Designed for Contemporary Moral Problems courses, this reader is unique in providing theoretical selections related to the contemporary issues readings that follow -- students connect theory and practice, thereby making the theory interesting and relevant. In addition to providing readings on contemporary topics, the book lends historical perspective to current moral issues with its unique inclusion of classic selections by philosophers such as Aristotle, Mill, Kant, and Locke.
Table of Contents
* indicates new to the Sixth Edition. Preface Introduction: Moral Arguments Part I: First Principles Aristotle, fromNicomachean Ethics St. Thomas Aquinas, fromSumma Theologica David Hume, fromA Treatise of Human Nature Immanuel Kant, fromFundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals *Jeremy Bentham, fromPrinciples of Morals and Legislation John Stuart Mill,from Utilitarianism *W. D. Ross, fromThe Right and the Good *Nel Noddings, fromCaring Sexual Behavior Bertrand Russell, "Our Sexual Ethics" Thomas A. Mappes, "Sexual Morality and the Concept of using Another Person" Sydney Callahan, "Abortion and the Sexual Agenda" Roger Scruton, fromSexual Desire Animals International League of the Rights of Animals, "Universal Declaration of the Rights of Animals" Peter Singer, fromAnimal Liberation Tom Regan, "The Case for Animal Rights" Carl Cohen, "The Case for the Use of Animals in Biomedical Research" The Environment Garrett Hardin, from "The Tragedy of the Commons" Richard Stroup and John Baden, with David Fractor, "Property Rights: The Real Issue" Paul R. Ehrlich and Anne H. Ehrlich, "Risks, Costs, and Benefits" Bill Devall and George Sessions, fromDeep EcologyKaren J. Warren, "The Power and the Promise of Ecological Feminism" Part II: Liberty Theoretical Approaches Aristotle, fromNicomachean Ethics Edmund Burke, fromReflections on the Revolution in France John Stuart Mill, fromOn Liberty Drug Legalization Milton Friedman, "An Open Letter to Bill Bennett" William J. Bennett, "A Response to Milton Friedman" Ethan A. Nadelmann, "The Case for Legalization" James Q. Wilson, "Against the Legalization of Drugs" Pornography Catherine MacKinnon, "Pornography, Civil Rights, and Speech" The Attorney General''s Commission on Pornography, "The Question of Harm" Wendy McElroy, fromSexual Correctness Offensive Speech and Behavior *Plato, fromThe Republic *John Stuart Mill, fromOn Liberty Justice Antonin Scalia,Majority Opinion in R.A.V. v. City of St. Paul, Minnesota Stanley Fish, fromThere''s No Such Thing as Free Speech, and It''s a Good Thing, Too Johnathan Rauch, "Kindly Inquisitors: The New Attacks on Free Thought" *Chief Justice John Roberts,Majority Opinion in Morse v. Frederick *Justice John Paul Stevens,Dissenting Opinion in Morse v. Frederick *Ezra Levant,Opening Remarks to the Alberta Human Rights Commission Part III: Rights and Responsibilities Theoretical Approaches Thomas Hobbes, fromLeviathan John Locke, fromSecond Treatise of Government Edmund Burke, fromReflections on the Revolution in France John Stuart Mill, fromUtilitarianism Abortion Justice Harry Blackmun,Majority Opinion in Roe v. Wade Judith Jarvis Thomson, "A Defense of Abortion" Mary Anne Warren, "On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion" Jane English, "Abortion and the Concept of a Person" Don Marquis, "Why Abortion Is Immoral" *Alexander Pruss, "I Was Once a Fetus: That is Why Abortion is Wrong" Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide Matter of Quinlan J. Gay-Williams, "The Wrongfulness of Euthanasia" James Rachels, "The Morality of Euthanasia" Ronald Dworkin, Thomas Nagel, Robert Nozick, John Rawls, Thomas Scanlon, and Judith Jarvis Thomson, "The Brief of the Amici Curiae" Chief Justice William Rehnquist,Majority Opinion in Washington v. Glucksberg et al. Capital Punishment Cesare Beccaria, fromOn Crimes and Punishment Immanuel Kant, "The Right of Punishing" Justice William Brennan,Concurring Opinion in Furman v. Georgia Justices Stewart, Powell, and Stevens,Majority Opinion in Gregg v. Georgia Ernest van den Haag, fromThe Death Penalty: A Debate Hugo Adam Bedau, "The Case against the Death Penalty" *Cass Sunstein and Adrian Vermeule, "Is Capital Punishment Morally Required?" War St. Thomas Aquinas, "Whether It Is Always Sinful to Wage War" *Francisco de Vitoria,The Law of War on Indians Hugo Grotius, fromOn the Law of War and Peace Mahatma Gandhi, "Non-Violence in Various Aspects" Richard A. Posner and Gary Becker, "Preventive War" Torture *Carl von Clausewitz, fromOn War *Jeremy Bentham, "Of Torture" *David Luban, from "Liberalism, Torture, and the Ticking Bomb" *Justice Anthony Kennedy,Majority Opinion in Boumediene v. Bush *Justice Antonin Scalia,Dissenting Opinion in Boumediene v. Bush Part IV: Justice and Equality Theoretical Approaches Aristotle, fromNicomachean Ethics Aristotle, fromPolitics John Locke, fromSecond Treatise of Government Jean-Jacques Rousseau, fromDiscourse on the Origin of Inequality Jean-Jacques Rousseau, fromOn the Social Contract *Karl Marx, fromEstranged Labour Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, fromManifesto of the Communist Party *Karl Marx, fromCritique of the Gotha Program John Rawls, fromA Theory of Justice Robert Nozick, fromAnarchy, State, and Utopia Economic Equality Kai Nielsen, "Egalitarian Justice: Equality as a Goal and Equality as a Right" John Hospers "What Libertarianism Is" Ronald Dworkin, "Liberalism" Charles Murray, fromLosing Ground: American Social Policy, 1950-1980 Michael Tanner and Stephen Moore, "Why Welfare Pays" Racial Equality Chief Justice Earl Warren,Majority Opinion in Brown v. Board of Education Justice Lewis Powell,Majority Opinion in Regents of the University of California v. Bakke Antonin Scalia, "The Disease as a Cure" Bernard R. Boxill, fromBlacks and Social Justice Thomas Sowell, "''Affirmative Action'': A Worldwide Disaster" Chief Justice William Rehnquist,Majority Opinion in Gratz v. Bollinger Justice Sandra Day O''Connor,Majority Opinion in Grutter v. Bollinger Immigration *Immanuel Kant, fromPerpetual Peace *Garrett Hardin, fromLiving on a Lifeboat *George Borjas, fromHeaven''s Door: Immigration Policy and the American Economy *Michael Dummett, fromOn Immigration and Refugees *Robert D. Putnam, from "E Pluribus Unum: Diversity and Community in the Twenty-First Century"