 347
Nonelectronic Effects and How to Use Themp. 349
Optical Effectsp. 350
Television Gobosp. 350
Reflectionsp. 350
Star Filterp. 351
Diffusion Filtersp. 351
Defocusp. 352
Mechanical Effectsp. 352
Rainp. 352
Snowp. 352
Fogp. 352
Windp. 352
Smokep. 353
Firep. 353
Lightningp. 353
Explosionsp. 353
Designp. 354
Designing and Using Television Graphicsp. 356
Specifications of Television Graphicsp. 356
Aspect Ratiop. 357
Scanning and Essential Areasp. 357
Out-of-Aspect-Ratio Graphics and Moving Imagesp. 358
Information Density and Readabilityp. 361
Colorp. 362
Stylep. 365
Graphics Equipmentp. 365
Character Generatorp. 365
Graphics Generatorp. 366
Scenery and Propsp. 370
Television Sceneryp. 370
Standard Set Unitsp. 370
Hanging Unitsp. 372
Platforms and Wagonsp. 373
Set Piecesp. 374
Properties and Set Dressingsp. 375
Stage Propsp. 375
Set Dressingsp. 375
Hand Propertiesp. 376
Prop Listp. 376
Elements of Scene Designp. 376
The Floor Planp. 377
Set Backgrounds and Platformsp. 379
Studio Floor Treatmentsp. 379
Production Peoplep. 382
What Production People Dop. 384
Production (Nontechnical) Personnelp. 384
Technical Personnel and Crewp. 386
News Production Personnelp. 387
Television Talentp. 389
Performance Techniquesp. 389
Performer and Camerap. 390
Performer and Audiop. 391
Performer and Timingp. 392
Performer and Postproductionp. 392
Floor Manager's Cuesp. 392
Prompting Devicesp. 397
Acting Techniquesp. 399
Audiencep. 399
Blockingp. 400
Memorizing Linesp. 400
Timingp. 400
The Actor and Postproductionp. 400
The Director/Actor Relationshipp. 401
Auditionsp. 401
How to Do Makeup and What to Wearp. 403
Makeupp. 403
Technical Requirementsp. 404
Materialsp. 404
Techniquesp. 405
Clothing and Costumingp. 405
Clothingp. 405
Costumingp. 406
Producingp. 408
What Producing Is All Aboutp. 410
Preproduction Planning: From Idea to Scriptp. 410
Program Ideasp. 411
Production Modelsp. 412
Writing the Program Proposalp. 413
Preparing a Budgetp. 415
Presenting the Proposalp. 419
Writing the Scriptp. 419
Preproduction Planning: Coordinationp. 419
Peoplep. 419
Facilities Requestp. 420
Schedulesp. 421
Permits and Clearancesp. 421
Publicity and Promotionp. 421
Production: Host and Critical Observationp. 422
Playing Hostp. 422
Watching the Production Flowp. 422
Evaluating the Productionp. 422
Postproduction Activitiesp. 422
Postproduction Editingp. 422
Evaluation and Feedbackp. 422
Recordkeepingp. 423
Dealing With Schedules, Legal Matters, and Ratingsp. 424
Production Schedulep. 424
Information Resourcesp. 425
Program Typesp. 426
Unions and Legal Mattersp. 426
Unionsp. 426
Copyrights and Clearancesp. 426
Other Legal Considerationsp. 427
Audience and Ratingsp. 427
Target Audiencep. 427
Ratings and Sharep. 428
The Director in Preproductionp. 430
How a Director Preparesp. 432
The Director's Rolesp. 432
Director as Artistp. 432
Director as Psychologistp. 433
Director as Technical Adviserp. 433
Director as Coordinatorp. 433
Preproduction Activitiesp. 433
Process Messagep. 434
Production Methodp. 434
Production Team and Communicationp. 434
Schedulingp. 434
Script Formatsp. 434
Script Markingp. 436
Floor Plan and Location Sketchp. 445
Facilities Requestp. 446
Support Staffp. 446
Floor Managerp. 446
Assistant, or Associate, Directorp. 448
Production Assistantp. 449
Moving from Script to Screenp. 450
Visualization and Sequencingp. 450
Formulating the Process Messagep. 451
Medium Requirementsp. 451
Interpreting the Floor Plan and Location Sketchp. 457
Script Analysisp. 459
Locking-In Point and Translationp. 459
The Storyboardp. 460
The Director in Production and Postproductionp. 464
Multicamera Studio Directingp. 466
The Director's Terminologyp. 466
Multicamera Studio Directingp. 467
Directing from the Control Roomp. 470
Rehearsalsp. 473
Time Linep. 478
Directing the Showp. 480
Controlling Clock Timep. 482
Schedule Time and Running Timep. 483
Clock Back-Timing and Front-Timingp. 483
Converting Frames into Clock Timep. 484
Controlling Subjective Timep. 484
Studio Intercom Systemsp. 484
Single-Camera Directingp. 487
Single-Camera Directing Proceduresp. 487
Visualizationp. 487
Script Breakdownp. 488
Rehearsalsp. 488
Videotapingp. 488
Postproduction Activitiesp. 490
Field Production and Big Remotesp. 492
ENG, EFP, and Big Remotesp. 494
Electronic News Gatheringp. 495
ENG Production Featuresp. 495
SNG Production Featuresp. 496
Electronic Field Productionp. 496
Preproductionp. 497
Production: Equipment Checkp. 497
Production: Setupp. 499
Production: Rehearsalsp. 499
Production: Videotapingp. 500
Production: Strike and Equipment Checkp. 500
Postproductionp. 500
Big Remotesp. 500
Preproduction: The Remote Surveyp. 501
Production: Equipment Setup and Operationp. 503
Production: Floor Manager and Talent Proceduresp. 508
Covering Major Eventsp. 511
Sports Remotesp. 511
Location Sketch and Remote Setupsp. 518
Reading Location Sketchesp. 518
Production Requirements for Public Hearing (Indoor Remote)p. 521
Production Requirements for Parade (Outdoor Remote)p. 521
Communication Systemsp. 522
ENG Communication Systemsp. 524
EFP Communication Systemsp. 524
Big-Remote Communication Systemsp. 524
Signal Transportp. 524
Microwave Transmissionp. 524
Communication Satellites: Frequencies, Uplinks, and Downlinksp. 526
Cable Distributionp. 527
Epiloguep. 530
Glossaryp. 531
Selected Readingp. 554
Indexp. 556
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.


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