9780415191081

Theoretical Perspectives in Psychology

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780415191081

  • ISBN10:

    0415191084

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2000-08-24
  • Publisher: Routledge

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Summary

Psychology is often considered to be a science. However, it is unique among the sciences as it is not governed by a single set of principles or beliefs. Instead, psychologists can draw upon a range of alternative approaches, each of which views the person and the study of the person in very different ways. Theoretical Perspectives in Psychology introduces and outlines the six main approaches and considers how each has helped psychologists understand human behavior, thought and feeling.

Author Biography

Matt Jarvis is Senior Teaching Psychologist at Totton College of Further and Higher Education

Table of Contents

List of illustrations
xiii
Acknowledgements xv
Introduction
1(10)
Introduction: one psychology or many?
1(1)
Case examples and explanations
2(5)
Case example 1
3(4)
Case example 2
4(1)
Case example 3
5(2)
The major features of each psychological approach
7(1)
Scientific and less scientific approaches
8(1)
Summary
9(2)
Behavioural psychology
11(20)
Key assumptions of the approach
11(2)
Classical conditioning and early behavioural theory
13(4)
Evaluation of early behavioural theory
16(1)
Operant conditioning and later behavioural theory
17(4)
Operant conditioning
17(2)
Uncontrollable reinforcers
19(1)
Evaluation of radical behaviourism
20(1)
Social learning theory
21(3)
Evaluation of social learning theory
23(1)
Key application: behaviour change
24(2)
Aversion therapy
24(1)
Child-behaviour management
25(1)
Contemporary issue: the media violence debate
26(2)
Contributions and limitations of behavioural psychology
28(2)
Summary
30(1)
Psychodynamic psychology
31(28)
Key assumptions of the approach
31(2)
Freud's theories
33(15)
The unconscious mind and personality
34(2)
The ego-defences
36(3)
Psychosexual development
39(4)
Dream theory
43(2)
Discussion of Freud's work
45(3)
Winnicott's theories
48(2)
The unconscious mind
48(1)
The first relationship
48(1)
Evaluation of Winnicott's theories
49(1)
Key application: mental health
50(3)
Early experience and later mental disorder
50(1)
Psychodynamic approaches to therapy
51(1)
Discussion of the psychodynamic approach to mental health
51(2)
Contemporary issue: why do we love monsters?
53(2)
Discussion
54(1)
Contributions and limitations of the psychodynamic approach
55(2)
Summary
57(2)
Humanistic psychology
59(18)
Key assumptions of the approach
59(2)
Rogers' theories
61(5)
The actualising tendency
62(1)
Development of the self-concept
62(2)
The fully functioning person
64(1)
Discussion of Rogers' theory
65(1)
Maslow's theories
66(3)
The hierarchy of needs
66(1)
The self-actualised person
67(1)
Evaluation of Maslow's theories
68(1)
Key application: person-centred counselling
69(2)
Principles and techniques of person-centred counselling
69(2)
Discussion of person-centred counselling
71(1)
Contemporary issue: is there a place for spirituality in psychology?
71(2)
Discussion of spirituality in psychology
72(1)
Contributions and limitations of the humanistic approach
73(1)
Summary
74(3)
Cognitive psychology
77(22)
Key assumptions of the approach
77(3)
The computer analogy
79(1)
Strands of cognitive psychology
80(1)
Memory
80(6)
Long-and short-term memory
81(1)
Working memory
82(2)
Evaluation of working memory
84(1)
Episode and semantic memory
84(1)
Evaluation of the episodic/semantic distinction
85(1)
Forgetting
86(4)
Cue-dependency
86(3)
Repression
89(1)
Key application: eyewitness testimony
90(3)
Contemporary issue the reliability of children's memories
93(2)
Applying the cognitive approach to the rest of psychology
95(1)
Contributions and limitations of the cognitive approach
96(1)
Summary
97(2)
Cognitive-developmental psychology
99(22)
Key assumptions of the approach
99(1)
Piaget's theory of cognitive development
100(9)
How children learn
101(1)
How children think
102(3)
Piaget's stage theory
105(2)
Later research on Piaget's ideas
107(2)
Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development
109(2)
The social and cultural basis of learning
109(1)
The zone of proximal development
110(1)
The role of language
110(1)
Discussion of Vygotsky
111(1)
Key application: applying psychology to teaching
111(5)
Historical background
111(1)
Implications of Piagetian theory for teaching style
112(1)
Implications of Vygotsky's theory for teaching style
113(3)
Contemporary issue: computer-aided learning
116(2)
Contributions and limitations of the cognitive-developmental approach
118(1)
Summary
119(2)
Social psychology
121(24)
Key assumptions of the approach
121(2)
Obedience and agency
123(4)
Agency theory
125(1)
Evaluation of agency theory
126(1)
Prejudice and social identity
127(5)
How prejudiced are we?
128(2)
Social identity theory
130(1)
Evaluation of social identity theory
131(1)
Social constructionism
132(5)
A deliberately political and unscientific psychology?
132(1)
The importance of culture and language
133(1)
Discourse and discourse analysis
133(2)
Discourse and reality
135(1)
Evaluation of social constructionism
136(1)
Key application: tackling racism
137(3)
Common in-group identity model
137(1)
Racist discourse
138(2)
Contemporary issue: lesbian and gay psychology
140(2)
Contributions and limitations of social approaches
142(1)
Summary
143(2)
Biological psychology 1: genetic influences on behaviour
145(18)
Key assumptions of the approach
145(2)
Behavioural genetics: the genetics of Individual differences
147(8)
The origins of intelligence
147(1)
Twin studies
148(1)
Gene-environment interaction
149(2)
Molecular genetics and cognitive abilities
151(3)
Discussion of behavioural genetics
154(1)
Evolutionary psychology: the genetics of human similarity
155(4)
Innate behaviour and abilities in children
156(1)
Mate selection
157(1)
Discussion of evolutionary psychology
158(1)
Contemporary issue: does behavioural genetics pose a threat to other psychological approaches?
159(1)
Contributions and limitations of genetically based approaches
160(1)
Summary
161(2)
Biological psychology 2: neurophysiology
163(26)
Key assumptions of the approach
163(1)
The brain
164(3)
Discussion of localisation of brain function
167(1)
Techniques for measuring brain function
167(4)
Imaging techniques
167(2)
EEG and MEG
169(2)
Lesioning studies
171(1)
Bodily rhythms and sleep
171(4)
The sleep cycle
175(1)
Theories of sleep
175(3)
Restoration theories
175(2)
Evolutionary theory
177(1)
Dreams
178(4)
Activation-synthesis theory of dreaming
180(2)
Key application: understanding the effects of shiftwork and jet lag
182(2)
Shiftwork
182(1)
Jet lag
183(1)
Contemporary issue: are gender differences due to biological factors?
184(2)
Contributions and limitations of biological approaches
186(1)
Summary
187(2)
Study aids
189(8)
Improving your essay writing skills
189(4)
Practice essay
190(3)
Key research summary
193(4)
Glossary 197(8)
References 205(14)
Index 219

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