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Textbook of Medical Physiology

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780721659442

ISBN10:
0721659446
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
8/1/1995
Publisher(s):
SAUNDERS W B CO

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Summary

University of Mississippi, Jackson. Ninth edition. Previous edition 1991. Major textbook for medical students. Color highlighting and halftone illustrations. DNLM: Physiology.

Table of Contents

UNIT I INTRODUCTION TO PHYSIOLOGY: THE CELL AND GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY 3(40)
Chapter 1 Functional Organization of the Human Body and Control of the "Internal Environment"
3(8)
CELLS AS THE LIVING UNITS OF THE BODY
3(1)
EXTRACELLULAR FLUID--THE INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
3(1)
"HOMEOSTATIC" MECHANISMS OF THE MAJOR FUNCTIONAL SYSTEMS
4(2)
Homeostasis
4(1)
Extracellular Fluid Transport System--The Circulatory System
4(1)
Origin of Nutrients in the Extracellular Fluid
5(1)
Removal of Metabolic End Products
5(1)
Regulation of Body Functions
5(1)
Reproduction
6(1)
CONTROL SYSTEMS OF THE BODY
6(3)
Examples of Control Mechanisms
6(1)
Characteristics of Control Systems
7(2)
SUMMARY--AUTOMATICITY OF THE BODY
9(2)
Chapter 2 The Cell and Its Function
11(16)
ORGANIZATION OF THE CELL
11(1)
PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF THE CELL
12(6)
Membranous Structures of the Cell
12(2)
Cytoplasm and Its Organelles
14(3)
Nucleus
17(1)
COMPARISON OF THE ANIMAL CELL WITH PRECELLULAR FORMS OF LIFE
18(1)
FUNCTIONAL SYSTEMS OF THE CELL
19(8)
Ingestion by the Cell--Endocytosis
19(1)
Digestion of Pinocytic and Phagocytic Foreign Substances in the Cell--Function of the Lysosomes
20(1)
Synthesis and Formation of Cellular Structures by the Endoplasmic Reticulum and the Golgi Apparatus
20(2)
Extraction of Energy from Nutrients--Function of the Mitochondria
22(1)
Ameboid Locomotion of Cells
23(1)
Cilia and Ciliary Movements
24(3)
Chapter 3 Genetic Control of Protein Synthesis, Cell Function, and Cell Reproduction
27(16)
The Genes
27(1)
Genetic Code
28(1)
THE DNA CODE IS TRANSFERRED TO AN RNA CODE -- THE PROCESS OF TRANSCRIPTION
28(5)
Messenger RNA--The Codons
30(1)
Transfer RNA--The Anticodons
30(1)
Ribosomal RNA
31(1)
Formation of Proteins on the Ribosomes--The Process of Translation
32(1)
SYNTHESIS OF OTHER SUBSTANCES IN THE CELL
33(1)
CONTROL OF GENETIC FUNCTION AND BIOCHEMICAL ACTIVITY IN CELLS
33(2)
Genetic Regulation
33(1)
Control of Intracellular Function by Enzyme Regulation
34(1)
THE DNA-GENETIC SYSTEM ALSO CONTROLS CELL REPRODUCTION
35(2)
Cell Reproduction Begins with Replication of the DNA
35(1)
Chromosomes and Their Replication
36(1)
Mitosis
36(1)
Control of Cell Growth and Reproduction
37(1)
CELL DIFFERENTIATION
37(1)
CANCER
38(5)
UNIT II MEMBRANE PHYSIOLOGY, NERVE, AND MUSCLE 43(64)
Chapter 4 Transport of Ions and Molecules Through the Cell Membrane
43(14)
DIFFUSION
44(7)
Diffusion Through the Cell Membrane
44(4)
Factors That Affect Net Rate of Diffusion
48(1)
Osmosis Across Selectively Permeable Membranes--Net Diffusion of Water
49(2)
ACTIVE TRANSPORT
51(6)
Primary Active Transport
51(2)
Secondary Active Transport -- Co-Transport and Counter-Transport
53(1)
Active Transport Through Cellular Sheets
54(3)
Chapter 5 Membrane Potentials and Action Potentials
57(16)
BASIC PHYSICS OF MEMBRANE POTENTIALS
57(2)
Membrane Potentials Caused by Diffusion
57(1)
Measuring the Membrane Potential
58(1)
The Cell Membrane as an Electrical Capacitor
59(1)
RESTING MEMBRANE POTENTIAL OF NERVES
59(2)
Origin of the Normal Resting Membrane Potential
60(1)
NERVE ACTION POTENTIAL
61(4)
Voltage-Gated Sodium and Potassium Channels
62(2)
Summary of the Events That Cause the Action Potential
64(1)
Roles of Other lons During the Action Potential
64(1)
Initiation of the Action Potential
65(1)
PROPAGATION OF THE ACTION POTENTIAL
65(1)
RE-ESTABLISHING SODIUM AND POTASSIUM IONIC GRADIENTS AFTER ACTION POTENTIALS--IMPORTANCE OF ENERGY METABOLISM
66(1)
PLATEAU IN SOME ACTION POTENTIALS
67(1)
RHYTHMICITY OF CERTAIN EXCITABLE TISSUES--REPETITIVE DISCHARGE
67(1)
SPECIAL ASPECTS OF SIGNAL TRANSMISSION IN NERVE TRUNKS
68(1)
Velocity of Conduction in Nerve Fibers
68(1)
EXCITATION--THE PROCESS OF ELICITING THE ACTION POTENTIAL
68(3)
Inhibition of Excitability--"Stabilizers" and Local Anesthetics
71(1)
RECORDING MEMBRANE POTENTIALS AND ACTION POTENTIALS
71(2)
Chapter 6 Contraction of Skeletal Muscle
73(14)
PHYSIOLOGIC ANATOMY OF SKELETAL MUSCLE
73(1)
Skeletal Muscle Fiber
73(1)
GENERAL MECHANISM OF MUSCLE CONTRACTION
74(2)
MOLECULAR MECHANISM OF MUSCLE CONTRACTION
76(4)
Molecular Characteristics of the Contractile Filaments
76(3)
Degree of Actin and Myosin Filament Overlap--Effect on Tension Developed by the Contracting Muscle
79(1)
Relation of Velocity of Contraction to Load
79(1)
ENERGETICS OF MUSCLE CONTRACTION
80(1)
CHARACTERISTICS OF WHOLE MUSCLE CONTRACTION
81(6)
Mechanics of Skeletal Muscle Contraction
82(2)
Remodeling of Muscle to Match Function
84(1)
Rigor Mortis
84(3)
Chapter 7 Excitation of Skeletal Muscle: A. Neuromuscular Transmission and B. Excitation-Contraction Coupling
87(8)
TRANSMISSION OF IMPULSES FROM NERVES TO SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS: NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION
87(4)
MUSCLE ACTION POTENTIAL
91(1)
EXCITATION-CONTRACTION COUPLING
91(4)
Release of Calcium Ions by the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
92(3)
Chapter 8 Contraction and Excitation of Smooth Muscle
95(12)
CONTRACTION OF SMOOTH MUSCLE
95(4)
Types of Smooth Muscle
95(1)
Contractile Process in Smooth Muscle
96(2)
Regulation of Contraction by Calcium lons
98(1)
NEURAL AND HORMONAL CONTROL OF SMOOTH MUSCLE CONTRACTION
99(8)
Neuromuscular Junctions of Smooth Muscle
99(1)
Membrane Potentials and Action Potentials in Smooth Muscle
99(2)
Smooth Muscle Contraction Without Action Potentials--Effect of Local Tissue Factors and Hormones
101(1)
Source of Calcium Ions that Cause Contraction: (1) Through the Cell Membrane and (2) From the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
102(5)
UNIT III THE HEART 107(54)
Chapter 9 Heart Muscle; The Heart as a Pump
107(14)
PHYSIOLOGY OF CARDIAC MUSCLE
107(3)
Physiologic Anatomy of Cardiac Muscle
107(1)
Action Potentials in Cardiac Muscle
108(2)
THE CARDIAC CYCLE
110(5)
Systole and Diastole
110(1)
Relationship of the Electrocardiogram to the Cardiac Cycle
110(1)
Function of the Atria as Primer Pumps
111(1)
Function of the Ventricles as Pumps
111(1)
Function of the Valves
112(1)
The Aortic Pressure Curve
113(1)
Relationship of the Heart Sounds to Heart Pumping
113(1)
Work Output of the Heart
113(2)
Chemical Energy for Cardiac Contraction: Oxygen Utilization by the Heart
115(1)
REGULATION OF HEART PUMPING
115(6)
Intrinsic Regulation of Heart Pumping--The Frank-Starling Mechanism
115(1)
Control of the Heart by the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nerves
116(1)
Effect of Heart Rate on Function of the Heart as a Pump
117(1)
Assessment of Cardiac Contractility
118(1)
Effect of Potassium and Calcium lons on Heart Function
118(1)
Effect of Temperature on the Heart
119(2)
Chapter 10 Rhythmical Excitation of the Heart
121(8)
SPECIALIZED EXCITATORY AND CONDUCTIVE SYSTEM OF THE HEART
121(4)
Sinus Node
121(2)
Internodal Pathways and Transmission of the Cardiac Impulse Through the Atria
123(1)
A-V Node, and Delay in Impulse Conduction from the Atria to the Ventricles
123(1)
Transmission in the Purkinje System
124(1)
Transmission of the Cardiac Impulse in the Ventricular Muscle
124(1)
Summary of the Spread of the Cardiac Impulse Through the Heart
124(1)
CONTROL OF EXCITATION AND CONDUCTION IN THE HEART
125(4)
The Sinus Node as the Pacemaker of the Heart
125(1)
Role of the Purkinje System in Causing Synchronous Contraction of the Ventricular Muscle
126(1)
Control of Heart Rhythmicity and Conduction by the Cardiac Nerves: Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nerves
126(3)
Chapter 11 The Normal Electrocardiogram
129(6)
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE NORMAL ELECTROCARDIOGRAM
129(2)
Depolarization Waves Versus Repolarization Waves
129(1)
Relationship of Atrial and Ventricular Contraction to the Waves of the Electrocardiogram
130(1)
Voltage and Time Calibration of the Electrocardiogram
130(1)
METHODS FOR RECORDING ELECTROCARDIOGRAMS
131(1)
Pen Recorder
131(1)
FLOW OF CURRENT AROUND THE HEART DURING THE CARDIAC CYCLE
131(1)
Recording Electrical Potentials from a Partially Depolarized Mass of Syncytial Cardiac Muscle
131(1)
Flow of Electrical Currents in the Chest Around the Heart
132(1)
ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHIC LEADS
132(3)
Three Bipolar Limb Leads
132(1)
Chest Leads (Precordial Leads)
133(1)
Augmented Unipolar Limb Leads
134(1)
Chapter 12 Electrocardiographic Interpretation of Cardiac Muscle and Coronary Abnormalities: Vectorial Analysis
135(14)
PRINCIPLES OF VECTORIAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTROCARDIOGRAMS
135(2)
Use of Vectors to Represent Electrical Potentials
135(1)
Denoting the Direction of a Vector in Terms of Degrees
135(1)
Axis of Each of the Standard Bipolar Leads and the Unipolar Limb Leads
135(1)
Vectorial Analysis of Potentials Recorded in Different Leads
136(1)
VECTORIAL ANALYSIS OF THE NORMAL ELECTROCARDIOGRAM
137(3)
Vectors That Occur During Depolarization of the Ventricles--The QRS Complex
137(1)
The Electrocardiogram During Repolarization--The T Wave
138(1)
Depolarization of the Atria--The P Wave
139(1)
The Vectorcardiogram
139(1)
THE MEAN ELECTRICAL AXIS OF THE VENTRICULAR QRS
140(2)
Determining the Electrical Axis from Standard Lead Electrocardiograms
140(1)
Abnormal Ventricular Conditions That Cause Axis Deviation
141(1)
CONDITIONS THAT CAUSE ABNORMAL VOLTAGES OF THE QRS COMPLEX
142(1)
Increased Voltage in the Standard Bipolar Limb Leads
142(1)
Decreased Voltage of the Electrocardiogram
143(1)
PROLONGED AND BIZARRE PATTERNS OF THE QRS COMPLEX
143(1)
Prolonged QRS Complex as a Result of Cardiac Hypertrophy or Dilatation
143(1)
Prolonged QRS Complex Resulting from Purkinje System Blocks
143(1)
Conditions That Cause Bizarre QRS Complexes
143(1)
CURRENT OF INJURY
144(3)
Effect of Current of Injury on the QRS Complex
144(1)
The J Point -- The Zero Reference Potential for Analyzing Current of Injury
144(1)
Coronary Ischemia as a Cause of Current of Injury
145(2)
ABNORMALITIES IN THE T WAVE
147(2)
Effect of Slow Conduction of the Depolarization Wave on the T Wave
147(1)
Prolonged Depolarization in Portions of the Ventricular Muscle as a Cause of Abnormalites in the Wave
147(2)
Chapter 13 Cardiac Arrhythmias and Their Electrocardiographic Interpretation
149(12)
ABNORMAL SINUS RHYTHMS
149(1)
Tachycardia
149(1)
Bradycardia
149(1)
Sinus Arrhythmia
150(1)
ABNORMAL RHYTHMS THAT RESULT FROM IMPULSE CONDUCTION BLOCK
150(2)
Sinoatrial Block
150(1)
Atrioventricular Block
150(1)
Incomplete Intraventricular Block -- Electrical Alternans
151(1)
PREMATURE CONTRACTIONS
152(1)
Premature Atrial Contractions
152(1)
A-V Nodal or A-V Bundle Premature Contractions
152(1)
Premature Ventricular Contractions
152(1)
PAROXYSMAL TACHYCARDIA
153(1)
Atrial Paroxysmal Tachycardia
153(1)
Ventricular Paroxysmal Tachycardia
153(1)
VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION
154(2)
Phenomenon of Re-entry--Circus Movements as the Basis for Ventricular Fibrillation
154(2)
ATRIAL FIBRILLATION
156(1)
Atrial Flutter
157(1)
CARDIAC ARREST
157(4)
UNIT IV THE CIRCULATION 161(136)
Chapter 14 Overview of the Circulation; Medical Physics of Pressure, Flow, and Resistance
161(10)
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CIRCULATION
161(1)
BASIC THEORY OF CIRCULATORY FUNCTION
162(1)
INTERRELATIONSHIPS AMONG PRESSURE, FLOW, AND RESISTANCE
163(8)
Blood Flow
164(1)
Blood Pressure
165(1)
Resistance to Blood Flow
166(3)
Effects of Pressure on Vascular Resistance and Tissue Blood Flow
169(2)
Chapter 15 Vascular Distensibility, and Functions of the Arterial and Venous Systems
171(12)
VASCULAR DISTENSIBILITY
171(2)
Vascular Compliance (or Capacitance)
171(1)
Volume-Pressure Curves of the Arterial and Venous Circulations
172(1)
Delayed Compliance (Stress-Relaxation) of Vessels
172(1)
ARTERIAL PRESSURE PULSATIONS
173(3)
Transmission of Pressure Pulses to the Peripheral Arteries
173(1)
Clinical Methods for Measuring Systolic and Diastolic Pressures
174(2)
VEINS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS
176(7)
Venous Pressures--Right Atrial Pressure (Central Venous Pressure) and Peripheral Venous Pressures
176(3)
Blood Reservoir Function of the Veins
179(4)
Chapter 16 The Microcirculation and the Lymphatic System: Capillary Fluid Exchange, Interstitial Fluid, and Lymph Flow
183(16)
Structure of the Microcirculation and Capillary System
183(1)
FLOW OF BLOOD IN THE CAPILLARIES--VASOMOTION
184(1)
Average Function of the Capillary System
185(1)
EXCHANGE OF NUTRIENTS AND OTHER SUBSTANCES BETWEEN THE BLOOD AND INTERSTITIAL FLUID
185(1)
Diffusion Through the Capillary Membrane
185(1)
THE INTERSTITIUM AND INTERSTITIAL FLUID
186(1)
THE PROTEINS IN THE PLASMA AND INTERSTITIAL FLUID MAINLY DETERMINE THE PLASMA AND INTERSTITIAL FLUID VOLUMES
187(6)
Capillary Pressure
187(1)
Interstitial Fluid Pressure
188(2)
Plasma Colloid Osmotic Pressure
190(1)
Interstitial Fluid Colloid Osmotic Pressure
191(1)
Exchange of Fluid Volume Through the Capillary Membrane
191(1)
Starling Equilibrium for Capillary Exchange
192(1)
THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
193(6)
Lymph Channels of the Body
193(1)
Formation of Lymph
193(1)
Rate of Lymph Flow
194(2)
Role of the Lymphatic System in Controlling Interstitial Fluid Protein Concentration, Interstitial Fluid Volume, and Interstitial Fluid Pressure
196(3)
Chapter 17 Local Control of Blood Flow by the Tissues, and Humoral Regulation
199(10)
LOCAL CONTROL OF BLOOD FLOW IN RESPONSE TO TISSUE NEED
199(1)
MECHANISMS OF BLOOD FLOW CONTROL
200(5)
Acute Control of Local Blood Flow
200(4)
Long-Term Blood Flow Regulation
204(1)
Development of Collateral Circulation -- A Phenomenon of Long-Term Local Blood Flow Regulation
205(1)
HUMORAL REGULATION OF THE CIRCULATION
205(4)
Chapter 18 Nervous Regulation of the Circulation, and Rapid Control of Arterial Pressure
209(12)
NERVOUS REGULATION OF THE CIRCULATION
209(3)
Autonomic Nervous System
209(3)
ROLE OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM FOR RAPID CONTROL OF ARTERIAL PRESSURE
212(5)
Increase in Arterial Pressure During Muscle Exercise and Other Types of Stress
213(1)
Reflex Mechanisms for Maintaining Normal Arterial Pressure
213(4)
Central Nervous System Ischemic Response -- Control of Arterial Pressure by the Brain's Vasomotor Center in Response to Diminished Brain Blood Flow
217(1)
SPECIAL FEATURES OF NERVOUS CONTROL OF ARTERIAL PRESSURE
217(4)
Role of the Skeletal Nerves and Skeletal Muscles in Increasing Cardiac Output and Arterial Pressure
217(1)
Respiratory Waves in the Arterial Pressure
218(1)
Arterial Pressure "Vasomotor" Waves -- Oscillation of the Pressure Reflex Control Systems
218(3)
Chapter 19 Dominant Role of the Kidneys in Long-Term Regulation of Arterial Pressure and in Hypertension: The Integrated System for Pressure Control
221(18)
RENAL-BODY FLUID SYSTEM FOR ARTERIAL PRESSURE CONTROL
221(6)
Hypertension (High Blood Pressure): This Is Often Caused by Excessive Extracellular Fluid Volume
225(2)
RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM: ITS ROLE IN PRESSURE CONTROL AND HYPERTENSION
227(7)
Types of Hypertension in Which Angiotensin Is Involved: Hypertension Caused by a Renin-Secreting Tumor or by Infusion of Angiotensin II
231(1)
Other Types of Hypertension Caused by Combinations of Volume-Loading and Vasoconstriction
232(1)
Essential Hypertension
233(1)
SUMMARY OF THE INTERGRATED, MULTIFACETED SYSTEM FOR ARTERIAL PRESSURE REGULATION
234(5)
Chapter 20 Cardiac Output, Venous Return, and Their Regulation
239(14)
Normal Values for Cardiac Output at Rest and During Activity
239(1)
CONTROL OF CARDIAC OUTPUT BY VENOUS RETURN--ROLE OF THE FRANK-STARLING MECHANISM OF THE HEART
239(3)
The Heart Has Limits for the Cardiac Output That It Can Achieve--This Causes a Plateau Level in the Cardiac Output Curve
241(1)
What Is the Role of the Nervous System in Controlling Cardiac Output?
242(1)
PATHOLOGICALLY HIGH AND PATHOLOGICALLY LOW CARDIAC OUTPUTS
242(2)
A MORE QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF CARDIAC OUTPUT REGULATION
244(6)
Cardiac Output Curves Used in the Quantitative Analysis
244(1)
Venous Return Curves
245(3)
Analysis of Cardiac Output and Right Atrial Pressure, Using Simultaneous Cardiac Output and Venous Return Curves
248(2)
METHODS FOR MEASURING CARDIAC OUTPUT
250(3)
Indicator Dilution Method
251(2)
Chapter 21 Muscle Blood Flow and Cardiac Output During Exercise; the Coronary Circulation and Ischemic Heart Disease
253(12)
BLOOD FLOW IN SKELETAL MUSCLES AND ITS REGULATION DURING EXERCISE
253(3)
Rate of Blood Flow Through the Muscles
253(1)
Control of Blood Flow Through the Skeletal Muscles
253(1)
Circulatory Readjustments During Exercise
254(2)
CORONARY CIRCULATION
256(1)
Physiologic Anatomy of the Coronary Blood Supply
256(1)
NORMAL CORONARY BLOOD FLOW
257(8)
Control of Coronary Blood Flow
258(1)
Special Features of Cardiac Muscle Metabolism
259(1)
Ischemic Heart Disease
259(1)
Causes of Death After Acute Coronary Occlusion
260(1)
Stages of Recovery from Acute Myocardial Infarction
261(1)
Function of the Heart After Recovery from Myocardial Infarction
262(1)
Pain in Coronary Disease
262(1)
Surgical Treatment of Coronary Disease
263(2)
Chapter 22 Cardiac Failure
265(10)
DYNAMICS OF THE CIRCULATION IN CARDIAC FAILURE
265(3)
Acute Effects of Moderate Cardiac Failure
265(1)
Chronic Stage of Failure--Fluid Retention Helps to Compensate Cardiac Output
266(1)
Summary of the Changes that Occur after Acute Cardiac Failure--"Compensated Heart Failure"
267(1)
Dynamics of Severe Cardiac Failure--Decompensated Heart Failure
267(1)
UNILATERAL LEFT HEART FAILURE
268(1)
"HIGH-OUTPUT CARDIAC FAILURE" -- THIS CAN OCCUR EVEN IN A NORMAL HEART THAT IS OVERLOADED
268(1)
LOW-OUTPUT CARDIAC FAILURE--CARDIOGENIC SHOCK
269(1)
EDEMA IN PATIENTS WITH CARDIAC FAILURE
269(2)
CARDIAC RESERVE
271(1)
APPENDIX
271(4)
Quantitative Graphical Method for Analysis of Cardiac Failure
271(4)
Chapter 23 Heart Sounds; Dynamics of Valvular and Congenital Heart Defects
275(10)
HEART SOUNDS
275(3)
Normal Heart Sounds
275(1)
Areas for Auscultation of Normal Heart Sounds
276(1)
Valvular Lesions
277(1)
Heart Murmurs Caused by Valvular Lesions
277(1)
ABNORMAL CIRCULATORY DYNAMICS IN VALVULAR HEART DISEASE
278(2)
Dynamics of the Circulation in Aortic Stenosis and Aortic Regurgitation
278(1)
Dynamics of Mitral Stenosis and Mitral Regurgitation
279(1)
Circulatory Dynamics During Exercise in Patients with Valvular Lesions
279(1)
ABNORMAL CIRCULATORY DYNAMICS IN CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS
280(2)
USE OF EXTRACORPOREAL CIRCULATION DURING CARDIAC SURGERY
282(1)
HYPERTROPHY OF THE HEART IN VALVULAR AND CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE
282(3)
Chapter 24 Circulatory Shock and Physiology of Its Treatment
285(12)
PHYSIOLOGICAL CAUSES OF SHOCK
285(1)
SHOCK CAUSED BY HYPOVOLEMIA--HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK
286(5)
Relationship of Bleeding Volume to Cardiac Output and Arterial Pressure
286(1)
Nonprogressive and Progressive Hemorrhagic Shock
287(3)
Irreversible Shock
290(1)
Hypovolemic Shock Caused by Plasma Loss
290(1)
Hypovolemic Shock Caused by Trauma
290(1)
NEUROGENIC SHOCK--INCREASED VASCULAR CAPACITY
291(1)
ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK
291(1)
SEPTIC SHOCK
291(1)
STILL OTHER EFFECTS OF SHOCK ON THE BODY
292(1)
PHYSIOLOGY OF TREATMENT IN SHOCK
292(1)
Replacement Therapy
292(1)
Treatment of Shock with Sympathomimetic Drugs--Sometimes Useful, Sometimes Not
293(1)
Other Therapy
293(1)
CIRCULATORY ARREST
293(4)
UNIT V THE KIDNEYS AND BODY FLUIDS 297(128)
Chapter 25 The Body Fluid Compartments: Extracellular and Intracellular Fluids; Interstitial Fluid and Edema
297(18)
FLUID: INTAKE AND OUTPUT MUST BE BALANCED DURING STEADY-STATE CONDITIONS
297(1)
Daily Intake of Water
297(1)
Daily Loss of Body Water
297(1)
BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS
298(1)
INTRACELLULAR FLUID COMPARTMENT
299(1)
EXTRACELLULAR FLUID COMPARTMENT
299(1)
BLOOD VOLUME
299(1)
CONSTITUENTS OF EXTRACELLULAR AND INTRACELLULAR FLUIDS
299(1)
Ionic Compositions of Plasma and Interstitial Fluid Are Similar
299(1)
Important Constituents of the Intracellular Fluid
300(1)
MEASUREMENT OF FLUID VOLUMES IN THE DIFFERENT BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; THE INDICATOR-DILUTION PRINCIPLE
300(2)
Determination of Volumes of Specific Body Fluid Compartments
301(1)
REGULATION OF FLUID EXCHANGE AND OSMOTIC EQUILIBRIA BETWEEN INTRACELLULAR AND EXTRACELLULAR FLUID
302(1)
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF OSMOSIS AND OSMOTIC PRESSURE
302(2)
OSMOTIC EQUILIBRIUM IS MAINTAINED BETWEEN INTRACELLULAR AND EXTRACELLULAR FLUIDS
304(1)
VOLUMES AND OSMOLALITIES OF EXTRACELLULAR AND INTRACELLULAR FLUID IN ABNORMAL STATES
305(3)
Calculation of Water Deficit in Dehydration
305(1)
Effect of Adding Saline Solution to the Extracellular Fluid
306(2)
GLUCOSE AND OTHER SOLUTIONS ADMINISTERED FOR NUTRITIVE PURPOSES
308(1)
CLINICAL ABNORMALITIES OF FLUID VOLUME REGULATION: HYPONATREMIA AND HYPERNATREMIA
308(1)
Causes of Hyponatremia: Excess Water or Loss of Sodium
308(1)
Causes of Hypernatremia: Water Loss or Excess Sodium
308(1)
EDEMA: EXCESS FLUID IN THE TISSUES
308(1)
INTRACELLULAR EDEMA
308(1)
EXTRACELLULAR EDEMA
309(1)
Factors That Can Increase Capillary Filtration
309(1)
Lymphatic Blockage Causes Edema
309(1)
Summary of Causes of Extracellular Edema
309(1)
SAFETY FACTORS THAT NORMALLY PREVENT EDEMA
310(2)
Safety Factors Caused by Low Compliance of the Interstitium in the Negative Pressure Range
310(2)
Increased Lymph Flow as a Safety Factor Against Edema
312(1)
"Washdown" of the Interstitial Fluid Protein as a Safety Factor Against Edema
312(1)
Summary of Safety Factors That Prevent Edema
312(1)
FLUIDS IN THE POTENTIAL SPACES OF THE BODY
312(3)
Chapter 26 Urine Formation by the Kidneys: I. Glomerular Filtration, Renal Blood Flow, and Their Control
315(16)
MULTIPLE FUNCTIONS OF THE KIDNEYS IN HOMEOSTASIS
315(1)
PHYSIOLOGICAL ANATOMY OF THE KIDNEYS
316(3)
General Organization of the Kidneys and Urinary Tract
316(1)
Renal Blood Supply
317(1)
The Nephron is the Functional Unit of the Kidney
317(2)
URINE FORMATION RESULTS FROM GLOMERULAR FILTRATION, TUBULAR REABSORPTION, AND TUBULAR SECRETION
319(1)
Filtration, Reabsorption, and Secretion of Different Substances
319(1)
GLOMERULAR FILTRATION--THE FIRST STEP IN URINE FORMATION
320(2)
Composition of the Glomerular Filtrate
320(1)
GFR Is About 20 Per Cent of the Renal Plasma Flow
321(1)
Glomerular Capillary Membrane
321(1)
DETERMINANTS OF THE GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE
322(3)
Increased Glomerular Capillary Filtration Coefficient (K(F)) Increases GFR
323(1)
Increased Bowman's Capsule Hydrostatic Pressure Decreases GFR
323(1)
Increased Glomerular Capillary Colloid Osmotic Pressure Decreases GFR
323(1)
Increased Glomerular Capillary Hydrostatic Pressure Increases GFR
324(1)
RENAL BLOOD FLOW
325(1)
Determinants of Renal Blood Flow
325(1)
Blood Flow in the Vasa Recta of the Renal Medulla Is Very Low Compared with Flow in the Renal Cortex
325(1)
PHYSIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF GLOMERULAR FILTRATION AND RENAL BLOOD FLOW
326(1)
Sympathetic Nervous System Activation Decreases GFR
326(1)
Hormonal and Autacoid Control of Renal Circulation
326(1)
AUTOREGULATION OF GFR AND RENAL BLOOD FLOW
327(4)
Importance of GFR Autoregulation in Preventing Extreme Changes in Renal Excretion
327(1)
Role of Tubuloglomerular Feedback in Autoregulation of GFR
328(1)
Myogenic Autoregulation of Renal Blood Flow and GFR
329(1)
Other Factors That Increase Renal Blood Flow and GFR: High Protein Intake and Increased Blood Glucose
329(2)
Chapter 27 Urine Formation by the Kidneys: II. Tubular Processing of the Glomerular Filtrate
331(18)
REABSORPTION AND SECRETION BY THE RENAL TUBULES
331(1)
Tubular Reabsorption Is Selective and Quantitatively Large
331(1)
TUBULAR REABSORPTION INCLUDES PASSIVE AND ACTIVE MECHANISMS
332(5)
Active Transport
332(4)
Passive Water Reabsorption by Osmosis Is Coupled Mainly to Sodium Reabsorption
336(1)
Reabsorption of Chloride, Urea, and Other Solutes by Passive Diffusion
336(1)
REABSORPTION AND SECRETION ALONG DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE NEPHRON
337(4)
Proximal Tubular Reabsorption
337(1)
Solute and Water Transport in the Loop of Henle
338(1)
Distal Tubule
339(1)
Late Distal Tubule and Cortical Collecting Tubule
339(1)
Medullary Collecting Duct
340(1)
Summary of Concentrations of Different Solutes in the Different Tubular Segments
341(1)
REGULATION OF TUBULAR REABSORPTION
341(4)
Glomerulotubular Balance--The Ability of the Tubules to Increase Reabsorption Rate in Response to Increased Tubular Load
341(1)
Peritubular Capillary and Renal Interstitial Fluid Physical Forces
342(2)
Effect of Arterial Pressure on Urine Output--The Pressure-Natriuresis and Pressure-Diuresis Mechanisms
344(1)
Hormonal Control of Tubular Reabsorption
344(1)
Sympathetic Nervous System Activation Increases Sodium Reabsorption
345(1)
USE OF CLEARANCE METHODS TO QUANTIFY KIDNEY FUNCTION
345(4)
Insulin Clearance Can Be Used to Estimate GFR
346(1)
PAH Clearance Can Be Used to Estimate Renal Plasma Flow
346(1)
Filtration Fraction Is Calculated from GFR Divided by Renal Plasma Flow
347(1)
Calculation of Tubular Reabsorption or Secretion from Renal Clearances
347(2)
Chapter 28 Regulation of Extracellular Fluid Osmolarity and Sodium Concentration
349(18)
THE KIDNEY EXCRETES EXCESS WATER BY FORMING A DILUTE URINE
349(1)
Antidiuretic Hormone Controls Urine Concentration
349(1)
Renal Mechanisms for Excreting a Dilute Urine
350(8)
THE KIDNEY CONSERVES WATER BY EXCRETING A CONCENTRATED URINE
350(1)
Obligatory Urine Volume
351(1)
Requirements for Excreting a Concentrated Urine--High ADH Levels and Hyperosmotic Renal Medulla
351(1)
The Countercurrent Mechanism Produces a Hyperosmotic Renal Medullary Interstitium
352(1)
Role of the Distal Tubule and Collecting Ducts in Excreting a Concentrated Urine
353(1)
Urea Contributes to Hyperosmotic Renal Medullary Interstitium and to a Concentrated Urine
354(1)
Countercurrent Exchange in the Vasa Recta Preserves Hyperosmolarity of the Renal Medulla
355(1)
Summary of Urine Concentrating Mechanism and Changes in Osmolarity in Different Segments of the Tubules
356(2)
QUANTIFYING RENAL URINE CONCENTRATION AND DILUTION: "FREE WATER" AND OSMOLAR CLEARANCES
358(1)
DISORDERS OF URINARY CONCENTRATING ABILITY
358(1)
CONTROL OF EXTRACELLULAR FLUID OSMOLARITY AND SODIUM CONCENTRATION
359(2)
Estimating Plasma Osmolarity from Plasma Sodium Concentration
359(1)
Osmoreceptor-ADH Feedback System
359(1)
ADH Synthesis in Supraoptic and Paraventricular Nuclei of the Hypothalamus and ADH Release from the Posterior Pituitary
360(1)
Cardiovascular Reflex Stimulation of ADH Release by Decreased Arterial Pressure and/or Decreased Blood Volume
361(1)
Quantitative Importance of Cardiovascular Reflexes and Osmolarity in Stimulating ADH Secretion
361(1)
Other Stimuli for ADH Secretion
361(1)
ROLE OF THIRST IN CONTROLLING EXTRACELLULAR FLUID OSMOLARITY AND SODIUM CONCENTRATION
361(3)
Central Nervous System Centers for Thirst
362(1)
Stimuli for Thirst
362(1)
Threshold for Osmolar Stimulus of Drinking
363(1)
Integrated Responses of Osmoreceptor-ADH and Thirst Mechanisms in Controlling Extracellular Fluid Osmolarity and Sodium Concentration
363(1)
Role of Angiotensin II and Aldosterone in Controlling Extracellular Fluid Osmolarity and Sodium Concentration
363(1)
SALT-APPETITE MECHANISM FOR CONTROLLING EXTRACELLULAR FLUID SODIUM CONCENTRATION AND VOLUME
364(3)
Chapter 29 Integration of Renal Mechanisms for Control of Blood Volume and Extracellular Fluid Volume; and Renal Regulation of Potassium, Calcium, Phosphate, and Magnesium
367(18)
CONTROL MECHANISMS FOR REGULATING SODIUM AND WATER EXCRETION
367(1)
Sodium Excretion Is Controlled by Altering Glomerular Filtration or Tubular Sodium Reabsorption Rates
367(1)
IMPORTANCE OF PRESSURE NATRIURESIS AND PRESSURE DIURESIS IN MAINTAINING BODY SODIUM AND FLUID BALANCE
368(2)
Pressure Natriuresis and Diuresis Are Key Components of a Renal-Body Fluid Feedback for Regulating Body Fluid Volumes and Arterial Pressure
368(2)
Precision of Blood Volume and Extracellular Fluid Volume Regulation
370(1)
DISTRIBUTION OF EXTRACELLULAR FLUID BETWEEN THE INTERSTITIAL SPACES AND VASCULAR SYSTEM
370(1)
NERVOUS AND HORMONAL FACTORS INCREASE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF RENAL-BODY FLUID FEEDBACK CONTROL
370(3)
Sympathetic Nervous System Control of Renal Excretion: The Arterial Baroreceptor and Low-Pressure Stretch Receptor Reflexes
371(1)
Role of Angiotensin II in Controlling Renal Excretion
371(1)
Role of Aldosterone in Controlling Renal Excretion
372(1)
Role of ADH in Controlling Renal Excretion
372(1)
Role of Atrial Natriuretic Peptide in Controlling Renal Excretion
373(1)
INTEGRATED RESPONSES TO CHANGES IN SODIUM INTAKE
373(1)
CONDITIONS THAT CAUSE LARGE INCREASES IN BLOOD VOLUME AND EXTRACELLULAR FLUID VOLUME
374(1)
Increased Blood Volume and Extracellular Fluid Volume Caused by Heart Diseases
374(1)
Increased Blood Volume Caused by Increased Capacity of the Circulation
374(1)
CONDITIONS THAT CAUSE LARGE INCREASES IN EXTRACELLULAR FLUID VOLUME BUT WITH NORMAL BLOOD VOLUME
374(1)
Nephrotic Syndrome--Loss of Plasma Proteins in the Urine and Sodium Retention by the Kidneys
374(1)
Liver Cirrhosis--Decreased Synthesis of Plasma Proteins by the Liver and Sodium Retention by the Kidneys
375(1)
REGULATION OF POTASSIUM EXCRETION AND POTASSIUM CONCENTRATION IN THE EXTRACELLULAR FLUID
375(5)
Overview of Renal Potassium Excretion
375(1)
Potassium Secretion in the Late Distal Tubules and Cortical Collecting Tubules
376(1)
Summary of Factors That Regulate Potassium Secretion: Plasma Potassium Concentration, Aldosterone, Tubular Flow Rate, and Hydrogen Ion
377(3)
CONTROL OF RENAL CALCIUM EXCRETION AND EXTRACELLULAR CALCIUM ION CONCENTRATION
380(1)
Control of Calcium Excretion by the Kidneys
381(1)
REGULATION OF RENAL PHOSPHATE EXCRETION
381(1)
CONTROL OF RENAL MAGNESIUM EXCRETION AND EXTRACELLULAR MAGNESIUM ION CONCENTRATION
382(3)
Chapter 30 Regulation of Acid-Base Balance
385(20)
Hydrogen Ion Concentration Is Precisely Regulated
385(1)
Acids and Bases--Their Definitions and Meanings
385(1)
DEFENSES AGAINST CHANGES IN HYDROGEN ION CONCENTRATION: BUFFERS, LUNGS, AND KIDNEYS
386(1)
BUFFERING OF HYDROGEN IONS IN THE BODY FLUIDS
387(1)
THE BICARBONATE BUFFER SYSTEM
387(3)
Quantitative Dynamics of the Bicarbonate Buffer System
388(1)
The Phosphate Buffer System and Its Importance as an Intracellular and Renal Tubular Fluid Buffer
389(1)
Proteins Are Important Intracellular Buffers
390(1)
Isohydric Principle: All Buffers in a Common Solution Are in Equilibrium with the Same Hydrogen Ion Concentration
390(1)
RESPIRATORY REGULATION OF ACID-BASE BALANCE
390(2)
Pulmonary Expiration of CO(2) Balances Metabolic Formation of CO(2)
390(1)
Increasing Alveolar Ventilation Decreases Extracellular Fluid Hydrogen Ion Concentration and Raises pH
391(1)
Increased Hydrogen Ion Concentration Stimulates Alveolar Ventilation
391(1)
RENAL CONTROL OF ACID-BASE BALANCE
392(1)
SECRETION OF HYDROGEN IONS AND REABSORPTION OF BICARBONATE IONS BY THE RENAL TUBULE
393(2)
Hydrogen Ions Are Secreted by Secondary Active Transport in the Early Tubular Segments
393(1)
Filtered Bicarbonate Ions are Reabsorbed by Interaction with Hydrogen Ions in the Tubules
394(1)
Primary Active Secretion of Hydrogen Ions in the Intercalated Cells of Late Distal Tubules and Collecting Ducts
394(1)
COMBINATION OF EXCESS HYDROGEN ION WITH PHOSPHATE AND AMMONIA BUFFERS IN THE TUBULE--A MECHANISM FOR GENERATING NEW BICARBONATE IONS
395(2)
The Phosphate Buffer System Carries Excess Hydrogen Ions into the Urine and Generates New Bicarbonate
395(1)
Excretion of Excess Hydrogen Ions and Generation of New Bicarbonate by the Ammonia Buffer System
396(1)
QUANTIFYING RENAL ACID-BASE EXCRETION
397(1)
Regulation of Renal Tubular Hydrogen Ion Secretion
397(1)
RENAL CORRECTION OF ACIDOSIS--INCREASED EXCRETION OF HYDROGEN IONS AND ADDITION OF BICARBONATE IONS TO THE EXTRACELLULAR FLUID
398(1)
RENAL CORRECTION OF ALKALOSIS--DECREASED TUBULAR SECRETION OF HYDROGEN IONS AND INCREASED EXCRETION OF BICARBONATE IONS
399(1)
CLINICAL CAUSES OF ACID-BASE DISORDERS
399(1)
Respiratory Acidosis Is Caused by Decreased Ventilation and Increased PCO(2)
399(1)
Respiratory Alkalosis Results from Increased Ventilation and Decreased PCO(2)
399(1)
Metabolic Acidosis Results from Decreased Extracellular Fluid Bicarbonate Concentration
400(1)
Metabolic Alkalosis Is Caused by Increased Extracellular Fluid Bicarbonate Concentration
400(1)
TREATMENT OF ACIDOSIS OR ALKALOSIS
400(1)
CLINICAL MEASUREMENTS AND ANALYSIS OF ACID-BASE DISORDERS
401(4)
Complex Acid-Base Disorders and the Use of the Acid-Base Nomogram for Diagnosis
402(3)
Chapter 31 Micturition, Diuretics, and Kidney Diseases
405(20)
MICTURITION
405(1)
PHYSIOLOGIC ANATOMY AND NERVOUS CONNECTIONS OF THE BLADDER
405(1)
Innervation of the Bladder
406(1)
TRANSPORT OF URINE FROM THE KIDNEY THROUGH THE URETERS AND INTO THE BLADDER
406(1)
FILLING OF THE BLADDER AND BLADDER WALL TONE: THE CYSTOMETROGRAM
407(1)
MICTURITION REFLEX
407(1)
Facilitation or Inhibition of Micturition by the Brain
407(1)
ABNORMALITIES OF MICTURITION
408(1)
DIURETICS AND THEIR MECHANISMS OF ACTION
408(2)
Osmotic Diuretics Decrease Water Reabsorption by Increasing Osmotic Pressure of the Tubular Fluid
408(1)
"Loop" Diuretics Decrease Active Sodium-Chloride-Potassium Reabsorption in the Thick Ascending Loop of Henle
409(1)
Thiazide Diuretics Inhibit Sodium-Chloride Reabsorption in the Early Distal Tubule
410(1)
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors Block Sodium-Bicarbonate Reabsorption in the Proximal Tubules
410(1)
Competitive Inhibitors of Aldosterone Decrease Sodium Reabsorption from and Potassium Secretion into the Cortical Collecting Tubule
410(1)
Diuretics That Block Sodium Channels in the Collecting Tubules Decrease Sodium Reabsorption
410(1)
KIDNEY DISEASES
410(1)
ACUTE RENAL FAILURE
410(2)
Prerenal Acute Renal Failure Caused by Decreased Blood Flow to the Kidney
411(1)
Intrarenal Acute Renal Failure Caused by Abnormalities Within the Kidney
411(1)
Postrenal Acute Renal Failure Caused by Abnormalities of the Lower Urinary Tract
412(1)
Physiological Effects of Acute Renal Failure
412(1)
CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE: AN IRREVERSIBLE DECREASE IN THE NUMBER OF FUNCTIONAL NEPHRONS
412(7)
Vicious Cycle of Chronic Renal Failure Leading to End-Stage Renal Failure
413(1)
Injury of the Renal Vasculature as a Cause of Chronic Renal Failure
414(1)
Injury to the Glomeruli as a Cause of Chronic Renal Failure--Glomerulonephritis
414(1)
Injury of the Renal Interstitium as a Cause of Chronic Renal Failure--Pyelonephritis
415(1)
Nephrotic Syndrome--Excretion of Protein in the Urine Because of Increased Glomerular Permeability
415(1)
Abnormal Nephron Function in Chronic Renal Failure
415(2)
Effects of Renal Failure on the Body Fluids--Uremia
417(1)
Hypertension and Kidney Disease
418(1)
SPECIFIC TUBULAR DISORDERS
419(1)
TREATMENT OF RENAL FAILURE BY DIALYSIS WITH AN ARTIFICIAL KIDNEY
420(5)
UNIT VI BLOOD CELLS, IMMUNITY, AND BLOOD CLOTTING 425(52)
Chapter 32 Red Blood Cells, Anemia, and Polycythemia
425(10)
RED BLOOD CELLS
425(6)
Production of Red Blood Cells
426(3)
Formation of Hemoglobin
429(1)
Iron Metabolism
430(1)
DESTRUCTION OF RED BLOOD CELLS
431(1)
THE ANEMIAS
431(1)
EFFECTS OF ANEMIA ON THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
432(1)
POLYCYTHEMIA
432(3)
Effect of Polycythemia on the Circulatory System
433(2)
Chapter 33 Resistance of the Body to Infection: I. Leukocytes, Granulocytes, the Monocyte-Macrophage System, and Inflammation
435(10)
LEUKOCYTES (WHITE BLOOD CELLS)
435(2)
General Characteristics of Leukocytes
435(1)
Genesis of the Leukocytes
436(1)
Life Span of the White Blood Cells
436(1)
DEFENSIVE PROPERTIES OF (1) NEUTROPHILS AND (2) MACROPHAGES
436(1)
Phagocytosis
437(1)
MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE SYSTEM (RETICULOENDOTHELIAL SYSTEM)
438(1)
INFLAMMATION AND FUNCTION OF NEUTROPHILS AND MACROPHAGES
439(1)
Inflammation
439(1)
Macrophage and Neutrophil Response During Inflammation
439(1)
EOSINOPHILS
440(1)
BASOPHILS
441(1)
LEUKOPENIA
441(1)
THE LEUKEMIAS
442(3)
Chapter 34 Resistance of the Body to Infection: II. Immunity and Allergy
445(12)
INNATE IMMUNITY
445(1)
ACQUIRED IMMUNITY
445(8)
Basic Types of Acquired Immunity
445(1)
Both Types of Acquired Immunity are Initiated by Antigens
446(1)
Lymphocytes are the Basis of Acquired Immunity
446(1)
Preprocessing of the T and B Lymphocytes
446(1)
T Lymphocytes and B Lymphocyte Antibodies React Highly Specifically Against Specific Antigens--Role of Lymphocyte Clones
447(1)
Origin of Many Clones of Lymphocytes
447(1)
Specific Attributes of the B-Lymphocyte System--Humoral Immunity and the Antibodies
448(3)
Special Attributes of the T-Lymphocyte System--Activated T Cells and "Cell-Mediated Immunity"
451(1)
Several Types of T Cells and Their Different Functions
451(1)
Tolerance of the Acquired Immunity System to One's Own Tissues--Role of Preprocessing in the Thymus and Bone Marrow
452(1)
Vaccination
453(1)
Passive Immunity
453(1)
ALLERGY AND HYPERSENSITIVITY
453(4)
Allergy Caused by Activated T Cells: Delayed-Reaction Allergy
453(1)
Allergies in the So-Called Allergic Person with Excess IGE Antibodies
454(3)
Chapter 35 Blood Groups; Transfusion; Tissue and Organ Transplantation
457(6)
ANTIGENICITY CAUSES IMMUNE REACTIONS OF BLOOD
457(1)
O-A-B BLOOD GROUPS
457(2)
A and B Antigens--Agglutinogens
457(1)
Agglutinins
458(1)
Agglutination Process in Transfusion Reactions
458(1)
Blood Typing
458(1)
RH BLOOD TYPES
459(1)
Rh Immune Response
459(1)
Transfusion Reactions Resulting from Mismatched Blood Types
460(1)
TRANSPLANTATION OF TISSUES AND ORGANS
460(3)
Attempts to Overcome the Immune Reaction to Transplanted Tissue
460(3)
Chapter 36 Hemostasis and Blood Coagulation
463(14)
EVENTS IN HOMEOSTASIS
463(1)
Vascular Constriction
463(1)
Formation of the Platelet Plug
463(1)
Blood Coagulation in the Ruptured Vessel
464(1)
Fibrous Organization or Dissolution of the Blood Clot
464(1)
MECHANISM OF BLOOD COAGULATION
464(5)
Conversion of Prothrombin to Thrombin
465(1)
Conversion of Fibrinogen to Fibrin--Formation of the Clot
465(1)
Vicious Circle of Clot Formation
466(1)
Initiation of Coagulation: Formation of Prothrombin Activator
466(2)
Prevention of Blood Clotting in the Normal Vascular System--The Intravascular Anticoagulants
468(1)
Lysis of Blood Clots--Plasmin
469(1)
CONDITIONS THAT CAUSE EXCESSIVE BLEEDING IN HUMAN BEINGS
469(1)
Decreased Prothrombin, Factor VII, Factor IX, and Factor X Caused by Vitamin K Deficiency
469(1)
Hemophilia
470(1)
Thrombocytopenia
470(1)
THROMBOEMBOLIC CONDITIONS IN THE HUMAN BEING
470(1)
Femoral Thrombosis and Massive Pulmonary Embolism
471(1)
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
471(1)
ANTICOAGULANTS FOR CLINICAL USE
471(1)
Heparin as an Intravenous Anticoagulant
471(1)
Coumarins as Anticoagulants
471(1)
Prevention of Blood Coagulation Outside the Body
471(1)
BLOOD COAGULATION TESTS
472(5)
Bleeding Time
472(1)
Clotting Time
472(1)
Prothrombin Time
472(5)
UNIT VII RESPIRATION 477(72)
Chapter 37 Pulmonary Ventilation
477(14)
MECHANICS OF PULMONARY VENTILATION
477(5)
Muscles That Cause Lung Expansion and Contraction
477(1)
Movement of Air In and Out of the Lungs--and the Pressures That Cause It
478(3)
Effect of the Thoracic Cage on Lung Expansibility
481(1)
"Work" of Breathing
481(1)
PULMONARY VOLUMES AND CAPACITIES
482(2)
Recording Changes in Pulmonary Volume--Spirometry
482(1)
Pulmonary "Volumes"
482(1)
Pulmonary "Capacities"
482(1)
Abbreviations and Symbols Used in Pulmonary Function Studies
483(1)
Determination of Functional Residual Capacity, Residual Volume, and Total Lung Capacity--Helium Dilution Method
484(1)
MINUTE RESPIRATORY VOLUME EQUALS RESPIRATORY RATE TIMES TIDAL VOLUME
484(1)
ALVEOLAR VENTILATION
484(2)
Rate of Alveolar Ventilation
485(1)
FUNCTIONS OF THE RESPIRATORY PASSAGEWAYS
486(5)
Trachea, Bronchi, and Bronchioles
486(1)
Respiratory Functions of the Nose
487(1)
Vocalization
488(3)
Chapter 38 Pulmonary Circulation; Pulmonary Edema; Pleural Fluid
491(10)
PHYSIOLOGIC ANATOMY OF THE PULMONARY CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
491(1)
PRESSURES IN THE PULMONARY SYSTEM
491(1)
BLOOD VOLUME OF THE LUNGS
492(1)
BLOOD FLOW THROUGH THE LUNGS AND ITS DISTRIBUTION
493(1)
EFFECT OF THE HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE GRADIENTS IN THE LUNGS ON REGIONAL PULMONARY BLOOD FLOW
493(2)
Effect of Increased Cardiac Output on the Pulmonary Circulation During Heavy Exercise
494(1)
Function of the Pulmonary Circulation When the Left Atrial Pressure Rises as a Result of Left-Sided Heart Failure
495(1)
PULMONARY CAPILLARY DYNAMICS
495(2)
Capillary Exchange of Fluid in the Lungs, and Pulmonary Interstitial Fluid Dynamics
495(1)
Pulmonary Edema
496(1)
FLUIDS IN THE PLEURAL CAVITY
497(4)
Chapter 39 Physical Principles of Gas Exchange; Diffusion of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Through the Respiratory Membrane
501(12)
PHYSICS OF GAS DIFFUSION AND GAS PARTIAL PRESSURES
501(2)
Molecular Basis of Gas Diffusion
501(1)
Gas Pressures in a Mixture of Gases--Partial Pressures of Individual Gases
501(1)
Pressures of Gases Dissolved in Water and Tissues
502(1)
Vapor Pressure of Water
502(1)
Diffusion of Gases Through Fluids--Pressure Difference Causes Net Diffusion
502(1)
Diffusion of Gases Through Tissues
503(1)
COMPOSITION OF ALVEOLAR AIR--ITS RELATION TO ATMOSPHERIC AIR
503(2)
Rate at Which Alveolar Air Is Renewed by Atmospheric Air
504(1)
Oxygen Concentration and Partial Pressure in the Alveoli
504(1)
CO(2) Concentration and Partial Pressure in the Alveoli
505(1)
Expired Air
505(1)
DIFFUSION OF GASES THROUGH THE RESPIRATORY MEMBRANE
505(4)
Factors That Affect the Rate of Gas Diffusion Through the Respiratory Membrane
506(2)
Diffusing Capacity of the Respiratory Membrane
508(1)
EFFECT OF THE VENTILATION-PERFUSION RATIO ON ALVEOLAR GAS CONCENTRATION
509(4)
Chapter 40 Transport of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide in the Blood and Body Fluids
513(12)
PRESSURES OF OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE IN THE LUNGS, BLOOD, AND TISSUES
513(3)
Uptake of Oxygen by the Pulmonary Blood
513(1)
Transport of Oxygen in the Arterial Blood
514(1)
Diffusion of Oxygen from the Peripheral Capillaries into the Tissue Fluid
514(1)
Diffusion of Oxygen from the Capillaries to the Cells
515(1)
Diffusion of Carbon Dioxide from the Tissue Cells into the Tissue Capillaries and from the Pulmonary Capillaries into the Alveoli
515(1)
TRANSPORT OF OXYGEN IN THE BLOOD
516(4)
Reversible Combination of Oxygen with Hemoglobin
516(1)
Effect of Hemoglobin to "Buffer" the Tissue Oxygen PO(2)
517(1)
Factors That Shift the Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve--Their Importance for Oxygen Transport
518(1)
Metabolic Use of Oxygen by the Cells
519(1)
Transport of Oxygen in the Dissolved State
519(1)
Combination of Hemoglobin With Carbon Monoxide--Displacement of Oxygen
520(1)
TRANSPORT OF CARBON DIOXIDE IN THE BLOOD
520(2)
Chemical Forms in Which Carbon Dioxide is Transported
520(1)
Carbon Dioxide Dissociation Curve
521(1)
When Oxygen Binds With Hemoglobin, Carbon Dioxide is Released--The Haldane Effect to Increase CO(2) Transport
522(1)
Change in Blood Acidity During Carbon Dioxide Transport
522(1)
RESPIRATORY EXCHANGE RATIO
522(3)
Chapter 41 Regulation of Respiration
525(12)
RESPIRATORY CENTER
525(2)
Control of Overall Respiratory Center Activity
527(1)
CHEMICAL CONTROL OF RESPIRATION
527(2)
Direct Chemical Control of Respiratory Center Activity by Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen Ions
527(2)
PERIPHERAL CHEMORECEPTOR SYSTEM FOR CONTROL OF RESPIRATORY ACTIVITY--ROLE OF OXYGEN IN RESPIRATORY CONTROL
529(3)
Quantitative Effect of Low Arterial PO(2) on Alveolar Ventilation
530(1)
Composite Effects of PCO(2), pH, and PO(2) on Alveolar Ventilation
531(1)
REGULATION OF RESPIRATION DURING EXERCISE
532(1)
OTHER FACTORS THAT AFFECT RESPIRATION
533(4)
Periodic Breathing
534(3)
Chapter 42 Respiratory Insufficiency--Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Oxygen Therapy
537(12)
Useful Methods for Studying Respiratory Abnormalities
537(1)
Study of Blood Gases and pH
537(1)
Measurement of Maximum Expiratory Flow
538(1)
Forced Expiratory Vital Capacity and Forced Expiratory Volume
539(1)
PHYSIOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF SPECIFIC PULMONARY ABNORMALITIES
539(3)
Chronic Pulmonary Emphysema
539(1)
Pneumonia
540(1)
Atelectasis
541(1)
Asthma
541(1)
Tuberculosis
542(1)
HYPOXIA AND OXYGEN THERAPY
542(1)
Oxygen Therapy in the Different Types of Hypoxia
542(1)
HYPERCAPNIA
543(1)
Cyanosis
543(1)
Dyspnea
544(1)
ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION
544(5)
UNIT VIII AVIATION, SPACE, AND DEEP SEA DIVING PHYSIOLOGY 549(16)
Chapter 43 Aviation, High Altitude, and Space Physiology
549(8)
EFFECTS OF LOW OXYGEN PRESSURE ON THE BODY
549(3)
Alveolar PO(2) at Different Elevations
549(1)
Effect of Breathing Pure Oxygen on Alveolar PO(2) at Different Altitudes
550(1)
Acute Effects of Hypoxia
550(1)
Acclimatization to Low PO(2)
550(1)
Natural Acclimatization of Natives Living at High Altitudes
551(1)
Work Capacity at High Altitudes: The Effect of Acclimatization
551(1)
Chronic Mountain Sickness
552(1)
Acute Mountain Sickness and High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema
552(1)
EFFECTS OF ACCELERATORY FORCES ON THE BODY IN AVIATION AND SPACE PHYSIOLOGY
552(2)
Centrifugal Acceleratory Forces
552(1)
Effects of Linear Acceleratory Forces on the Body
553(1)
"ARTIFICIAL CLIMATE" IN THE SEALED SPACECRAFT
554(1)
WEIGHTLESSNESS IN SPACE
554(3)
Chapter 44 Physiology of Deep Sea Diving and other Hyperbaric Conditions
557(8)
EFFECT OF HIGH PARTIAL PRESSURES OF GASES ON THE BODY
557(4)
Oxygen Toxicity at High Pressures
558(1)
Decompression of the Diver After Exposure to High Pressures
559(2)
SCUBA DIVING (SELF-CONTAINED UNDERWATER BREATHING APPARATUS)
561(1)
SPECIAL PHYSIOLOGICAL PROBLEMS IN SUBMARINES
561(1)
HYPERBARIC OXYGEN THERAPY
561(4)
UNIT IX THE NERVOUS SYSTEM: A. GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND SENSORY PHYSIOLOGY 565(58)
Chapter 45 Organization of the Nervous System; Basic Functions of Synapses and Transmitter Substances
565(18)
GENERAL DESIGN OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
565(2)
Central Nervous System Neuron--The Basic Functional Unit
565(1)
Sensory Division of the Nervous System--Sensory Receptors
565(1)
Motor Division--The Effectors
566(1)
Processing of Information--"Integrative" Function of the Nervous System
566(1)
Storage of Information--Memory
567(1)
MAJOR LEVELS OF CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM FUNCTION
567(1)
COMPARISON OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM WITH AN ELECTRONIC COMPUTER
568(1)
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM SYNAPSES
569(12)
Physiologic Anatomy of the Synapse
569(3)
Chemical Substances That Function as Synaptic Transmitters
572(2)
Electrical Events During Neuronal Excitation
574(3)
Electrical Events in Neuronal Inhibition
577(2)
Special Functions of Dendrites in Exciting Neurons
579(1)
Relation of State of Excitation of the Neuron to the Rate of Firing
580(1)
SOME SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION
581(2)
Chapter 46 Sensory Receptors; Neuronal Circuits for Processing Information
583(12)
TYPES OF SENSORY RECEPTORS AND THE SENSORY STIMULI THEY DETECT
583(1)
Differential Sensitivity of Receptors
583(1)
TRANSDUCTION OF SENSORY STIMULI INTO NERVE IMPULSES
584(3)
Local Currents at Nerve Endings--Receptor Potentials
584(2)
Adaptation of Receptors
586(1)
NERVE FIBERS THAT TRANSMIT DIFFERENT TYPES OF SIGNALS AND THEIR PHYSIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION
587(1)
TRANSMISSION OF SIGNALS OF DIFFERENT INTENSITY IN NERVE TRACTS--SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL SUMMATION
588(1)
TRANSMISSION AND PROCESSING OF SIGNALS IN NEURONAL POOLS
589(4)
Relaying of Signals Through Neuronal Pools
589(2)
Prolongation of a Signal by a Neuronal Pool--"Afterdischarge"
591(2)
Rhythmical Signal Output
593(1)
INSTABILITY AND STABILITY OF NEURONAL CIRCUITS
593(2)
Chapter 47 Somatic Sensations: I. General Organization; the Tactile and Position Senses
595(14)
Classification of Somatic Senses
595(1)
DETECTION AND TRANSMISSION OF TACTILE SENSATIONS
595(2)
Detection of Vibration
597(1)
Tickling and Itch
597(1)
SENSORY PATHWAYS FOR TRANSMISSION OF SOMATIC SIGNALS INTO THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
597(1)
TRANSMISSION IN THE DORSAL COLUMN--MEDICAL LEMNISCAL SYSTEM
598(7)
Anatomy of the Dorsal Column--Medial Lemniscal System
598(1)
Somatic Sensory Cortex
599(2)
Somatic Sensory Association Areas
601(1)
Overall Characteristics of Signal Transmission and Analysis in the Dorsal Column--Medial Lemniscal System
602(1)
Psychic Interpretation of Sensory Stimulus Intensity
603(1)
Judgment of Stimulus Intensity
604(1)
Position Senses
604(1)
TRANSMISSION OF CRUDE TACTILE SENSORY SIGNALS IN THE ANTEROLATERAL PATHWAY
605(1)
Anatomy of the Anterolateral Pathway
605(1)
SOME SPECIAL ASPECTS OF SOMATIC SENSORY FUNCTION
606(3)
Chapter 48 Somatic Sensations: II. Pain, Headache, and Thermal Sensations
609(14)
TYPES OF PAIN AND THEIR QUALITIES--FAST PAIN AND SLOW PAIN
609(1)
PAIN RECEPTORS AND THEIR STIMULATION
609(1)
Rate of Tissue Damage as a Cause of Pain
610(1)
DUAL TRANSMISSION OF PAIN SIGNALS INTO THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
610(3)
PAIN SUPPRESSION ("ANALGESIA") SYSTEM IN THE BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD
613(1)
REFERRED PAIN
614(1)
VISCERAL PAIN
615(1)
Causes of True Visceral Pain
615(1)
Parietal Pain Caused by Visceral Damage
615(1)
Localization of Visceral Pain--The "Visceral" and the "Parietal" Transmission Pathways
615(1)
SOME CLINICAL ABNORMALITIES OF PAIN AND OTHER SOMATIC SENSATIONS
616(1)
Hyperalgesia
616(1)
Thalamic Syndrome
616(1)
Herpes Zoster (Shingles)
617(1)
Tic Douloureux
617(1)
Brown-Sequard Syndrome
617(1)
HEADACHE
617(2)
Headache of Intracranial Origin
617(1)
Extracranial Types of Headache
618(1)
THERMAL SENSATIONS
619(4)
Thermal Receptors and Their Excitation
619(1)
Transmission of Thermal Signals in the Nervous System
620(3)
UNIT X THE NERVOUS SYSTEM: B. THE SPECIAL SENSES 623(62)
Chapter 49 The Eye: I. Optics of Vision
623(14)
PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES OF OPTICS
623(3)
Refraction of Light
623(1)
Application of Refractive Principles to Lenses
623(2)
Focal Length of a Lens
625(1)
Formation of an Image by a Convex Lens
625(1)
Measurement of the Refractive Power of a Lens--The Diopter
626(1)
OPTICS OF THE EYE
626(6)
The Eye as a Camera
626(1)
Mechanism of Accommodation
627(1)
Pupillary Diameter
628(1)
Errors of Refraction
628(3)
Visual Acuity
631(1)
Determination of Distance of an Object from the Eye--Depth Perception
631(1)
OPHTHALMOSCOPE
632(1)
FLUID SYSTEM OF THE EYE--INTRAOCULAR FLUID
632(5)
Formation of Aqueous Humor by the Ciliary Body
633(1)
Outflow of Aqueous Humor from the Eye
633(1)
Intraocular Pressure
634(3)
Chapter 50 The Eye: II. Receptor and Neural Function of the Retina
637(14)
ANATOMY AND FUNCTION OF THE STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS OF THE RETINA
637(1)
PHOTOCHEMISTRY OF VISION
637(6)
Rhodopsin-Retinal Visual Cycle, and Excitation of the Rods
640(2)
Automatic Regulation of Retinal Sensitivity--Light and Dark Adaptation
642(1)
COLOR VISION
643(2)
Tricolor Mechanism of Color Detection
643(1)
Color Blindness
644(1)
NEURAL FUNCTION OF THE RETINA
645(6)
Neural Circuitry of the Retina
645(3)
Ganglion Cells
648(1)
Excitation of the Ganglion Cells
648(3)
Chapter 51 The Eye: III. Central Neurophysiology of Vision
651(12)
Visual Pathways
651(1)
ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTION OF THE VISUAL CORTEX
652(2)
NEURONAL PATTERNS OF STIMULATION DURING ANALYSIS OF THE VISUAL IMAGE
654(1)
FIELDS OF VISION: PERIMETRY
655(1)
EYE MOVEMENTS AND THEIR CONTROL
656(3)
Fixation Movements of the Eyes
656(3)
Fusion of the Visual Images from the Two Eyes
659(1)
AUTONOMIC CONTROL OF ACCOMMODATION AND PUPILLARY APERTURE
659(4)
Control of Accommodation (Focusing the Eyes)
660(1)
Control of Pupillary Diameter
660(3)
Chapter 52 The Sense of Hearing
663(12)
TYMPANIC MEMBRANE AND THE OSSICULAR SYSTEM
663(1)
Conduction of Sound from the Tympanic Membrane to the Cochlea
663(1)
Transmission of Sound Through Bone
664(1)
THE COCHLEA
664(5)
Functional Anatomy of the Cochlea
664(2)
Transmission of Sound Waves in the Cochlea--The "Traveling Wave"
666(1)
Function of the Organ of Corti
667(1)
Determination of Sound Frequency--The "Place" Principle
668(1)
Determination of Loudness
668(1)
CENTRAL AUDITORY MECHANISMS
669(3)
Auditory Pathway
669(1)
Function of the Cerebral Cortex in Hearing
670(1)
Determination of the Direction from Which Sound Emanates
671(1)
Centrifugal Signals from the Central Nervous System to Lower Auditory Centers
672(1)
HEARING ABNORMALITIES
672(3)
Types of Deafness
672(3)
Chapter 53 The Chemical Senses--Taste and Smell
675(10)
SENSE OF TASTE
675(3)
Primary Sensations of Taste
675(1)
Taste Bud and Its Function
676(1)
Transmission of Taste Signals into the Central Nervous System
677(1)
Taste Preference and Control of the Diet
678(1)
SENSE OF SMELL
678(7)
Olfactory Membrane
678(1)
Stimulation of the Olfactory Cells
679(1)
Transmission of Smell Signals into the Central Nervous System
680(5)
UNIT XI THE NERVOUS SYSTEM: C. MOTOR AND INTEGRATIVE NEUROPHYSIOLOGY 685(108)
Chapter 54 Motor Functions of the Spinal Cord; The Cord Reflexes
685(14)
Organization of the Spinal Cord for Motor Functions
686(1)
MUSCLE SENSORY RECEPTORS--MUSCLE SPINDLES AND GOLGI TENDON ORGANS AND THEIR ROLES IN MUSCLE CONTROL
687(5)
Receptor Function of the Muscle Spindle
687(2)
Muscle Stretch Reflex
689(1)
Role of the Muscle Spindle in Voluntary Motor Activity
690(1)
Clinical Applications of the Stretch Reflex
690(1)
Golgi Tendon Reflex
691(1)
Function of the Muscle Spindles and Golgi Tendon Organs in Conjunction with Motor Control from Higher Levels of the Brain
692(1)
FLEXOR REFLEX AND THE WITHDRAWAL REFLEXES
692(1)
CROSSED EXTENSOR REFLEX
693(1)
RECIPROCAL INHIBITION AND RECIPROCAL INNERVATION
693(1)
REFLEXES OF POSTURE AND LOCOMOTION
694(1)
Postural and Locomotive Reflexes of the Cord
694(1)
SCRATCH REFLEX
695(1)
SPINAL CORD REFLEXES THAT CAUSE MUSCLE SPASM
695(1)
AUTONOMIC REFLEXES IN THE SPINAL CORD
696(1)
SPINAL CORD TRANSECTION AND SPINAL SHOCK
696(3)
Chapter 55 Cortical and Brain Stem Control of Motor Function
699(16)
THE MOTOR CORTEX AND CORTICOSPINAL TRACT
699(6)
Some Specialized Areas of Motor Control Found in the Human Motor Cortex
700(1)
Transmission of Signals from the Motor Cortex to the Muscles
701(1)
Incoming Fiber Pathways to the Motor Cortex
702(1)
The Red Nucleus Serves as an Alternate Pathway for Transmitting Cortical Signals to the Spinal Cord
702(1)
"Extrapyramidal" System
703(1)
Excitation of the Spinal Cord by the Primary Motor Cortex and the Red Nucleus
703(2)
ROLE OF THE BRAIN STEM IN CONTROLLING MOTOR FUNCTION
705(2)
Support of the Body Against Gravity--Roles of the Reticular and Vestibular Nuclei
706(1)
VESTIBULAR SENSATIONS AND THE MAINTENANCE OF EQUILIBRIUM
707(5)
Vestibular Apparatus
707(2)
Function of the Utricle and Saccule in the Maintenance of Static Equilibrium
709(1)
Detection of Head Rotation by the Semicircular Ducts
709(1)
Vestibular Postural Reflexes
710(1)
Vestibular Mechanism for Stabilizing the Eyes
711(1)
Other Factors Concerned with Equilibrium
711(1)
FUNCTIONS OF SPECIFIC BRAIN STEM NUCLEI IN CONTROLLING SUBCONSCIOUS, STEREOTYPED MOVEMENTS
712(3)
Chapter 56 The Cerebellum, the Basal Ganglia, and Overall Motor Control
715(18)
THE CEREBELLUM AND ITS MOTOR FUNCTIONS
715(10)
Anatomical Functional Areas of the Cerebellum
716(2)
Neuronal Circuit of the Cerebellum
718(3)
Function of the Cerebellum in Overall Motor Control
721(3)
Clinical Abnormalities of the Cerebellum
724(1)
THE BASAL GANGLIA--THEIR MOTOR FUNCTIONS
725(4)
Functions of Specific Neurotransmitters in the Basal Ganglial System
728(1)
Clinical Syndromes Resulting from Damage to the Basal Ganglia
728(1)
INTEGRATION OF ALL PARTS OF THE TOTAL MOTOR CONTROL SYSTEM
729(4)
What Drives Us to Action?
730(3)
Chapter 57 The Cerebral Cortex; Intellectual Functions of the Brain; and Learning and Memory
733(16)
Physiologic Anatomy of the Cerebral Cortex
733(1)
FUNCTIONS OF SPECIFIC CORTICAL AREAS
734(5)
Association Areas
735(2)
Interpretative Function of the Posterior Superior Temporal Lobe--"Wernicke's Area" (A General Interpretative Area)
737(1)
Functions of the Parieto-occipitotemporal Cortex in the Nondominant Hemisphere
738(1)
Higher Intellectual Functions of the Prefrontal Association Area
738(1)
FUNCTION OF THE BRAIN IN COMMUNICATION--LANGUAGE INPUT AND LANGUAGE OUTPUT
739(2)
FUNCTION OF THE CORPUS CALLOSUM AND ANTERIOR COMMISSURE TO TRANSFER THOUGHTS, MEMORIES, TRAINING, AND OTHER INFORMATION BETWEEN THE TWO CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES
741(1)
THOUGHTS, CONSCIOUSNESS, AND MEMORY
742(7)
Memory--Roles of Synaptic Facilitation and Synaptic Inhibition
742(1)
Short-Term Memory
743(1)
Intermediate Long-Term Memory
743(1)
Long-Term Memory
744(1)
Consolidation of Memory
745(4)
Chapter 58 Behavioral and Motivational Mechanisms of the Brain--The Limbic System and the Hypothalamus
749(12)
ACTIVATING-DRIVING SYSTEMS OF THE BRAIN
749(3)
Control of Cerebral Activity by Continuous Excitatory Signals from the Brain Stem
749(2)
Neurohormonal Control of Brain Activity
751(1)
THE LIMBIC SYSTEM
752(1)
FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY OF THE LIMBIC SYSTEM: THE KEY POSITION OF THE HYPOTHALAMUS
752(1)
THE HYPOTHALAMUS, A MAJOR CONTROL HEADQUARTER FOR THE LIMBIC SYSTEM
753(4)
Vegetative and Endocrine Control Functions of the Hypothalamus
754(1)
Behavioral Functions of the Hypothalamus and Associated Limbic Structures
755(1)
"Reward" and "Punishment" Function of the Limbic System
756(1)
Importance of Reward and Punishment in Behavior
757(1)
SPECIFIC FUNCTIONS OF OTHER PARTS OF THE LIMBIC SYSTEM
757(4)
Functions of the Hippocampus
757(1)
Functions of the Amygdala
758(1)
Function of the Limbic Cortex
759(2)
Chapter 59 States of Brain Activity--Sleep; Brain Waves; Epilepsy; Psychoses
761(8)
SLEEP
761(2)
Slow-Wave Sleep
761(1)
REM Sleep (Paradoxical Sleep, Desynchronized Sleep)
761(1)
Basic Theories of Sleep
762(1)
Physiological Effects of Sleep
763(1)
BRAIN WAVES
763(2)
Origin in the Brain of the Brain Waves
764(1)
Effect of Varying Degrees of Cerebral Activity on the Basic Frequency of the EEG
765(1)
EEG Changes in the Different Stages of Wakefulness and Sleep
765(1)
EPILEPSY
765(2)
Grand Mal Epilepsy
765(1)
Petit Mal Epilepsy
766(1)
Focal Epilepsy
766(1)
PSYCHOTIC BEHAVIOR AND DEMENTIA--ROLES OF SPECIFIC NEUROTRANSMITTER SYSTEMS
767(2)
Chapter 60 The Autonomic Nervous System; The Adrenal Medulla
769(14)
GENERAL ORGANIZATION OF THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
769(2)
Physiologic Anatomy of the Sympathetic Nervous System
769(2)
Physiologic Anatomy of the Parasympathetic Nervous System
771(1)
BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SYMPATHETIC AND PARASYMPATHETIC FUNCTION
771(7)
Cholinergic and Adrenergic Fibers--Secretion of Acetylcholine or Norepinephrine
771(1)
Receptors on the Effector Organs
772(2)
Excitatory and Inhibitory Actions of Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Stimulation
774(1)
Effects of Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Stimulation on Specific Organs
774(2)
Function of the Adrenal Medullae
776(1)
Relation of Stimulus Rate to Degree of Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Effect
776(1)
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic "Tone"
777(1)
Denervation Supersensitivity of Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Organs After Denervation
777(1)
AUTONOMIC REFLEXES
778(1)
STIMULATION OF DISCRETE ORGANS IN SOME INSTANCES AND MASS STIMULATION IN OTHER INSTANCES BY THE SYMPATHETIC AND PARASYMPATHETIC SYSTEMS
778(2)
"Alarm" or "Stress" Response of the Sympathetic Nervous System
779(1)
Medullary, Pontine, and Mesencephalic Control of the Autonomic Nervous System
779(1)
PHARMACOLOGY OF THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
780(3)
Drugs That Act on Adrenergic Effector Organs--The Sympathomimetic Drugs
780(1)
Drugs That Act on Cholinergic Effector Organs
780(1)
Drugs That Stimulate or Block Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Postganglionic Neurons
780(3)
Chapter 61 Cerebral Blood Flow, the Cerebrospinal Fluid, and Brain Metabolism
783(10)
CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW
783(2)
Normal Rate of Cerebral Blood Flow
783(1)
Regulation of Cerebral Blood Flow
783(2)
Cerebral Microcirculation
785(1)
A Cerebral "Stroke" Occurs When Cerebral Blood Vessels Are Blocked
785(1)
CEREBROSPINAL FLUID SYSTEM
785(4)
Cushioning Function of the Cerebrospinal Fluid
786(1)
Formation, Flow, and Absorption of Cerebrospinal Fluid
786(1)
Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure
787(1)
Obstruction to the Flow of Cerebrospinal Fluid Causes Hydrocephalus
788(1)
Blood-Cerebrospinal Fluid and Blood-Brain Barriers
788(1)
Brain Edema
788(1)
BRAIN METABOLISM
789(4)
UNIT XII GASTROINTESTINAL PHYSIOLOGY 793(62)
Chapter 62 General Principles of Gastrointestinal Function--Motility, Nervous Control, and Blood Circulation
793(10)
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF GASTROINTESTINAL MOTILITY
793(2)
Characteristics of the Gastrointestinal Wall
793(2)
NEURAL CONTROL OF GASTROINTESTINAL FUNCTION
795(3)
Hormonal Control of Gastrointestinal Motility
798(1)
FUNCTIONAL TYPES OF MOVEMENTS IN THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT
798(1)
GASTROINTESTINAL BLOOD FLOW
799(4)
Chapter 63 Transport and Mixing of Food in the Alimentary Tract
803(12)
INGESTION OF FOOD
803(3)
Mastication (Chewing)
803(1)
Swallowing (Deglutition)
804(2)
MOTOR FUNCTIONS OF THE STOMACH
806(2)
Storage Function of the Stomach
806(1)
Mixing and Propulsion of Food in the Stomach--The Basic Electrical Rhythm of the Stomach
806(1)
Emptying of the Stomach
807(1)
Regulation of Stomach Emptying
807(1)
MOVEMENTS OF THE SMALL INTESTINE
808(2)
Mixing Contractions (Segmentation Contractions)
808(1)
Propulsive Movements
809(1)
Function of the Ileocecal Valve
810(2)
MOVEMENTS OF THE COLON
810(2)
Defecation
811(1)
OTHER AUTONOMIC REFLEXES THAT AFFECT BOWEL ACTIVITY
812(3)
Chapter 64 Secretory Functions of the Alimentary Tract
815(18)
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF ALIMENTARY TRACT SECRETION
815(2)
Anatomical Types of Glands
815(1)
Basic Mechanisms of Stimulation of the Alimentary Tract Glands
815(1)
Basic Mechanism of Secretion by Glandular Cells
816(1)
Lubricating and Protective Properties of Mucus and Its Importance in the Gastrointestinal Tract
817(1)
SECRETION OF SALIVA
817(2)
ESOPHAGEAL SECRETION
819(1)
GASTRIC SECRETION
819(5)
Characteristics of the Gastric Secretions
819(2)
Regulation of Gastric Secretion by Nervous and Hormonal Mechanisms
821(2)
Chemical Composition of Gastrin and Other Gastrointestinal Hormones
823(1)
PANCREATIC SECRETION
824(3)
Regulation of Pancreatic Secretion
825(2)
SECRETION OF BILE BY THE LIVER; FUNCTIONS OF THE BILIARY TREE
827(3)
Bile Salts and their Function
829(1)
Secretion of Cholesterol; Gallstone Formation
829(1)
SECRETIONS OF THE SMALL INTESTINE
830(1)
Secretion of the Intestinal Digestive Juices by the Crypts of Lieberkuhn
830(1)
Regulation of Small Intestinal Secretion
831(1)
SECRETIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE
831(2)
Chapter 65 Digestion and Absorption in the Gastrointestinal Tract
833(12)
DIGESTION OF THE VARIOUS FOODS
833(4)
Digestion of Carbohydrates
834(1)
Digestion of Proteins
834(1)
Digestion of Fats
835(2)
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF GASTROINTESTINAL ABSORPTION
837(2)
Anatomical Basis of Absorption
837(1)
Basic Mechanisms of Absorption
838(1)
ABSORPTION IN THE SMALL INTESTINE
839(4)
Absorption of Water
839(1)
Absorption of Ions
839(2)
Absorption of Nutrients
841(2)
ABSORPTION IN THE LARGE INTESTINE: FORMATION OF THE FECES
843(2)
Chapter 66 Physiology of Gastrointestinal Disorders
845(10)
DISORDERS OF SWALLOWING AND OF THE ESOPHAGUS
845(1)
DISORDERS OF THE STOMACH
845(2)
Peptic Ulcer
846(1)
DISORDERS OF THE SMALL INTESTINE
847(1)
DISORDERS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE
848(1)
Constipation
848(1)
Diarrhea
848(1)
Paralysis of Defecation in Spinal Cord Injuries
849(1)
GENERAL DISORDERS OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT
849(6)
Vomiting
849(1)
Nausea
850(1)
Gastrointestinal Obstruction
850(1)
Gases in the Gastrointestinal Tract; "Flatus"
851(4)
UNIT XIII METABOLISM AND TEMPERATURE REGULATION 855(70)
Chapter 67 Metabolism of Carbohydrates and Formation of Adenosine Triphosphate
855(10)
Release of Energy from Foods and the Concept of "Free Energy"
855(1)
Role of Adenosine Triphosphate in Metabolism
855(1)
CENTRAL ROLE OF GLUCOSE IN CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM
856(1)
TRANSPORT OF GLUCOSE THROUGH THE CELL MEMBRANE
857(1)
Phosphorylation of Glucose
857(1)
STORAGE OF GLYCOGEN IN LIVER AND MUSCLE
857(1)
Glycogenesis
857(1)
Removal of Stored Glycogen--Glycogenolysis
857(1)
RELEASE OF ENERGY FROM THE GLUCOSE MOLECULE BY THE GLYCOLYTIC PATHWAY
858(4)
Glycolysis; The Formation of Pyruvic Acid
858(1)
Conversion of Pyruvic Acid to Acetylcoenzyme A
859(1)
Citric Acid Cycle
859(1)
Formation of Large Quantities of ATP by Oxidation of Hydrogen (The Process of Oxidative Phosphorylation)
860(1)
Summary of ATP Formation During the Breakdown of Glucose
861(1)
Control of Energy Release from Stored Glycogen When the Body Needs the Energy: Effect of ATP and ADP Concentrations in the Cell to Control the Rate of Glycolysis
861(1)
Anaerobic Release of Energy--"Anaerobic Glycolysis"
862(1)
RELEASE OF ENERGY FROM GLUCOSE BY THE PENTOSE PHOSPHATE PATHWAY
862(1)
Glucose Conversion to Glycogen or Fat
863(1)
FORMATION OF CARBOHYDRATES FROM PROTEINS AND FATS--"GLUCONEOGENESIS"
863(1)
BLOOD GLUCOSE
863(2)
Chapter 68 Lipid Metabolism
865(12)
TRANSPORT OF LIPIDS IN THE BODY FLUIDS
865(2)
Transport of Fatty Acids in the Blood in Combination with Albumin--"Free Fatty Acid"
866(1)
Lipoproteins--Their Special Function in Transporting Cholesterol and Phospholipids
866(1)
FAT DEPOSITS
867(1)
Adipose Tissue
867(1)
Liver Lipids
867(1)
USE OF TRIGLYCERIDES FOR ENERGY: FORMATION OF ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE
867(3)
Formation of Acetoacetic Acid in the Liver and Its Transport in the Blood
868(1)
Synthesis of Triglycerides from Carbohydrates
869(1)
Synthesis of Triglycerides from Proteins
870(1)
REGULATION OF ENERGY RELEASE FROM TRIGLYCERIDES
870(1)
Obesity
871(1)
PHOSPHOLIPIDS AND CHOLESTEROL
871(2)
Phospholipids
871(1)
Cholesterol
872(1)
Cellular Structural Functions of Phospholipids and Cholesterol--Especially for Membranes
873(1)
ATHEROSCLEROSIS
873(4)
Chapter 69 Protein Metabolism
877(6)
BASIC PROPERTIES
877(1)
Amino Acids
877(1)
TRANSPORT AND STORAGE OF AMINO ACIDS
878(1)
Blood Amino Acids
878(1)
Storage of Amino Acids as Proteins in the Cells
879(1)
FUNCTIONAL ROLES OF THE PLASMA PROTEINS
879(2)
Essential and Nonessential Amino Acids
880(1)
Use of Proteins for Energy
880(1)
Obligatory Degradation of Proteins
881(1)
HORMONAL REGULATION OF PROTEIN METABOLISM
881(2)
Chapter 70 The Liver as an Organ
883(6)
Physiologic Anatomy of the Liver
883(1)
FUNCTION OF THE HEPATIC VASCULAR SYSTEM
883(2)
METABOLIC FUNCTIONS OF THE LIVER
885(1)
Carbohydrate Metabolism
885(1)
Fat Metabolism
885(1)
Protein Metabolism
885(1)
Miscellaneous Metabolic Functions of the Liver
886(1)
EXCRETION OF BILIRUBIN IN THE BILE--USE OF THIS AS A CLINICAL DIAGNOSTIC TOOL
886(3)
Chapter 71 Dietary Balances; Regulation of Feeding; Obesity and Starvation; Vitamins and Minerals
889(14)
DIETARY BALANCES
889(2)
Energy Available in Foods
889(2)
REGULATION OF FOOD INTAKE
891(2)
Neural Centers for Regulation of Food Intake
891(1)
Factors That Regulate Quantity of Food Intake
892(1)
OBESITY
893(1)
Treatment of Obesity
894(1)
INANITION
894(1)
STARVATION
894(1)
VITAMINS
895(4)
Vitamin A
895(1)
Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
895(1)
Niacin
896(1)
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
896(1)
Vitamin B(12)
897(1)
Folic Acid (Pteroylglutamic Acid)
897(1)
Pyridoxine (Vitamin B(6))
897(1)
Pantothenic Acid
898(1)
Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)
898(1)
Vitamin D
898(1)
Vitamin E
898(1)
Vitamin K
899(1)
MINERAL METABOLISM
899(4)
Chapter 72 Energetics and Metabolic Rate
903(8)
ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE FUNCTIONS AS AN "ENERGY CURRENCY" IN METABOLISM
903(2)
Phosphocreatine as an Accessory Storage Depot for Energy and for Buffering the Concentration of ATP
904(1)
Anaerobic Versus Aerobic Energy
904(1)
Summary of Energy Utilization by the Cells
905(1)
CONTROL OF ENERGY RELEASE IN THE CELL
905(1)
METABOLIC RATE
906(5)
Measurement of the Whole-Body Metabolic Rate
907(1)
Factors That Affect the Metabolic Rate
907(2)
Basal Metabolic Rate
909(2)
Chapter 73 Body Temperature, Temperature Regulation, and Fever
911(14)
Normal Body Temperatures
911(1)
BODY TEMPERATURE IS CONTROLLED BY BALANCING HEAT PRODUCTION AGAINST HEAT LOSS
911(5)
Heat Production
911(1)
Heat Loss
912(4)
REGULATION OF BODY TEMPERATURE--ROLE OF THE HYPOTHALAMUS
916(4)
Neuronal Effector Mechanisms That Decrease or Increase Body Temperature
917(1)
Concept of a "Set-Point" for Temperature Control
918(1)
Behavioral Control of Body Temperature
919(1)
Local Skin Temperature Reflexes
919(1)
ABNORMALITIES OF BODY TEMPERATURE REGULATION
920(5)
Fever
920(2)
Exposure of the Body to Extreme Cold
922(3)
UNIT XIV ENDOCRINOLOGY AND REPRODUCTION 925(134)
Chapter 74 Introduction to Endocrinology
925(8)
Nature of a Hormone
925(1)
Overview of the Important Endocrine Glands and Their Hormones
926(1)
Chemistry of the Hormones
927(1)
Storage and Secretion of Hormones
927(1)
Hormone Receptors and Their Activation
928(1)
MECHANISMS OF HORMONAL ACTION
928(2)
Second Messenger Mechanisms for Mediating Intracellular Hormone Functions
929(1)
Hormones that Act Mainly on the Genetic Machinery of the Cell
930(1)
MEASUREMENT OF HORMONE CONCENTRATIONS IN THE BLOOD
930(3)
Chapter 75 The Pituitary Hormones and Their Control by the Hypothalamus
933(12)
THE PITUITARY GLAND AND ITS RELATION TO THE HYPOTHALAMUS
933(1)
CELL TYPES IN THE ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND
933(2)
CONTROL OF PITUITARY SECRETION BY THE HYPOTHALAMUS
935(1)
Hypothalamic-Hypophysial Portal System
935(1)
PHYSIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS OF GROWTH HORMONE
936(6)
Effect of Growth Hormone to Cause Growth
936(1)
Metabolic Effects of Growth Hormone
936(2)
Stimulation of Cartilage and Bone Growth
938(1)
Growth Hormone Exerts Much of Its Effects Through Intermediate Substances called "Somatomedins," Also Called "Insulin-Like Growth Factors"
938(1)
Regulation of Growth Hormone Secretion
939(1)
Abnormalities of Growth Hormone Secretion
940(2)
THE POSTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND AND ITS RELATION TO THE HYPOTHALAMUS
942(3)
Chemical Nature of ADH and Oxytocin
942(1)
Physiological Functions of ADH
943(1)
Oxytocic Hormone
944(1)
Chapter 76 The Thyroid Metabolic Hormones
945(12)
FORMATION AND SECRETION OF THE THYROID HORMONES
945(3)
Iodine Requirements for Formation of Thyroxine
945(1)
Iodine Pump (Iodide Trapping)
946(1)
Thyroglobulin and Chemistry of Thyroxine and Triiodothyronine Formation
946(1)
Release of Thyroxine and Triiodothyronine from the Thyroid Gland
947(1)
Transport of Thyroxine and Triiodothyronine to the Tissues
947(1)
FUNCTIONS OF THE THYROID HORMONES IN THE TISSUES
948(3)
The Thyroid Hormones Increase the Transcription of Large Numbers of Genes
948(1)
Effects of Thyroid Hormone on Specific Bodily Mechanisms
949(2)
REGULATION OF THYROID HORMONE SECRETION
951(2)
Antithyroid Substances
952(1)
DISEASES OF THE THYROID
953(4)
Hyperthyroidism
953(1)
Hypothyroidism
954(3)
Chapter 77 The Adrenocortical Hormones
957(14)
CHEMISTRY OF ADRENOCORTICAL SECRETION
957(2)
FUNCTIONS OF THE MINERALOCORTICOIDS--ALDOSTERONE
959(3)
Renal and Circulatory Effects of Aldosterone
959(1)
Effects of Aldosterone on Sweat Glands, Salivary Glands, and Intestinal Absorption
960(1)
Cellular Mechanism of Aldosterone Action
960(1)
Regulation of Aldosterone Secretion
961(1)
FUNCTIONS OF THE GLUCOCORTICOIDS
962(5)
Effects of Cortisol on Carbohydrate Metabolism
962(1)
Effects of Cortisol on Protein Metabolism
962(1)
Effects of Cortisol on Fat Metabolism
963(1)
Function of Cortisol in Stress and Inflammation
963(2)
Other Effects of Cortisol
965(1)
Regulation of Cortisol Secretion--Adrenocorticotropic Hormone from the Pituitary Gland
965(2)
ADRENAL ANDROGENS
967(1)
ABNORMALITIES OF ADRENOCORTICAL SECRETION
967(4)
Hypoadrenalism-Addison's Disease
967(1)
Hyperadrenalism--Cushing's Syndrome
968(1)
Primary Aldosteronism
969(1)
Adrenogenital Syndrome
969(2)
Chapter 78 Insulin, Glucagon, and Diabetes Mellitus
971(14)
INSULIN AND ITS METABOLIC EFFECTS
971(7)
Effect of Insulin on Carbohydrate Metabolism
973(1)
Effect of Insulin on Fat Metabolism
974(2)
Effect of Insulin on Protein Metabolism and on Growth
976(1)
Control of Insulin Secretion
977(1)
Other Factors That Stimulate Insulin Secretion
977(1)
Role of Insulin (and Other Hormones) in "Switching" Between Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism
978(1)
GLUCAGON AND ITS FUNCTIONS
978(1)
Effects on Glucose Metabolism
978(1)
Regulation of Glucagon Secretion
979(1)
SOMATOSTATIN--ITS EFFECT ON INHIBITION OF GLUCAGON AND INSULIN SECRETION
979(1)
SUMMARY OF BLOOD GLUCOSE REGULATION
980(1)
DIABETES MELLITUS
980(2)
Pathological Physiology of Diabetes Mellitus
981(1)
Physiology of Diagnosis
981(1)
Treatment of Diabetes
982(1)
HYPERINSULINISM
982(3)
Chapter 79 Parathyroid Hormone, Calcitonin, Calcium and Phosphate Metabolism, Vitamin D, Bone, and Teeth
985(18)
CALCIUM AND PHOSPHATE IN THE EXTRACELLULAR FLUID AND PLASMA--FUNCTION OF VITAMIN D
985(4)
Absorption and Excretion of Calcium and Phosphate
985(1)
Vitamin D and Its Role in Calcium and Phosphate Absorption
986(1)
Calcium in the Plasma and Interstitial Fluid
987(1)
Inorganic Phosphate in the Extracellular Fluids
988(1)
Non-Bone Physiological Effects of Altered Calcium and Phosphate Concentrations in the Body Fluids
988(1)
BONE AND ITS RELATIONS TO EXTRACELLULAR CALCIUM AND PHOSPHATES
989(3)
Precipitation and Absorption of Calcium and Phosphate in Bone--Equilibrium with the Extracellular Fluids
989(1)
Exchangeable Calcium
990(1)
Deposition and Absorption of Bone--Remodeling of Bone
990(2)
PARATHYROID HORMONE
992(3)
Effect of Parathyroid Hormone on Calcium and Phosphate Concentrations in the Extracellular Fluid
992(2)
Control of Parathyroid Secretion by the Calcium Ion Concentration
994(1)
CALCITONIN
995(1)
OVERALL CONTROL OF CALCIUM ION CONCENTRATION
996(1)
PHYSIOLOGY OF PARATHYROID AND BONE DISEASES
997(1)
Hypoparathyroidism
997(1)
Hyperparathyroidism
997(1)
Rickets
998(1)
Osteoporosis
998(1)
PHYSIOLOGY OF THE TEETH
998(5)
Function of the Different Parts of the Teeth
999(1)
Dentition
999(1)
Mineral Exchange in Teeth
1000(1)
Dental Abnormalities
1000(3)
Chapter 80 Reproductive and Hormonal Functions of the Male (and the Pineal Gland)
1003(14)
SPERMATOGENESIS
1003(5)
Steps of Spermatogenesis
1003(3)
Function of the Seminal Vesicles
1006(1)
Function of the Prostate Gland
1006(1)
Semen
1006(1)
Abnormal Spermatogenesis and Male Fertility
1007(1)
THE MALE SEXUAL ACT
1008(1)
Neuronal Stimulus for Performance of the Male Sexual Act
1008(1)
Stages of the Male Sexual Act
1009(1)
TESTOSTERONE AND OTHER MALE SEX HORMONES
1009(5)
Secretion, Metabolism, and Chemistry of the Male Sex Hormone
1009(2)
Functions of Testosterone
1011(1)
Basic Intracellular Mechanism of Action of Testosterone
1012(1)
Control of Male Sexual Functions by Hormones from the Hypothalamus and Anterior Pituitary Gland
1013(1)
ABNORMALITIES OF MALE SEXUAL FUNCTION
1014(1)
The Prostate Gland and Its Abnormalities
1014(1)
Hypogonadism in the Male
1014(1)
Testicular Tumors and Hypergonadism in the Male
1015(1)
THE PINEAL GLAND--ITS FUNCTION IN CONTROLLING SEASONAL FERTILITY IN SOME ANIMALS
1015(2)
Chapter 81 Female Physiology Before Pregnancy; and the Female Hormones
1017(16)
PHYSIOLOGIC ANATOMY OF THE FEMALE SEXUAL ORGANS
1017(1)
FEMALE HORMONAL SYSTEM
1017(1)
THE MONTHLY OVARIAN CYCLE AND FUNCTION OF THE GONADOTROPIC HORMONES
1018(4)
Gonadotropic Hormones and Their Effects on the Ovaries
1018(1)
Ovarian Follicle Growth--The "Follicular" Phase of the Ovarian Cycle
1019(2)
The Corpus Luteum--the "Luteal" Phase of the Ovarian Cycle
1021(1)
Summary
1021(1)
FUNCTIONS OF THE OVARIAN HORMONES--ESTRADIOL AND PROGESTERONE
1022(4)
Chemistry of the Sex Hormones
1022(1)
Functions of the Estrogens--Their Effects on the Primary and Secondary Female Sex Characteristics
1023(1)
Functions of Progesterone
1024(1)
The Monthly Endometrial Cycle and Menstruation
1025(1)
REGULATION OF THE FEMALE MONTHLY RHYTHM--INTERPLAY BETWEEN THE OVARIAN AND HYPOTHALAMIC-PITUITARY HORMONES
1026(3)
Feedback Oscillation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Ovarian System
1028(1)
Puberty and Menarche
1028(1)
Menopause
1029(1)
ABNORMALITIES OF SECRETION BY THE OVARIES
1029(1)
FEMALE SEXUAL ACT
1030(1)
FEMALE FERTILITY
1030(3)
Chapter 82 Pregnancy and Lactation
1033(14)
Maturation of the Ovum
1033(1)
Transport, Fertilization, and Implantation of the Developing Ovum
1033(1)
EARLY INTRAUTERINE NUTRITION OF THE EMBRYO
1034(1)
FUNCTION OF THE PLACENTA
1035(2)
Developmental and Physiologic Anatomy of the Placenta
1035(2)
HORMONAL FACTORS IN PREGNANCY
1037(2)
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin and Its Effect to Cause Persistence of the Corpus Luteum and in Preventing Menstruation
1037(1)
Secretion of Estrogens by the Placenta
1038(1)
Secretion of Progesterone by the Placenta
1038(1)
Human Chorionic Somatomammotropin
1039(1)
Other Hormonal Factors in Pregnancy
1039(1)
RESPONSE OF THE MOTHER'S BODY TO PREGNANCY
1039(2)
Preeclampsia and Eclampsia
1041(1)
PARTURITION
1041(3)
Increased Uterine Excitability Near Term
1041(1)
Onset of Labor--A Positive Feedback Theory for Its Initiation
1042(1)
Abdominal Muscle Contractions During Labor
1043(1)
Mechanics of Parturition
1043(1)
Separation and Delivery of the Placenta
1043(1)
Labor Pains
1043(1)
Involution of the Uterus
1043(1)
LACTATION
1044(3)
Development of the Breasts
1044(1)
Initiation of Lactation--Function of Prolactin
1044(1)
Ejection (or "Let Down") Process in Milk Secretion--Function of Oxytocin
1045(1)
Milk Composition and the Metabolic Drain on the Mother Caused by Lactation
1045(2)
Chapter 83 Fetal and Neonatal Physiology
1047(12)
GROWTH AND FUNCTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE FETUS
1047(2)
Development of the Organ Systems
1047(2)
ADJUSTMENTS OF THE INFANT TO EXTRAUTERINE LIFE
1049(2)
Onset of Breathing
1049(1)
Circulatory Readjustments at Birth
1050(1)
Nutrition of the Neonate
1051(1)
SPECIAL FUNCTIONAL PROBLEMS IN THE NEONATE
1051(4)
SPECIAL PROBLEMS OF PREMATURITY
1054(1)
Immature Development of the Premature Infant
1054(1)
Instability of the Control Systems in the Premature Infant
1054(1)
Danger of Blindness Caused by Oxygen Therapy in the Premature Infant
1054(1)
GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHILD
1055(4)
Behavioral Growth
1055(4)
UNIT XV SPORTS PHYSIOLOGY 1059(12)
Chapter 84 Sports Physiology
1059(12)
THE MUSCLES IN EXERCISE
1060(11)
Strength, Power, and Endurance of Muscles
1060(1)
Muscle Metabolic Systems in Exercise
1060(3)
Nutrients Used During Muscle Activity
1063(1)
Effect of Athletic Training on Muscles and Muscle Performance
1064(1)
RESPIRATION IN EXERCISE
1065(1)
THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM IN EXERCISE
1066(2)
BODY HEAT IN EXERCISE
1068(1)
BODY FLUIDS AND SALT IN EXERCISE
1068(1)
DRUGS AND ATHLETES
1069(1)
BODY FITNESS PROLONGS LIFE
1069(2)
INDEX 1071


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